Table 1: Studies Investigating the Effects of Dietary Components on Post-Operative Outcomes in Adults

Dietary Component [Reference] Study Type Characteristics of Participants Intervention Duration Intervention Groups Post-Operative Outcomes
n Surgical Procedure/Clinical Condition Control Treatment
Vitamin B12 [2] Double-blind, randomized study 80 Mandibular third molar extraction in healthy patients, no medication in previous 3 months that might affect inflammatory responses, no systemic diseases, no alcohol, nonsmokers One tablet 30 min post-operation and for 4 d, once daily 20 mg piroxicam 2.5 mg cyanocobalamin with 10 mg piroxicam, 1 mg dexamethasone, 35 mg orphenadrine citrate Lower pain scores at 6 h and 120 h post-extraction in treatment group. No effect on facial swelling.
Selenium [3] Double-blind, randomized study 20 Oral tumour surgery 3 wk, once daily Placebo 1000 µg sodium selenite through IV or oral route Inverse correlation between lymphedema severity and whole blood/plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Positive correlation between ROS concentration and extent of lymphedema. Significant reduction of lymphedema in treated group.
Vitamin B complex [4] Double-blind, randomized study 30 Access flap surgery in patients with generalized moderate to severe chronic periodontitis, ≥2 teeth in same sextant with probing depth ≥ 5 mm and bleeding upon probing 30 d post-operation, once daily Placebo 50 mg each of thiamine, riboflavin, niacinaide, pantothenate and pyridoxine;
50 µg each of biotin and cyanocobalamin;
400 µg of folate
Better clinical attachment level in vitamin B complex supplemented group. No difference in gingival index, plaque index or bleeding upon probing between groups.
Vitamin D [5] Double-blind, randomized study 40 Open flap debridement surgery in patients with severe periodontal disease 3 days pre-surgery, continued daily for 6 wks Placebo, 1000 mg calcium, 800 IU vitamin D daily 20 µg teriparatide, 1000 mg Ca, 800 IU vitamin D daily CAL and PDR in vitamin D sufficient (>20 ng/mL serum 25(OH)D) patients. Vitamin D sufficient patients receiving teriparatide experienced better: CAL at 6 mo, PDR at 3,6, and 9 mo, and RLBG at 6,9, and 12 mo compared to vitamin D insufficient patients also receiving teriparatide.

Ca, calcium; CAL, clinical attachment level; PDR, probing depth reduction; RLBG, radiographic linear bone gain; ROS, reactive oxygen species