The Open Dentistry Journal




ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 13, 2019

Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: Literature Review Focusing on the Radiographic Features and Differential Diagnosis



Nilson do Rosário Mardones1, Thiago de Oliveira Gamba2, Isadora Luana Flores*, 2, Solange Maria de Almeida2, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro Lopes3
1 São Leopoldo Mandic Dental School – Brazil
2 Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas – UNICAMP, Brazil
3 São José dos Campos Dental School, State University of São Paulo –UNESP, Brazil

Abstract

Since its first publication in 1975, the squamous odontogenic tumor remains the rarest odontogenic lesion, with around 50 cases in the English-language literature in which the microscopic characteristics are frequently very well demonstrated. However, articles which discuss the radiographic aspects are scarce, especially with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The present treatise proposes an assessment of jaw lesions with the same radiographic characteristics of the squamous odontogenic tumor to clarify the main findings for dental clinicians during routine diagnosis.

Keywords: Differential diagnosis, non-odontogenic lesions, odontogenic lesions, radiographic aspects, squamous odontogenic tumor.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2015
Volume: 9
First Page: 154
Last Page: 158
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-9-154
DOI: 10.2174/1874210601509010154

Article History:

Received Date: 30/11/2014
Revision Received Date: 23/1/2015
Acceptance Date: 1/2/2015
Electronic publication date: 15/5/2015
Collection year: 2015

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* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba – UNICAMP, Departamento de Diagnóstico Oral – Semiologia, Av. Limeira, 901 CEP 13.414-903 Piracicaba - São Paulo – Brasil; Tel: +55 19 321065267; E-mail: isadoraluanaflores@gmail.com




INTRODUCTION

Squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) is a benign odontogenic tumor classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005 as an epithelium odontogenic tumor with around 50 cases reported in the English-language literature at this time [1Barnes L, Everson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D, Eds. World Health Organization Classification of Tumors Pathology and Genetics of Head and Neck Tumors Lyon IARC Press. 2005.-3Bansal S, Joshi SK. Squamous odontogenic tumor with unusual localization and appearance a rare case report Case Rep Med 2013; 2013: 407967.]. This rare entity was described for the first time in 1975 by Pullon et al. [4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30.]; before this it was considered as an atipic acantomatous ameloblastoma or a squamous cell carcinoma. The pathogenesis of SOT is still unclear in which remnants of dental lamina (rests of Serres), epithelial rests of Malassez or gingival epithelium are the main suspected origin [2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7., 4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30.]. The SOT presents well-defined histopathological aspects and previous studies discussed these aspects [3Bansal S, Joshi SK. Squamous odontogenic tumor with unusual localization and appearance a rare case report Case Rep Med 2013; 2013: 407967., 5Carr RF, Carlton DM Jr., Marks RB. Squamous odontogenic tumor report of case J Oral Surg 1981; 39: 297-8.] in which islands of squamous epithelium in a dense fibrous connective tissue stroma are the classical microscopic findings. Nevertheless, there are scarce articles that described radiographic features of SOT [6Agostini T, Sacco R, Bertolai R, Acocella A, Colafranceschi M, Lazzeri D. Peri-implant squamous odontogenic tumor J Craniofac Surg 2011; 22: 1151-7.], and only one author included SOT in a list of possible diagnosis before the histopathological examination [7Haghighat K, Kalmar Jr, Mariotti AJ. Squamous odontogenic tumor diagnosis and management J Periodontol 2002; 73: 653-6.]. Therefore, we propose to discuss these aspects based on the clinical relevance of differential diagnosis with other lesions more frequently found in routine jaw radiographies.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Clinically, SOT can be presented as an asymptomatic, slow growing, intrabony lesion with few clinical signs and symptoms. Nevertheless, mobility and displacement of teeth, swelling of alveolar process, and mild to moderate pain are the main findings [2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7., 6Agostini T, Sacco R, Bertolai R, Acocella A, Colafranceschi M, Lazzeri D. Peri-implant squamous odontogenic tumor J Craniofac Surg 2011; 22: 1151-7., 8Barrios TJ, Sudol JC, Cleveland DB. Squamous odontogenic tumor associated with an erupting maxillary canine case report J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004; 62: 742-4.]. SOT occurs on average in the fourth decade of life with a slight predilection for males [2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7.]. An equal distribution between maxilla and mandible with preference for posterior mandible and anterior maxilla is observed [2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7., 9Jones BE, Sarathy AP, Ramos MB, Foss RD. Squamous odontogenic tumor Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 17-9.]. Commonly, it is a central lesion with few cases occurring as peripheral lesions [3Bansal S, Joshi SK. Squamous odontogenic tumor with unusual localization and appearance a rare case report Case Rep Med 2013; 2013: 407967.]. The most typical presentation of SOT detected in routine intraoral radiographs is an unilocular radiolucent defect with triangular or semicircular shape between or along the roots of adjacent vital teeth [3Bansal S, Joshi SK. Squamous odontogenic tumor with unusual localization and appearance a rare case report Case Rep Med 2013; 2013: 407967., 6Agostini T, Sacco R, Bertolai R, Acocella A, Colafranceschi M, Lazzeri D. Peri-implant squamous odontogenic tumor J Craniofac Surg 2011; 22: 1151-7.-9Jones BE, Sarathy AP, Ramos MB, Foss RD. Squamous odontogenic tumor Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 17-9.]. Fig. (1) showed an interproximal lesion with these radiographic aspects. In these cases, a careful evaluation of all lesions found in the periodontal region should be performed, especially when a interproximal bone loss involves only one isolated area [7Haghighat K, Kalmar Jr, Mariotti AJ. Squamous odontogenic tumor diagnosis and management J Periodontol 2002; 73: 653-6., 8Barrios TJ, Sudol JC, Cleveland DB. Squamous odontogenic tumor associated with an erupting maxillary canine case report J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004; 62: 742-4.]. This affirmation can be confirmed due to slow growing of SOT within a periodontal location, mimicking severe periodontal bone loss in a significant number of previous cases described in the English-language literature [2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7., 4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30., 6Agostini T, Sacco R, Bertolai R, Acocella A, Colafranceschi M, Lazzeri D. Peri-implant squamous odontogenic tumor J Craniofac Surg 2011; 22: 1151-7., 7Haghighat K, Kalmar Jr, Mariotti AJ. Squamous odontogenic tumor diagnosis and management J Periodontol 2002; 73: 653-6., 9Jones BE, Sarathy AP, Ramos MB, Foss RD. Squamous odontogenic tumor Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 17-9.-20Kangvonkit P, Sirichitra V, Hansasuta C. Squamous odontogenic tumor (report of a case and review of the literature) J Dent Assoc Thai 1981; 31: 25-33.].

Fig. (1)

Periapical radiography showed an unilocular radiolucent defect with triangular shape between the roots of inferior left second pre molar and the inferior left first molar. A located periodontal bone loss is the main differential diagnosis of SOT.



Fig. (2)

Periapical radiography showed an unilocular periradicular radiolucent defect associated with superior right central incisor. Although rare the SOT diagnosis also should be included.



Fig. (3)

Schematic chart showing the differential diagnosis of SOT based on radiographic aspects.



SOT can also present radiographic aspects that resemble odontogenic and non odontogenic lesions as cysts and tumors with emphasis on extensive lesions with unilocular or multilocular appearance involving the mandible and/or maxilla, pushing the maxillary sinus or in association with an impacted tooth [21Philipsen HP, Reichart PA. Squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT): a benign neoplasm of the periodontium.A review of 36 reported cases J Clin Periodontol 1996; 23: 922-6.]. A broad list of possible diagnoses include developmental or noninflammatory odontogenic cysts, such as lateral periodontal cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst; inflammatory odontogenic cysts, such as radicular and residual cyst; odontogenic tumors, such as keratocystic odontogenic tumor, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, central odontogenic fibroma, unicystic and multicystic ameloblastoma; hematological disorders, such as Langerhan’s cell histiocytosis and multiple myeloma and bone pathology, such as central giant cell lesion and metastasis.

Lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) is an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst that occurs in the adjacent or lateral area of a vital tooth [22Dubey KN, Garg S, Atri R. Diagnosis and osseous healing of a lateral periodontal cyst mimicking a deep unusual interdental pocket in a young patient Contemp Clin Dent 2010; 1: 47-50.]. LPC is asymptomatic and found in the incisor-canine-premolar region, especially in mandible, during a routine radiological examination [22Dubey KN, Garg S, Atri R. Diagnosis and osseous healing of a lateral periodontal cyst mimicking a deep unusual interdental pocket in a young patient Contemp Clin Dent 2010; 1: 47-50.-24DiFiore PM, Hartwell GR. Median mandibular lateral periodontal cyst Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1987; 63: 545-50.]. A radiolucent interradicular triangular lesion associated or not with displacement of the teeth root and with sclerotic borders is the classical radiography aspect [24DiFiore PM, Hartwell GR. Median mandibular lateral periodontal cyst Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1987; 63: 545-50.]. SOT can arise in the same area and also present characteristic circumscription with frequent root divergence; however, the margin may or may not be corticated as in LPC. Of all cases reviewed for SOT, at least 8 previous cases present similar aspects of LPC [2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7., 4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30., 7Haghighat K, Kalmar Jr, Mariotti AJ. Squamous odontogenic tumor diagnosis and management J Periodontol 2002; 73: 653-6., 9Jones BE, Sarathy AP, Ramos MB, Foss RD. Squamous odontogenic tumor Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 17-9., 10Cataldo E, Less WC, Giunta JL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.A lesion of the periodontium J Periodontol 1983; 54: 731-5., 16Kim K, Mintz SM, Stevens J. Squamous odontogenic tumor causing erosion of the lingual cortical plate in the mandible a report of 2 cases J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 65: 1227-31., 17Warnock GR, Pierce GL, Correll RW, Baker DA. Triangular-shaped radiolucent area between roots of the mandibular right canine and first premolar J Am Dent Assoc 1985; 110: 945-6., 25Tatemoto Y, Okada Y, Mori M. Squamous odontogenic tumor immunohistochemical identification of keratins Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989; 67: 63-7.] and considering radiological aspects, SOT should be included as a differential diagnosis of LPC.

Dentigerous cyst (DC) is the most common developmental odontogenic cyst arising from the crowns of unerupted teeth in mandible and maxilla [26Di Pasquale P, Shermetaro C. Endoscopic removal of a dentigerous cyst producing unilateral maxillary sinus opacification on computed tomography Ear Nose Throat J 2006; 85: 747-8.]. Mandibular third molars and maxillary canines are the most often involved teeth, followed by the mandibular premolars and the maxillary third molars [26Di Pasquale P, Shermetaro C. Endoscopic removal of a dentigerous cyst producing unilateral maxillary sinus opacification on computed tomography Ear Nose Throat J 2006; 85: 747-8., 27Jones AV, Craig GT, Franklin CD. Range and demographics of odontogenic cysts diagnosed in a UK population over a 30-year period J Oral Pathol Med 2006; 35: 500-7.]. The classical radiographic aspect of DC appears as a well-defined unilocular radiolucent with sclerotic borders associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth [26Di Pasquale P, Shermetaro C. Endoscopic removal of a dentigerous cyst producing unilateral maxillary sinus opacification on computed tomography Ear Nose Throat J 2006; 85: 747-8.-28Kasat VO, Karjodkar FR, Laddha RS. Dentigerous cyst associated with an ectopic third molar in the maxillary sinus a case report and review of literature Contemp Clin Dent 2012; 3: 373-6.]. Some cases of SOT also presented similar aspects to DC and involved mandible and maxillary third molars [4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30., 29Wright JM Jr. Squamous odontogenic tumorlike proliferations in odontogenic cysts Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1979; 47: 354-8.-32Ide F, Shimoyama T, Horie N, Shimizu S. Intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in association with a squamous odontogenic tumour of the mandible Oral Oncol 1999; 35: 431-4.]. Moreover, both lesions can be found only in routine radiographic examination [1Barnes L, Everson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D, Eds. World Health Organization Classification of Tumors Pathology and Genetics of Head and Neck Tumors Lyon IARC Press. 2005.,4, 26-32Ide F, Shimoyama T, Horie N, Shimizu S. Intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in association with a squamous odontogenic tumour of the mandible Oral Oncol 1999; 35: 431-4.]. Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst with aggressive behavior that frequently involves the anterior mandible [33Fowler CB, Brannon RB, Kessler HP, Castle JT, Kahn MA. Glandular odontogenic cyst analysis of 46 cases with special emphasis on microscopic criteria for diagnosis Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 364-75.]. GOC is now well accepted being odontogenic origin; however, it presents glandular or salivary features as mucus cells and ductal structures [33Fowler CB, Brannon RB, Kessler HP, Castle JT, Kahn MA. Glandular odontogenic cyst analysis of 46 cases with special emphasis on microscopic criteria for diagnosis Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 364-75., 34Shafer WG, Hine MK, Levy BM, Rajendran R, Si-vapathasundharam B, Eds. Shafer’s Textbook of Oral Pathology 6th ed New York Elsevier. 2009.]. An extensive unilocular or multilocular radiolucent lesion with well-defined scalloped borders is a common finding in radiographic exams [33Fowler CB, Brannon RB, Kessler HP, Castle JT, Kahn MA. Glandular odontogenic cyst analysis of 46 cases with special emphasis on microscopic criteria for diagnosis Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 364-75.]. Tatemoto et al. in 1989 described a case of SOT presenting as radiolucency in the apical area of the vital mandibular central incisors in which the differential diagnosis of GOC was considered [25Tatemoto Y, Okada Y, Mori M. Squamous odontogenic tumor immunohistochemical identification of keratins Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989; 67: 63-7.].

Inflammatory odontogenic cysts such as radicular cyst and lateral radicular cyst are the most common jaw cysts [34Shafer WG, Hine MK, Levy BM, Rajendran R, Si-vapathasundharam B, Eds. Shafer’s Textbook of Oral Pathology 6th ed New York Elsevier. 2009.]. These lesions are derived from odontogenic ephitelium stimulated by inflammatory process primarily caused by root canal infection [34Shafer WG, Hine MK, Levy BM, Rajendran R, Si-vapathasundharam B, Eds. Shafer’s Textbook of Oral Pathology 6th ed New York Elsevier. 2009., 35Ricucci D, Pascon EA, Ford TR, Langeland K. Epithelium and bacteria in periapical lesions Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006; 101: 239-49.]. Radiographic examination shows a circular or ovoid radiolucent lesion with sclerotic borders and, frequently, associated with destruction of periradicular tissues and loss of lamina dura [36Ricucci D, Mannocci F, Ford TR. A study of periapical lesions correlating the presence of a radiopaque lamina with histological findings Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006; 101: 389-94.]. A lesion located near periapical or lateral region superimposed on the root completes the classical radiographic findings [35Ricucci D, Pascon EA, Ford TR, Langeland K. Epithelium and bacteria in periapical lesions Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006; 101: 239-49., 36Ricucci D, Mannocci F, Ford TR. A study of periapical lesions correlating the presence of a radiopaque lamina with histological findings Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006; 101: 389-94.]. SOT occurring in the same circumstances was described by at least 14 authors [4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30., 5Carr RF, Carlton DM Jr., Marks RB. Squamous odontogenic tumor report of case J Oral Surg 1981; 39: 297-8., 7Haghighat K, Kalmar Jr, Mariotti AJ. Squamous odontogenic tumor diagnosis and management J Periodontol 2002; 73: 653-6., 10Cataldo E, Less WC, Giunta JL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.A lesion of the periodontium J Periodontol 1983; 54: 731-5.-14Goldblatt LI, Brannon RB, Ellis GL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of five cases and review of the literature Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1982; 54: 187-96., 16Kim K, Mintz SM, Stevens J. Squamous odontogenic tumor causing erosion of the lingual cortical plate in the mandible a report of 2 cases J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 65: 1227-31.-18Saxby MS, Rippin JW, Sheron JE. Case report squamous odontogenic tumor of the gingiva J Periodontol 1993; 64: 1250-2., 22Dubey KN, Garg S, Atri R. Diagnosis and osseous healing of a lateral periodontal cyst mimicking a deep unusual interdental pocket in a young patient Contemp Clin Dent 2010; 1: 47-50., 37Unal T, Gomel M, Gunel O. Squamous odontogenic tumor-like islands in a radicular cyst report of a case J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1987; 45: 346-9., 38Favia GF, Di Alberti L, Scarano A, Piattelli A. Squamous odontogenic tumour report of two cases Oral Oncol 1997; 33: 451-3.]. Fig. (2) showed a radiolucent periradicular lesion with similar findings. Residual cyst (RC) is considered a retained radicular cyst from one tooth that was previously removed [34Shafer WG, Hine MK, Levy BM, Rajendran R, Si-vapathasundharam B, Eds. Shafer’s Textbook of Oral Pathology 6th ed New York Elsevier. 2009.]. A radiolucent lesion usually asymptomatic involving an edentulous area, and discovered during a routine radiographic examination is the main aspect of RC [39Jamdade A, Nair GR, Kapoor M, Sharma N, Kundendu A. Localization of a Peripheral Residual Cyst diagnostic role of CT scan Case Rep Dent 2012; 2012,: 760571.]. One author described a case of SOT with radiographic characteristics of a residual cyst [14Goldblatt LI, Brannon RB, Ellis GL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of five cases and review of the literature Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1982; 54: 187-96.].

Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) is a benign odontogenic lesion with aggressive and infiltrative behavior that frequently appears in the posterior mandible areas; however, it can affect any site of the jaws [40Titinchi F, Nortje CJ. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor a recurrence analysis of clinical and radiographic parameters Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2012; 114: 136-42.]. Radiographically, KOT presents as a well or poorly circumscribed uni- or multilocular radiolucent lesion with variable sizes and shapes [40Titinchi F, Nortje CJ. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor a recurrence analysis of clinical and radiographic parameters Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2012; 114: 136-42.] and mimicking several jaw lesions including SOT. Thirteen authors presented SOT cases in which KOT should be mentioned as a highly suspicious differential diagnosis [4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30., 10Cataldo E, Less WC, Giunta JL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.A lesion of the periodontium J Periodontol 1983; 54: 731-5., 13Hopper TL, Sadeghi EM, Pricco DF. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of a case with multiple lesions Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1980; 50: 404-10., 16Kim K, Mintz SM, Stevens J. Squamous odontogenic tumor causing erosion of the lingual cortical plate in the mandible a report of 2 cases J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 65: 1227-31.-18Saxby MS, Rippin JW, Sheron JE. Case report squamous odontogenic tumor of the gingiva J Periodontol 1993; 64: 1250-2., 25Tatemoto Y, Okada Y, Mori M. Squamous odontogenic tumor immunohistochemical identification of keratins Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989; 67: 63-7., 38Favia GF, Di Alberti L, Scarano A, Piattelli A. Squamous odontogenic tumour report of two cases Oral Oncol 1997; 33: 451-3., 41Mills WP, Davila MA, Beuttenmuller EA, Koudelka BM. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of a case with lesions in three quadrants Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986; 61: 557-63.-45Kim JY, Kim JC, Cho BO, Kim SG, Yang BE, Rataru H. Squa-mous odontogenic tumor A case report and review of literature J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 33: 59-62.].

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is an epithelial odontogenic tumor with slow and progressive growth that commonly involves the anterior portion of maxilla; however, anterior portions of mandible can also be affected [46Handschel JG, Depprich RA, Zimmermann AC, Braunstein S, Kübler NR. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of the mandible review of the literature and report of a rare case Head Face Med 2005; 1: 3.]. The follicular AOT is the most frequent type and is associated with a crown and root of an unerupted tooth, especially canines. Extrafollicular AOT is not associated with teeth and it can be found between the roots of erupted teeth. An asymptomatic well-defined unilocular radiolucent lesion with or without radiopaque foci, eventual teeth displacement, and cortical expansion is the radiographic aspect of intraosseous AOT [46Handschel JG, Depprich RA, Zimmermann AC, Braunstein S, Kübler NR. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of the mandible review of the literature and report of a rare case Head Face Med 2005; 1: 3.]. SOT lesions can show similar findings to follicular and extrafollicular AOT [4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30., 9Jones BE, Sarathy AP, Ramos MB, Foss RD. Squamous odontogenic tumor Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 17-9., 10Cataldo E, Less WC, Giunta JL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.A lesion of the periodontium J Periodontol 1983; 54: 731-5., 18Saxby MS, Rippin JW, Sheron JE. Case report squamous odontogenic tumor of the gingiva J Periodontol 1993; 64: 1250-2., 47Monteil RA, Terestri P. Squamous odontogenic tumor related to an unerupted lower canine J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1985; 43: 888-95.].

Central odontogenic fibroma (COT) is a rare odontogenic tumor with benign behavior and classified as a fibroblastic neoplasm that contains a wide amount of inactive odontogenic epithelium [1Barnes L, Everson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D, Eds. World Health Organization Classification of Tumors Pathology and Genetics of Head and Neck Tumors Lyon IARC Press. 2005., 48Mosqueda-Taylor A, Martínez-Mata G, Carlos-Bregni R , et al. Central odontogenic fibroma new findings and report of a multicentric collaborative study Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011; 112: 349-58.]. COT presents as a slow and progressive lesion found in maxilla and mandible involving frequently periradicular region [48Mosqueda-Taylor A, Martínez-Mata G, Carlos-Bregni R , et al. Central odontogenic fibroma new findings and report of a multicentric collaborative study Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011; 112: 349-58., 49de Matos FR, de Moraes M, Neto AC, Miguel MC, da Silveira EJ. Central odontogenic fibroma Ann Diagn Pathol 2011; 15: 481-4.]. Favia et al. 1997 described a case of SOT involving the apex of a first superior molar resembling this frequent radiographic appearance of COT [38Favia GF, Di Alberti L, Scarano A, Piattelli A. Squamous odontogenic tumour report of two cases Oral Oncol 1997; 33: 451-3.]. However, some lesions can be found as a nonspecific well-defined unilocular radiolucency between erupted teeth causing root displacement or become associated with the crown of a unerupted tooth [48Mosqueda-Taylor A, Martínez-Mata G, Carlos-Bregni R , et al. Central odontogenic fibroma new findings and report of a multicentric collaborative study Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011; 112: 349-58., 49de Matos FR, de Moraes M, Neto AC, Miguel MC, da Silveira EJ. Central odontogenic fibroma Ann Diagn Pathol 2011; 15: 481-4.]. In these cases, LPC, DC and ameloblastomas are some lesions that should be included as differential diagnosis of COT and, therefore, also of SOT[2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7., 4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30., 8Barrios TJ, Sudol JC, Cleveland DB. Squamous odontogenic tumor associated with an erupting maxillary canine case report J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004; 62: 742-4., 9Jones BE, Sarathy AP, Ramos MB, Foss RD. Squamous odontogenic tumor Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 17-9.-11Doyle JL, Grodjesk JE, Dolinsky HB, Rafel SS. Squamous odontogenic tumor report of three cases J Oral Surg 1977; 35: 994-6.,16Kim K, Mintz SM, Stevens J. Squamous odontogenic tumor causing erosion of the lingual cortical plate in the mandible a report of 2 cases J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 65: 1227-31., 17Warnock GR, Pierce GL, Correll RW, Baker DA. Triangular-shaped radiolucent area between roots of the mandibular right canine and first premolar J Am Dent Assoc 1985; 110: 945-6., 25Tatemoto Y, Okada Y, Mori M. Squamous odontogenic tumor immunohistochemical identification of keratins Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989; 67: 63-7., 29Wright JM Jr. Squamous odontogenic tumorlike proliferations in odontogenic cysts Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1979; 47: 354-8.-32Ide F, Shimoyama T, Horie N, Shimizu S. Intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in association with a squamous odontogenic tumour of the mandible Oral Oncol 1999; 35: 431-4., 50Kristensen S, Andersen J, Jacobsen P. Squamous odontogenic tumour review of the literature and a new case J Laryngol Otol 1985; 99: 919-24., 51Baden E, Doyle J, Mesa M, Fabié M, Lederman D, Eichen M. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of three cases including the first extraosseous case Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1993; 75: 733-8.].

Ameloblastoma is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor with two quite different intraosseous biologic variants [52More C, Tailor M, Patel HJ, Asrani M, Thakkar K, Adalja C. Radiographic analysis of ameloblastoma a retrospective study Indian J Dent Res 2012; 23: 698.]. The multicystic ameloblastoma (MA) is the most frequent type presenting aggressive and destructive characteristics with the involvement of posterior areas of jaws and impacted third molars in some cases [53Chawla R, Ramalingam K, Sarkar A, Muddiah S. Ninety-one cases of ameloblastoma in an Indian population a comprehensive review J Nat Sci Biol Med 2013; 4: 310-5.]. Radiographically, MA shows as a radiolucent multilocular lesion with a ‘‘soap-bubbles” aspect associated with expansion and disruption of bone cortical [52More C, Tailor M, Patel HJ, Asrani M, Thakkar K, Adalja C. Radiographic analysis of ameloblastoma a retrospective study Indian J Dent Res 2012; 23: 698., 53Chawla R, Ramalingam K, Sarkar A, Muddiah S. Ninety-one cases of ameloblastoma in an Indian population a comprehensive review J Nat Sci Biol Med 2013; 4: 310-5.]. A unicistic ameloblastoma (UA) is less aggressive and commonly mimics odontogenic cysts frequently related with teeth in the area, especially, mandible third molars. A well-defined unilocular radiolucent lesion is the classical radiographic finding of the UA [52More C, Tailor M, Patel HJ, Asrani M, Thakkar K, Adalja C. Radiographic analysis of ameloblastoma a retrospective study Indian J Dent Res 2012; 23: 698., 53Chawla R, Ramalingam K, Sarkar A, Muddiah S. Ninety-one cases of ameloblastoma in an Indian population a comprehensive review J Nat Sci Biol Med 2013; 4: 310-5.]. Eleven cases of SOT were described with aspects that resemble uni- or multicystic ameloblastomas variants [2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7., 7Haghighat K, Kalmar Jr, Mariotti AJ. Squamous odontogenic tumor diagnosis and management J Periodontol 2002; 73: 653-6.-9Jones BE, Sarathy AP, Ramos MB, Foss RD. Squamous odontogenic tumor Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 17-9., 11Doyle JL, Grodjesk JE, Dolinsky HB, Rafel SS. Squamous odontogenic tumor report of three cases J Oral Surg 1977; 35: 994-6., 16Kim K, Mintz SM, Stevens J. Squamous odontogenic tumor causing erosion of the lingual cortical plate in the mandible a report of 2 cases J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 65: 1227-31., 17Warnock GR, Pierce GL, Correll RW, Baker DA. Triangular-shaped radiolucent area between roots of the mandibular right canine and first premolar J Am Dent Assoc 1985; 110: 945-6., 25Tatemoto Y, Okada Y, Mori M. Squamous odontogenic tumor immunohistochemical identification of keratins Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989; 67: 63-7., 38Favia GF, Di Alberti L, Scarano A, Piattelli A. Squamous odontogenic tumour report of two cases Oral Oncol 1997; 33: 451-3., 50Kristensen S, Andersen J, Jacobsen P. Squamous odontogenic tumour review of the literature and a new case J Laryngol Otol 1985; 99: 919-24., 51Baden E, Doyle J, Mesa M, Fabié M, Lederman D, Eichen M. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of three cases including the first extraosseous case Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1993; 75: 733-8.].

Langerhan’s cell histiocytosis (LCH) involves a rare group of hematological disorders originating from Langerhans cells that may affect the oral cavity [54Aruna DR, Pushpalatha G, Galgali S. Prashanthy Langerhans cell histiocytosis J Indian Soc Periodontol 2011; 15: 276-9.]. Periodontal tissues are frequently involved and appear as located or generalized angular bone loss mimicking radiographic characteristics of an advanced periodontitis, such also is found in SOT [2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7., 4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30., 6Agostini T, Sacco R, Bertolai R, Acocella A, Colafranceschi M, Lazzeri D. Peri-implant squamous odontogenic tumor J Craniofac Surg 2011; 22: 1151-7., 7Haghighat K, Kalmar Jr, Mariotti AJ. Squamous odontogenic tumor diagnosis and management J Periodontol 2002; 73: 653-6., 9Jones BE, Sarathy AP, Ramos MB, Foss RD. Squamous odontogenic tumor Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 17-9.-20Kangvonkit P, Sirichitra V, Hansasuta C. Squamous odontogenic tumor (report of a case and review of the literature) J Dent Assoc Thai 1981; 31: 25-33., 54Aruna DR, Pushpalatha G, Galgali S. Prashanthy Langerhans cell histiocytosis J Indian Soc Periodontol 2011; 15: 276-9., 55Artzi Z, Grosky M, Raviv M. Periodontal manifestations of adult onset of histiocytosis, X J Periodontol 1989; 60: 57-66.]. Therefore, LCH and SOT should be considered as differential diagnosis when a severe periodontitis is present in the x-ray findings and no improvement is reached after periodontal treatment.

Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy characterized by proliferation of plasma cells and nonfunctional monoclonal immunoglobulin in which medullary involvement through radiolucent osteolytic lesions is the most frequent presentation [56Cardoso RC, Gerngross PJ, Hofstede TM, Weber DM, Chambers MS. The multiple oral presentations of multiple myeloma Support Care Cancer 2014; 22(1): 259-67.]. Nevertheless, a localized ill-defined radiolucency involving roots of teeth with lamina dura loss is also found in solitary plasmacytomas, and these myelomatous lesions could be misdiagnosed as periodontitis [56Cardoso RC, Gerngross PJ, Hofstede TM, Weber DM, Chambers MS. The multiple oral presentations of multiple myeloma Support Care Cancer 2014; 22(1): 259-67.]. Thus, considering that the main radiographic aspect of SOT also mimics severe periodontitis, it should be included as a differential diagnosis of multiple myeloma and solitary plasmacytoma [2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7., 4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30., 7Haghighat K, Kalmar Jr, Mariotti AJ. Squamous odontogenic tumor diagnosis and management J Periodontol 2002; 73: 653-6., 9Jones BE, Sarathy AP, Ramos MB, Foss RD. Squamous odontogenic tumor Head Neck Pathol 2011; 5: 17-9., 11Doyle JL, Grodjesk JE, Dolinsky HB, Rafel SS. Squamous odontogenic tumor report of three cases J Oral Surg 1977; 35: 994-6.-16Kim K, Mintz SM, Stevens J. Squamous odontogenic tumor causing erosion of the lingual cortical plate in the mandible a report of 2 cases J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 65: 1227-31., 30Norris LH, Baghaei-Rad M, Maloney PL, Simpson G, Guinta J. Bilateral maxillary squamous odontogenic tumors and the malignant transformation of a mandibular radiolucent lesion J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1984; 42: 827-34., 41Mills WP, Davila MA, Beuttenmuller EA, Koudelka BM. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of a case with lesions in three quadrants Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986; 61: 557-63., 42Leider AS, Jonker LA, Cook HE. Multicentric familial squamous odontogenic tumor Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989; 68: 175-81., 50Kristensen S, Andersen J, Jacobsen P. Squamous odontogenic tumour review of the literature and a new case J Laryngol Otol 1985; 99: 919-24., 51Baden E, Doyle J, Mesa M, Fabié M, Lederman D, Eichen M. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of three cases including the first extraosseous case Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1993; 75: 733-8.].

Central giant cell lesion (CGCL) is considered a benign jaw lesion composed of osteoclast-like giant cells and commonly found in the mandible [57Triantafillidou K, Venetis G, Karakinaris G, Iordanidis F. Central giant cell granuloma of the jaws a clinical study of 17 cases and a review of the literature Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2011; 120: 167-74.]. CGCL is more accepted as a reactive lesion presenting aggressive and non-aggressive behavior. The radiographic presentation is a well-defined non-corticated unilocular radiolucency in the small lesions until a multilocular aspect associated with ondulate septae in the bigger cases [57Triantafillidou K, Venetis G, Karakinaris G, Iordanidis F. Central giant cell granuloma of the jaws a clinical study of 17 cases and a review of the literature Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2011; 120: 167-74.]. Some authors described SOT cases with x-ray findings suggestive of CGCL [2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7., 4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30., 8Barrios TJ, Sudol JC, Cleveland DB. Squamous odontogenic tumor associated with an erupting maxillary canine case report J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004; 62: 742-4.-14Goldblatt LI, Brannon RB, Ellis GL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of five cases and review of the literature Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1982; 54: 187-96., 16Kim K, Mintz SM, Stevens J. Squamous odontogenic tumor causing erosion of the lingual cortical plate in the mandible a report of 2 cases J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 65: 1227-31., 25Tatemoto Y, Okada Y, Mori M. Squamous odontogenic tumor immunohistochemical identification of keratins Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989; 67: 63-7., 41Mills WP, Davila MA, Beuttenmuller EA, Koudelka BM. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of a case with lesions in three quadrants Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986; 61: 557-63., 42Leider AS, Jonker LA, Cook HE. Multicentric familial squamous odontogenic tumor Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989; 68: 175-81., 50Kristensen S, Andersen J, Jacobsen P. Squamous odontogenic tumour review of the literature and a new case J Laryngol Otol 1985; 99: 919-24., 51Baden E, Doyle J, Mesa M, Fabié M, Lederman D, Eichen M. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of three cases including the first extraosseous case Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1993; 75: 733-8., 58Schwartz-Arad D, Lustmann J, Ulmansky M. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Review of the literature and case report Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1990; 19: 327-30., 59Ruhin B, Raoul G, Kolb F , et al. Aggressive maxillary squamous odontogenic tumour in a child histological dilemma and adaptative surgical behaviour Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007; 36: 864-6.]. Finally, distant metastasis affecting oral cavity is quite uncommon; however, it can involve soft and bone tissues and requires a careful diagnostic process [60Ogütcen-Toller M, Metin M, Yildiz L. Metastatic breast carcinoma mimicking periodontal disease on radiographs J Clin Periodontol 2002; 29: 269-71.]. An osteolytic radiolucent lesion with irregular borders mimicks other jaw pathologies, since severe periodontitis until tumor process is the most frequent radiographic characteristic [60Ogütcen-Toller M, Metin M, Yildiz L. Metastatic breast carcinoma mimicking periodontal disease on radiographs J Clin Periodontol 2002; 29: 269-71.]. SOT also presents the same wide and unspecific possibility of radiographic findings and, therefore, it should also be included in a list of differential diagnosis of metastatic lesions of the jaws [2Badni M, Nagaraja A, Kamath V. Squamous odontogenic tumor a case report and review of literature J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012; 16: 113-7., 4Pullon PA, Shafer WG, Elzay RP, Kerr DA, Corio RL. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of six cases of a previously undescribed lesion Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1975; 40: 616-30.-20Kangvonkit P, Sirichitra V, Hansasuta C. Squamous odontogenic tumor (report of a case and review of the literature) J Dent Assoc Thai 1981; 31: 25-33., 25Tatemoto Y, Okada Y, Mori M. Squamous odontogenic tumor immunohistochemical identification of keratins Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1989; 67: 63-7., 32Ide F, Shimoyama T, Horie N, Shimizu S. Intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in association with a squamous odontogenic tumour of the mandible Oral Oncol 1999; 35: 431-4., 38Favia GF, Di Alberti L, Scarano A, Piattelli A. Squamous odontogenic tumour report of two cases Oral Oncol 1997; 33: 451-3., 51Baden E, Doyle J, Mesa M, Fabié M, Lederman D, Eichen M. Squamous odontogenic tumor.Report of three cases including the first extraosseous case Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1993; 75: 733-8.].

CONCLUSION

Although, all SOT cases in the literature present histopathological aspects which are well described, the variety of radiography findings of SOT mimicking odontogenic and non odontogenic jaw lesions is not well elucidated. Given the limitations of our approach, a review of the main radiographic presentations of SOT was proposed as a clinical diagnosis exercise for practicing clinicians.

This paper suggested a scheme to enhance the differential diagnosis hypotheses considering the routine image findings. Thus, this concise approach can help the clinicians to outline feasible diagnostic possibilities in front of the wide spectrum of odontogenic and non-odontogenic lesions. Fig. (3) showed a schematic chart based on the radiographic aspects of SOT. Nevertheless, due to the rarity of SOT and range of radiographic aspects for this entity, a careful microscopic examination should be performed before definitive diagnosis can be reached.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

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