Table 2: Studies that investigated the decreasing viscosity through monomer changes.

First author
+ Year
Monomer change Variables tested Result
Pereira, S.G [36]
Replace TEGDMA in Bis-GMA mixture with either CH3 Bis-GMA or CF3 Bis-GMA Mechanical properties The analogue CH3 Bis-GMA, which allows the preparation of medium-viscosity resins, is a good candidate to replace TEGDMA in Bis-GMA mixtures.materials with CH3 Bis-GMA diluents showed an enhanced microhardness.
Okamura, H [37]
Experimental composite resins of
low-viscosity monomer mixtures
of newly developed polyfunctional acrylates
Mechanical and physical properties Mechanical (i.e., compressive, diametral tensile, and bending) strength of a polymer obtained from one new monomer mixture without fillers was similar to that of a bis-GMA/TEGDMA (2/1 weight ratio) based polymer.
In terms of setting shrinkage, the composites consisting of new monomer mixtures exhibited significantly smaller shrinkage than the bis-GMA based composites, and decreased with increase in filler content.
Charton, C [38]

co-monomer bis-GMA /TEGDMA (70/30 and 50/50 % and co-monomer UEDMA/TEGDMA
(88.5/11.5 and 66.5/33.5 %)
Shrinkage stresses The viscosities of the UEDMA bases were exactly the same as those of the bis-GMA ones.
Shrinkage stress Statistically, there was a negative correlation between viscosity, Tg and shrinkage stress.
Prakki, A [39]
Combining bis-GMA and TEGDMA, CH(3)bis-GMA or CF(3)bis-GMA, with aldehyde or diketone Wear, roughness and hardness The findings correlate with additives ability to improve degree of conversion of some composites/copolymers thereby enhancing mechanical properties.
Bis-GMA/TEGDMA and bis-GMA/CH(3)bis-GMA copolymers with additives became smoother after abrasion test.
Prakki, A [40]
Two additives, aldehyde or diketone,to Bis-GMA-based composites containing TEGDMA, (CH3Bis-GMA) or (CF3Bis-GMA). Mechanical properties The ability of additives to improve degree of conversion of some composite systems thereby enhancing mechanical properties.
Denis, A.B [41]
Bis-GMA diluted with CH3bis-GMA
containing 0, 2, 8, 16 and 24 mol% propionaldehyde
Physical, rheological, and mechanical
24 mol% of Propionaldehyde significantly increased comonomer degree of conversion; Increased %DC is known to improve resin mechanical properties such as surface hardness
Prakki, A [42]
Additives of Bis-GMA based copolymers andthat of TEGDMA, CH3Bis-GMA or CF3Bis-GMA. Water sorption
Aldehyde and diketone led to increases in the water sorption characteristics of experimental resins.