Table 1: Anthropometric landmarks used in this study and their definition.

Landmarks Definition
Trichion (Tri) the sagittal midpoint of the forehead that borders the hairline
Glabella (G) the most anterior point of the middle line of the forehead
Nasion (N) the point in the middle line located at the nasal root
Pronasal (Prn) the most prominent point of the tip of the nose
Midnasal (Mn) the middle point on the outer contour of the nose between the pronasal and nasion points
Columella (Cm) the most inferior and anterior point of the nose
Subnasal (Sn) the point where the upper lip joins the columella
Labial superior (Ls) the point that indicates the mucocutaneous limit of the upper lip
Stomion superior (Sts) the most inferior point of the upper lip
Stomion inferior (Sti) the most superior point of the lower lip
Labial inferior (Li) the point that indicates the mucocutaneous limit of the lower lip
Supramental (Sm) the deepest point of the inferior sublabial concavity
Pogonion (Pg) the most anterior point of the chin
Menton (Me) the most inferior point of the inferior edge of the chin
Cervical (C) the point at the junction of neck and throat borders
Tragus (Trg) the most posterior point of the auricular tragus
Alar (Al) the most lateral point of the alar contour of the nose
Ort the point joining the TV and the TH
Left canthus (Cthl) the entocanthion of the left eye
Right canthus (Cthr) the entocanthion of the right eye
Left lip commissure (Lcl) the point where the lips join together at the left side of the mouth
Right lip commissure (Lcr) the point where the lips join together at the right side of the mouth
Left alar base (Albl) the point on the lower margin of the left alar base where the ala disappears into the upper lip skin
Right alar base (Albr) the point on the lower margin of the right alar base where the ala disappears into the upper lip skin
Left pupil (Pupl) the center point of the left eye pupil
Right pupil (Pupr) the center point of the right eye pupil
Stomion (Stm) the midpoint of the labial fissure when the lips are closed naturally

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