The Open Dentistry Journal




ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 13, 2019

Variable Torque Prescription: State of Art.



Mariano Lacarbonara 1, *, Ettore Accivile 1, Maria R. Abed 2, Maria Teresa Dinoi1, Annalisa Monaco 1, Giuseppe Marzo 1, Mario Capogreco 1
1 Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, Dental Clinic, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio 67100, L'Aquila, Italy
2 Department of Odontostomatological Sciences, Dental Clinic, University “Sapienza” of Rome, Via Caserta 6, 00100, Rome, Italy

Abstract

The variable prescription is widely described under the clinical aspect: the clinics is the result of the evolution of the state-of-the-art, aspect that is less considered in the daily literature. The state-of-the-art is the key to understand not only how we reach where we are but also to learn how to manage propely the torque, focusing on the technical and biomechanical purpos-es that led to the change of the torque values over time. The aim of this study is to update the clinicians on the aspects that affect the torque under the biomechanical sight, helping them to understand how to managing it, following the “timeline changes” in the different techniques so that the Variable Prescription Orthodontic (VPO) would be a suitable tool in every clinical case.

Keywords: Active-passive, low friction, self-ligating brackets (SLB), torque expression, variable prescription orthodontic (VPO). .


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2015
Volume: 9
First Page: 60
Last Page: 64
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-9-60
DOI: 10.2174/1874210601509010060

Article History:

Received Date: 12/11/2014
Revision Received Date: 13/12/2014
Acceptance Date: 27/12/2014
Electronic publication date: 30 /1/2015
Collection year: 2015

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open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, Dental Clinic, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio 67100, L'Aquila, Italy; Tel: +39 0862 434973; E-mail: mariano.lacarbonara@gmail.com




INTRODUCTION

In orthodontics the meaning of the torque is different clinically and biomechanically. Clinically, the “torque” is the third key of the occlusion, described by Andrews as the inclination of the dental crown antero-posteriorly in the frontal teeth and traversal in the backward teeth. The clinical evaluation of torque is made by tracing a line perpendicular to the dental margin and passing through the Facial Axis Crown (FAC) of the tooth: the torque is considered “positive” when the crown is in a forward position to the line and the root is in backward position: in the opposite situation there is the “negative” torque [1Andrews LF. The six keys to normal occlusion. Am J Orthod 1972; 62: 296-309.]. Biomechanically, the torque is represented by the torsion of a rectangular archwire in the bracket slot [2Rauch DE. Torque and its application to orthodontics. Am J Orthod 1959; 45: 817-30.]. The adequate torque is related to good aesthetics, a correct anterior guidance is associated with the overjet and overbite correction: conversely a limitation of torque control in the anterior area causes a shortening of the dental arch, while a limitation of torque in the posterior area can determine a narrower smile and possible interferences [3Badawi HM, Toogood RW, Carey JPR, Heo G, Major PW. Torque expression of self-ligating brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2008; 133: 721-8.-5Gioka C, Eliades T. Materials-induced variation in the torque expression of preadjusted appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2004; 105: 392-400.]. Considering the importance of the torque management, the knowledge of the factors affecting the torque is mandatory: the torque depends on the dental morphology, the arch wire material, the bracket position and ligature [6Miethke RR. Third order tooth movements with straight wire appliances.Influence of vestibular tooth crown morphology in the vertical plane. J Orofac Orthop 1997; 58: 186-97.-2Rauch DE. Torque and its application to orthodontics. Am J Orthod 1959; 45: 817-30.]. The bracket/archwire interaction is one of the most discussed items within torque management and control, especially in this historical moment, where the self-ligating brackets are catching on the orthodontic view: the self-ligating brackets present advantages such as achieving a good occlusion associated to a good aesthetics, less treatment time, less time at the chair side with less appointment need and greater patient satisfaction [13Keim RG. Editor's corner orthodontic megatrends. J Clin Orthod 2005; 39: 345-6., 14Forsberg C, Brattstrom V, Malmberg E, Nord CE. Ligature wires andvelastomeric rings; two methods of ligation and their association with microbial colonization of Streptococcus mu-tans and lactobacilli. Europ J Orthod 1991; 13: 416-20.]. The advantages of self-ligating brackets have a high support by clinicians and a lower support by the evidence, especially on the toque management, where the maintenance/loss of torque in the bracket is debated [15Harradine NWT. Self-ligating brackets and treatment efficien-cy. Clin Orthod Research 2001; 4: 220-7.]. The aim of this review is to describe the current state of the art, following the timeline of the different techniques, from the pre-adjusted system to the VPO: this update allows the clinician to understand the mechanisms that underlying the torque control, giving guidelines for each clinical situation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The literature has been reviewed to describe the historical development of the appliances, from the origin of the pre-adjusted appliance until the Variable Prescription Orthodontics, especially regarding to the change of the bracket-wire interaction and the change of the biomechanical principles that underlying various techniques and justify different torque management.

The Origin of VPO

The pre-adjusted appliance started with Lawrence Andrews, author that re-evaluated the previous orthodontic experiences that began his research studying the occlusion and identifying six keys of optimal occlusion: the third key is represented by the torque and the technique was characterized by a bracket containing the angulation, inclination and in-out of each tooth, interacting with a straight-wire [1Andrews LF. The six keys to normal occlusion. Am J Orthod 1972; 62: 296-309.,16Angle EH. The latest and best in orthodontic mechanism. Den Cosm 1929; 71: 260-70.-19Stifter JJ, Ed. Straight-wire, the concept and the appliance. Cap 8 San Diego CA LA Wells Co. 1989.]. The aim of Andrews was to achieve the six keys of the occlusion, using different bracket prescriptions for each clinical situation, dividing the extractions cases from non-extraction cases [20Andrews LF, Ed. The Andrews straight-wire appliance concept [dissertation]. Pasadena CA Edward H Angle Soc Ortho-don. 1968.] Table 1. Subsequently, Roth criticized Andrews furnishing of brackets: Roth sustained that a large inventory was difficult to manage, so he suggested a new prescription that he called Straight Wire, with a unique torque value of the upper canines (11°), aiming to use the same brackets for extractions and non-extraction cases [21Roth R. The straight-wire appliance 17 years later. J Clin Or-thod 1987; 21(9): 632-42.]. The idea of Roth was to develop a new treatment planning aiming to achieve a facial and dental aesthetics associated to a functional occlusion, a healthy periodontium and healthy TMJ Table 2. The third-generation of Straight wire devices is represented by the MBT technique. McLaughling, Bennet and Trevisi modified the prescriptions of Roth and Andrews: this modification is due to the introduction of a sliding mechanics, so that light forces could be used to close the extraction spaces. The versatility of torque is represented by three different prescriptions for the upper and lower canines, choosing the correct value on the malocclusion characteristics and on the treatment goals [22McLaughlin R, Bennett J, Trevisi H. A clinical review of the MBT orthodontic treatment program. Orthod Perspec 1997; 4(2): 3-15., 23Bennett JC, McLaughlin RP, Eds. Biomecánica en ortodoncia clí-nica. 1a ed Buenos Aires Panamericana. 1998.] Table 3. The MBT technique added to Andrews’s and Roth’s treatment goals also that the condyle has to be seated in a centric relation and the musculature has to be in a relaxed position during the occlusion [22McLaughlin R, Bennett J, Trevisi H. A clinical review of the MBT orthodontic treatment program. Orthod Perspec 1997; 4(2): 3-15., 23Bennett JC, McLaughlin RP, Eds. Biomecánica en ortodoncia clí-nica. 1a ed Buenos Aires Panamericana. 1998.].

Table 1.

Prescription in Andrews technique.




Table 2.

Prescription in Roth technique.




Table 3.

Prescription in MBT technique.




The Concept of Variable Torque Prescription

The evolution of orthodontics with self-ligating brackets pave the way for orthodontist not only to a new biomechanics but also to a new concept of treatment planning: each malocclusion present peculiar characteristics in the inclination of posterior and anterior teeth in both arches so the information inside the bracket must be chosen considering the occlusal features before the treatment and the biomechanics to achieve the final result. The different characteristics that could be found inside a malocclusion lead to develop of different prescription of torque for the upper and lower six anterior teeth: the aim of this individualization is to achieve a better functional and aesthetic outcome, with less risk of orthodontic relapse. The beginning of interest on the torque values has born from the clinical evaluation of the loss of torque with passive self-ligating brackets: the correct torque value could be achieved reducing and/or adding the degrees of torque inside the prescription [24Pedrosa CV. Prescripción variable en ortodoncia lo que todo ortodoncista debería conocer. Esp Ortod 2010; 40: 93-108.]. Nowadays, the authors that most emphasized the VPO concept are A. Sondhi and D. Damon: they suggest that the correct torque value has to be selected considering the patient malocclusion and periodontal characteristics, the inter- and intra-arch variables and the class correction biomechanics [25Damon D. JCO interviews. J Clin Orthodont 2012; 46(11): 667-8., 26Sondhi A. Smart things to know about the smart clip™ self-ligating appliance system. Orthodont Perspect 2007; 14(2): 4-9.]. All the possible clinical combinations lead to high-, standard and low- torque prescriptions for upper and lower anterior teeth: the high torque values are taken by Hilgers, the standard torque correspond to the MBT values, whereas the low torque values are the Roth values (Fig. 1).

Fig. (1)

For every 5° of anterior torque, obtained by placing the bracket 1 mm higher or lower with respect to the center of the clinical crown, the space in the arch is modified by 1 mm and the prescription is changed.



Fig. (2)

Side view of the two self-ligating braces. Left: active selfligating braces, with the interactive wall. Right: passive selfligating braces, with the typical 4-wall slot. The difference between the dimensions of the slot and their “engagement angle” or “torsional clearance” is according to Badawi et al., [3Badawi HM, Toogood RW, Carey JPR, Heo G, Major PW. Torque expression of self-ligating brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2008; 133: 721-8.].



Fig. (3)

Graph comparing the torque expression capacities of different alloys for the orthodontic arch. For a section of 0.019" x 0.025" in stainless steel, with its higher hardness and stiffness, the torque is expressed more effectively.



Fig. (4)

Graph comparing the torque expression capacities of active and passive self-ligating brackets. According to Badawi et al. [3Badawi HM, Toogood RW, Carey JPR, Heo G, Major PW. Torque expression of self-ligating brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2008; 133: 721-8.], active self-ligating brackets express torque more effectively and efficiently than passive ones. Self-ligating brackets start to generate clinically effective momentum between 15° and 31°, compared to passive brackets that need higher torsion to generate the same momentum (between 22.5° and 34.5°).



DISCUSSION

Traditionally, the torque is achieved when the rectangular wire is full engaged to the slot of the bracket: the full-size wire is the last one of the archwire sequence and it must allow the sliding movement of the dentition and the torque control at the same time. For many authors the optimal bracket-archwire relationship is represented by a 0.022”x 0.028” slot and the 0.019”x 0.025” stainless steel wire [5Gioka C, Eliades T. Materials-induced variation in the torque expression of preadjusted appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2004; 105: 392-400., 11Sebanc J, Brantley WA, Pincsak JJ, Conover JP. Variability of effective root torque as a function of edge bevel on orthodon-tic arch wire. Am J Orthod 1984; 86: 43-51., 27Fischer-Brandies H, Orthuber W, Es Suoni M, Meyer S. Torque transmission between square wire and bracket as a function of measurement, form and hardness parameters. J Orofac Orthop 2000; 61: 258-65.]: this combination does not permit a full-engagement of the arch wire in the slot because only 10% of the wire is used. This aspect opens a discussion about the discrepancy between the information provided by the companies and the real wire-bracket interaction, especially because during alignment and levelling the discrepancies are less evident [28Gioka C, Eliades T. Materials-induced variation in the torque expression of preadjusted appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2004; 125: 323-8.-31Meyer M, Nelson G. Preadjusted edgewise appliances theory and practice. Am J Orthod 1987; 73: 485-98.]. In this situation the orthodontist needs a more clear view about the variables concerning the torque expression and, on this topic, some keys of comprehension are fundamental: the different effectiveness in torque expression of the different alloys, the effect of bracket position and dental morphology on torque expression, the influence of bracket design on its capacity to read the torque (friction and bracket/wire interaction).

The Archwire Alloy

The archwire alloy is fundamental for the expression of the torque because it is the stiffness of the material that determines the complete reading of the bracket information: in fact, at the same thickness values, NiTi and the TMA alloys presented a lower stiffness, so they present a lower torque expression then the Stainless steel alloy [32Kusy RP. On the use of nomograms to determine the elastic property ratios of orthodontic arch wires. Am J Orthod 1983; 83: 374-81.] (Fig. 2). The aspect that is considered critical in the torque achievement with the TMA and NiTi alloy is represented by the twist angle produced by the wire in the bracket: Archambault referred that, if the angle is lower then 12° there are no differences between the wires [33Archambault A, Major TW, Carey JP, Heo G, Badawi H, Ma-jor PW. A comparison of torque expression between stainless steel, titanium molybdenum alloy, and copper nickel titanium wires in metallic self-ligating bracket. Angle Orthod 2010; 80(5): 884-9.]. With this assumption, using the variable prescription will provide the correct torque because the loss of torque determined by the wire could be compensated by the information inside the bracket.

The Bracket Positioning

The force that determines the torque is correctly expressed when the force is applied in the center of the clinical crown: a different positioning, as demonstrated by Meyer and Mietheke, could determine a variation of the torsion angle by 10° to 15° [6Miethke RR. Third order tooth movements with straight wire appliances.Influence of vestibular tooth crown morphology in the vertical plane. J Orofac Orthop 1997; 58: 186-97., 31Meyer M, Nelson G. Preadjusted edgewise appliances theory and practice. Am J Orthod 1987; 73: 485-98.] Fig. (3). The bracket positioning could also be affected by the dental morphology: a divergency between the longitudinal axis of the crown and of the root could change the effect of the same bracket [34Carlsson R, Rönnermann A. Crown root angles of upper cen-tral incisors. Am J Orthod 1973; 64: 147-54.]. If on the one hand the orthodontists are used to correct the bracket’s position by correctly debonding and rebonding the bracket, on the other hand, the debonding procedures present their unfavorable effects [35Janiszewska-Olszowska J, Szatkiewicz T, Tomkowski R, Tandecka K, Grocholewicz K. Effect of orthodon-tic debonding and adhesive removal on the enamel - current knowledge and future perspectives a systematic review. Med Sci Monit 2014; 20: 1991-2001.]: the change of bracket position on the vertical aspect, if the verticality is properly controlled, could be a good clinical option to reduce/add torque, especially when the VPO is applied.

The Brackets Design

The brackets are built in different materials and present more then one design: Morina compaired the ability of conventional brackets versus self-ligating brackets to generate the moment angle able to produce the torque. The ceramic brackets showed the best function in torque maintenance, followed by conventional metal brackets, then self-ligating active brackets and self-ligating passive brackets: in agreement with other researches, this study also revealed that the best range of moment of forces that generates the torque is between the 5 and 20 Nmm [36Morina E, Eliades T, Pandis N, Jaguer A, Bourauel C. Torque expression of self-ligating brackets with conventional metal-lic, ceramic and plastic brackets. Europ J Orthod 2008; 30: 233-8.-38Harzer W, Burauel C, Gmyrek H. Torque capacity of metal and polycarbonate brackets with and without metal slot. Eu-rop J Orthod 2004; 26: 435-1.]. The authors detected that, with active self-ligating brackets the angle formed between the bracket and the wire had to range between 15° and 31° to achieve the optimal torque, with passive self-ligating brackets the same values of torque were achieved with angles between 22.5° and 34.5°: these results agree with previous literature such as Gymrek’s and Harzer’s studies [38Harzer W, Burauel C, Gmyrek H. Torque capacity of metal and polycarbonate brackets with and without metal slot. Eu-rop J Orthod 2004; 26: 435-1., 39Gmyrek H, Bourauel C, Richter G, Harzer W. Torque capacity of metal and plastic brackets with reference to materials, ap-plication, technology and biomechanics. J Orofac Orthop 2002; 63: 113-28.] Fig. (4). The conclusion on most of these studies are clinically useful up to a certain point because most of them are in vitro studies, so the in vivo studies show lower levels of moments: the most difficult part under a clinical point of view is represented by the engagement of the archwire when the malocclusion is severe, and torque is determined not only by the momentum angle, but is also influenced by the friction due to dental malposition.

CONCLUSION

In orthodontics the torque control is fundamental under a clinical point of view. Nowadays, many studies underline the importance of considering the factors that affect the torque expression and management, such as the patient’s malocclusion and general characteristics, the bracket’s design, the wire’s components and sequence, the bracket positioning and the treatment biomechanics. The VPO is a good tool for the orthodontist to manage the torque since The beginning of treatment, because many of the factors affecting are considered. Looking forward, new comparative studies on the effectiveness of the treatment planning using the VPO versus the conventional treatment planning are required.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

ML, EA, AMR contributed to the concept and design of the study, the analysis and interpretation of the data and drafted the manuscript. AM, GM, MTD and MC were involved in the interpretation of the data and contributed to the revision of the drafted manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

REFERENCES

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[22] McLaughlin R, Bennett J, Trevisi H. A clinical review of the MBT orthodontic treatment program. Orthod Perspec 1997; 4(2): 3-15.
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[34] Carlsson R, Rönnermann A. Crown root angles of upper cen-tral incisors. Am J Orthod 1973; 64: 147-54.
[35] Janiszewska-Olszowska J, Szatkiewicz T, Tomkowski R, Tandecka K, Grocholewicz K. Effect of orthodon-tic debonding and adhesive removal on the enamel - current knowledge and future perspectives a systematic review. Med Sci Monit 2014; 20: 1991-2001.
[36] Morina E, Eliades T, Pandis N, Jaguer A, Bourauel C. Torque expression of self-ligating brackets with conventional metal-lic, ceramic and plastic brackets. Europ J Orthod 2008; 30: 233-8.
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[38] Harzer W, Burauel C, Gmyrek H. Torque capacity of metal and polycarbonate brackets with and without metal slot. Eu-rop J Orthod 2004; 26: 435-1.
[39] Gmyrek H, Bourauel C, Richter G, Harzer W. Torque capacity of metal and plastic brackets with reference to materials, ap-plication, technology and biomechanics. J Orofac Orthop 2002; 63: 113-28.

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