Table 5: Main avenues for anti-diabetic treatment and clinical developments.

High therapeutic-indexed drug developments
Educate wider ranges of audience to know the basic diabetic information
Deeper understanding the relationship between causality, pathogenesis and therapeutics
Genetic, epigenetic or molecular study of all relevant disciplines.
Learn from minority medicines - such as Traditional Chinese Medicine, Indian/Pakistan medicine, middle-east medicine and so on
Personalized diabetes therapy
Establish therapeutics against disease complications
Drug combination study, both experimentally and clinically
Strengthen the scientific investigations of biotherapeutic activity and pharmaceutical delivery systems
Budget control in drug developments and cost-effective in clinical trials
Find out some small-molecular synthetic or natural chemicals with insulin-like functions and receptors-binding activities
Find out some genetic targets from human genomes
Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) between patients and normal people
Invite mathematic-/physics-majored scholars in anti-diabetic study
Pharmaceutical innovation of insulin treatments from needle to oral
Global cooperation in foundation areas