Table 1: Demographics, biochemical parameters and body mass index of study participants.

Variable Total Number of Participants Total Number of Males Total Number of Females
No. of Participants n=5350 n=2136 n=3214
Age (years)* 46.22 (45.94, 46.51) 46.83 (46.35, 47.30) 45.86 (45.51, 46.21)
Glucose (mmol/L)* 5.39 (5.34, 5.44) 5.49 (5.41, 5.58) 5.32 (5.27, 5.38)
log Ferritin (pmol/L)* 3.96 (3.93, 3.98) 4.47 (4.43, 4.50) 3.64 (3.61, 3.68)
Uric acid (μmol/L)* 314.24 (312.00, 316.48) 362.98 (359.57, 366.38) 284.40 (281.94, 286.86)
log CRP (mg/L)* -0.23 (-0.27, -0.19) -0.57 (-0.64, -0.51) -0.02 (-0.07, 0.04)
BMI (kg/m2)* 27.24 (27.10, 27.38) 25.29 (25.11, 25.48) 28.42 (28.24, 28.61)
Physical activity levels (MET-min/week)* 6173.83 (5967.67, 6379.98) 7414.01 (7029.22, 7798.80) 5442.39 (5209.68, 5675.09)
No formal Education (%) 34.49 (33.22, 35.76) 20.94 (19.17, 22.70) 42.76 (41.10, 44.44)
Total Population Migrant participants Urban participants Rural participants
No. of Participants (N=5350) n=2921 n=1411 n=1018
Male n (%)† 41.58 (39.86, 43.30) 28.66 (26.33, 30.99) 38.83 (35.87, 41.79)
Age (years)† 46.59 (46.24, 46.93) 45.24 (44.65, 45.83) 46.49 (45.72, 47.26)
Glucose (mmol/L)† 5.36 (5.31, 5.43) 5.60 (5.49, 5.72) 5.15 (5.05, 5.24)
log Ferritin (pmol/L)† 3.89 (3.86, 3.93) 3.94 (3.89, 4.00) 4.15 (4.10, 4.21)
Uric acid (μmol/L)† 329.64 (326.58, 332.70) 293.87 (289.76, 297.97) 297.67 (292.84, 302.50)
log CRP (mg/L) -0.30 (-0.35, -0.25) -0.12 (-0.21, -0.04) -0.17 (-0.27, -0.06)
BMI (kg/m2)† 28.95 (28.77, 29.12) 26.88 (26.61, 27.16) 22.57 (22.31, 22.83)
Physical activity levels (MET-min/week)† 6164.04 (5842.17, 6485.91) 5553.95 (5842.17, 6485.91) 7091.63 (6680.37, 7502.89)
No formal Education (%) 21.52 (20.04, 23.01) 43.83 (41.24, 46.43) 58.84 (55.85, 61.84)
Use of antihypertensives (%)† 28.03 (26.46, 29.59) 10.44 (8.86, 12.01) 6.99 (5.45, 8.55)
Use of antilipidemics (%)† 7.52 (6.60, 8.43) 0.35 (0.04, 0.65) 0
Obese
Total population Migrant participants Urban participants Rural participants
No. of Participants (N=1405) n=1011 n=341 n=53
Male n (%)† 20.54 (18.08, 23.00) 7.32 (4.61, 10.04) 8.77 (1.36, 16.19)
Age (years)† 47.31 (46.74, 47.88) 45.30 (44.21, 46.39) 43.98 (41.02, 46.94)
Glucose (mmol/L)† 5.19 (5.15, 5.23) 5.12 (5.06, 5.18) 5.12 (4.95, 5.29)
log Ferritin (pmol/L) 3.74 (3.67, 3.80) 3.68 (3.56, 3.80) 3.92 (3.68, 4.17)
Uric acid (μmol/L)† 331.47 (326.21, 336.73) 302.63 (294.61, 310.66) 324.99 (305.51, 344.48)
log CRP (mg/L) 0.35 (0.27, 0.44) 0.76 (0.61, 0.91) 0.85 (0.52, 1.18)
BMI (kg/m2) 33.95 (33.71, 34.12) 33.90 (33.53, 34.27) 33.48 (32.57, 34.39)
Physical activity levels (MET-min/week)† 5724.62 (5192.73, 6256.50) 5374.74 (4754.76, 5994.72) 4931.37 (3533.00, 6329.74)
Use of antihypertensives (%)† 31.05 (28.23, 33.87) 13.28 (9.73, 16.82) 12.28 (3.68, 20.88)
Use of antilipidemics (%)† 6.75 (5.22, 8.28) 0.85 (0.01, 1.80) 0
T2DM
Total population Migrant participants Urban participants Rural participants
No. of Participants
(N=195)
n=85 n=78 n=32
Male n (%)† 65.21 (57.80, 72.63) 43.55 (31.04, 56.05) 24.00 (6.83, 41.17)
Age (years)† 51.11 (49.35, 52.86) 52.91 (20.90, 54.92) 54.94 (51.31, 58.57)
Glucose (mmol/L)† 10.23 (9.02, 11.44) 12.74 (11.79, 13.68) 11.10 (9.13, 13.07)
log Ferritin (pmol/L)† 4.21 (4.06, 4.36) 4.42 (4.17, 4.66) 4.25 (3.89, 4.61)
Uric acid (μmol/L) 375.63 (354.97, 396.30) 285.85 (267.11, 304.59) 322.82 (289.26, 356.37)
log CRP (mg/L)† -0.54 (-0.77, -0.31) 0.08 (-0.34, 0.51) 0.12 (-0.54, 0.78)
BMI (kg/m2)† 26.52 (25.97, 27.08) 24.31 (23.59, 25.03) 22.88 (21.32, 24.44)
Physical activity levels (MET-min/week)† 6358.17 (4740.88, 7975.46) 4663.22 (3254.07, 6072.39) 4168.80 (2043.06, 6294.54)
Use of antihypertensives (%)† 49.69 (41.90, 57.47) 17.77 (8.11, 27.38) 32.00 (13.25, 50.75)
Use of antilipidemics (%)† 31.67 (24.43, 38.92) 0 0

Output reported as mean (95% confidence interval), %=proportions (interquartile range),*=statistically significant; male vs female, †= statistically significant between populations,. Normal ranges: Glucose = (3.9 – 6.1) mmol/L, Ferritin = (33.7 – 449.4) pmol/L, Uric Acid= (208.2 – 416.4) μmol/L, CRP = (0.8 – 3.1) mg/L, BMI = (18.5 – 24.9) kg/m2. Cut-off for Obesity; BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2, Cut-off for diabetes; fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L.

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