The Open Dermatology Journal




ISSN: 1874-3722 ― Volume 13, 2019
CASE REPORT

Nummular Contact Eczema: Presentation of a Pediatric Case



D Bonamonte1, *, A Filoni1, G Gullo1, M Vestita2
1 Section of Dermatology, Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, University of Bari, 11, Piazza Giulio Cesare, Bari, 70124, Italy
2 Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

Abstract

The etiopathogenesis of the nummular eczema is not fully known. Various causative factors have been proposed, and among these only a few studies investigate the relevance of contact allergy. Here, we present a case of nummular contact eczema in an 8-year-old allergic to perfumes. Since atopic dermatitis may also present with different clinical phenotypes, among which nummular eczema is quite frequent, the possible significant differences between non-atopic and atopic nummular diseases are considered. Based on the high incidence of contact sensitization in all cases of nummular eczema, it is recommended to perform patch tests for diagnostic-preventive purposes.

Keywords: Nummular eczema, Discoid eczema, Atopic dermatitis, Contact allergy, Pediatric case, Etiopathogenesis.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 23
Last Page: 26
Publisher Id: TODJ-13-23
DOI: 10.2174/1874372201913010023

Article History:

Received Date: 14/02/2019
Revision Received Date: 04/04/2019
Acceptance Date: 12/04/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2019
Collection year: 2019

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© 2019 Bonamonte et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Section of Dermatology, Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology., University of Bari, 11, Piazza Giulio Cesare, Bari, 70124, Italy; Tel: + 39 080 5478994;
E-mail: domenico.bonamonte@uniba.it





1. INTRODUCTION

Nummular eczema, also known as discoid eczema, is a clinical entity characterized by roundish, well-defined margins of the size of a coin [1Berth Jones J. Eczema, lichenification, prurigo and erythroderma.Rook’s Textbook of Dermatology 8th ed. 2010; Vol. I: 2309-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444317633.ch23]
]. It does not represent a precise etiological entity, and indeed various causative factors, acting individually or in a combined manner, have been identified and suggested as presumable etiological agents. The causal agents most often reported in the literature are nutritional [2Fowle LP, Rice JW. Etiology of nummular eczema. AMA Arch Derm Syphilol 1953; 68(1): 69-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1953.01540070072010] [PMID: 13057371]
, 3Krogh HK. Nummular eczema. Its relationship to internal foci of infection. A survey of 84 case records. Acta Derm Venereol 1960; 40: 114-26.
[PMID: 13754453]
], infectious [2Fowle LP, Rice JW. Etiology of nummular eczema. AMA Arch Derm Syphilol 1953; 68(1): 69-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1953.01540070072010] [PMID: 13057371]
, 4Welbourn E, Champion RH, Parish WE. Nummular eczema with staphylococcal sensitivity. Br J Dermatol 1975; 93: 40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1975.tb06789.x]
, 5Tanaka T, Satoh T, Yokozeki H. Dental infection associated with nummular eczema as an overlooked focal infection. J Dermatol 2009; 36(8): 462-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2009.00677.x] [PMID: 1969 1752]
] and emotional [6Baer TW. Nummular eczema; Its diagnosis and treatment. Pa Med J 1954; 57(3): 230-3.
[PMID: 13133643]
], along with alcoholism [7Higgins EM, du Vivier AW. Cutaneous disease and alcohol misuse. Br Med Bull 1994; 50(1): 85-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a072887] [PMID: 790 8595]
] and dry skin, especially in old age [8Rollins TG. From xerosis to nummular dermatitis. The dehydration dermatosis. JAMA 1968; 206(3): 637.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1968.03150030093022] [PMID: 569 5586]
, 9Aoyama H, Tanaka M, Hara M, Tabata N, Tagami H. Nummular eczema: An addition of senile xerosis and unique cutaneous reactivities to environmental aeroallergens. Dermatology (Basel) 1999; 199(2): 135-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000018220] [PMID: 10559579]
]. Other possible causes are arthropod bites, thermal burns, and varicose veins. In exceptional cases, the disease can be induced by medications [10Church R. Eczema provoked by methyl dopa. Br J Dermatol 1974; 91(4): 373-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1974.tb13074.x] [PMID: 427 9104]
-12Shen Y, Pielop J, Hsu S. Generalized nummular eczema secondary to peginterferon Alfa-2b and ribavirin combination therapy for hepatitis C infection. Arch Dermatol 2005; 141(1): 102-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archderm.141.1.102-b] [PMID: 15655158]
]. Contact irritation and allergy are among the most common etiological factors. In particular, the incidence of contact allergy was studied in various cohorts of patients with nummular eczema [13Fregert S, Hjorth N, Magnusson B, et al. Epidemiology of contact dermatitis. Trans St Johns Hosp Dermatol Soc 1969; 55(1): 17-35.
[PMID: 5804349]
-17Bonamonte D, Foti C, Vestita M, Ranieri LD, Angelini G. Nummular eczema and contact allergy: A retrospective study. Dermatitis 2012; 23(4): 153-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0b013e318260d5a0] [PMID: 228282 53]
]. From these studies it emerges that exogenous sensitizing agents can complicate (through an altered skin barrier) or initially induce the affliction.

Concerning the correlation with age, nummular eczema is predominantly an adult affection; however, it is observable, albeit with low incidence, even in pediatric age [17Bonamonte D, Foti C, Vestita M, Ranieri LD, Angelini G. Nummular eczema and contact allergy: A retrospective study. Dermatitis 2012; 23(4): 153-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0b013e318260d5a0] [PMID: 228282 53]
-20Jiamton S, Tangjaturonrusamee C, Kulthanan K. Clinical features and aggravating factors in nummular eczema in Thais. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2013; 31(1): 36-42.
[PMID: 23517392]
].

2. CASE

An 8-year-old child presented to us with a pruritic eczematous dermatitis of the limbs. The disease, which occurred 8 months before the observation, first affected the lower limbs, then the upper limbs, with multiple erythemato-papulo vesico crusted lesions in rounded patches of variable size from 2 to 5 cm and well defined margins (Figs. 1, 2). The course of the disease over time had been continuous and progressively worsening, despite the use of emollients and topical antibiotic drugs.

Fig. (1)
Clinical aspect. Multiple eczematous patches of coin sizes with sharp margins.


Family history showed atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis in the patient's younger sister and an undefined infantile eczema in the mother.

Based on the clinical presentation of nummular eczema, tests were required for possible intestinal infections (parasitological examination of feces), along with skin allergy exams (patch tests) and blood tests (total IgE, RAST).

Fig. (2)
Detailed view of one of the nummular lesions.


Patch tests were performed with the standard series SIDAPA (Italian Society of Allergological, Professional and Environmental Dermatology) (Euromedical, Calolziocorte, LC, Italy) and applied on the back with Scanpor® plaster (Norgesplaster, Vennesla, Norway) for 48 hours. Results demonstrated contact allergy to fragrance mix 1 to the reading at D2 and D4 according to the ESCD guidelines (European Society of Contact Dermatitis) (+++ to D2 and D4). The other above mentioned tests turned out negative.

Based on the diagnosis of allergic contact nummular eczema, topical mometasone 0,1% cream (1 application per day) was recommended, along with appropriate preventive measures against perfumed products. Clinical follow-up after 10 days of treatment highlighted resolution of clinical lesions with hyperchromic outcomes. Six-month follow-up did not reveal anything relevant.

3. DISCUSSION

Nummular eczema is an inflammatory skin condition, characterized by multiple eczematous patches of coin sizes with sharp margins. Described by Devergie [21Devergie MGA. Traité Pratique des Maladies de la Peau 2nd ed. 1857; 238.] in 1857, but clinically sketched as early as 1845 by Rayer [22Rayer P. Theoretical and Practical Treatise of Diseases of the skin 1845; 114.], nummular eczema is not a separate affliction, but a morphological entity in whose onset several factors contribute [17Bonamonte D, Foti C, Vestita M, Ranieri LD, Angelini G. Nummular eczema and contact allergy: A retrospective study. Dermatitis 2012; 23(4): 153-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0b013e318260d5a0] [PMID: 228282 53]
]. While its clinical aspects are clearly defined and known, its pathogenetic mechanism is not. Various factors have been proposed as etiologic agents, of which some are endogenous (dry skin, emotional stress, atopy) and some are exogenous (systemic drugs, alcohol abuse, staphylococcal infections and environmental allergens) [17Bonamonte D, Foti C, Vestita M, Ranieri LD, Angelini G. Nummular eczema and contact allergy: A retrospective study. Dermatitis 2012; 23(4): 153-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0b013e318260d5a0] [PMID: 228282 53]
].

There are scarce studies on the incidence of nummular eczema; in fact, presentations of anecdotal cases prevail in literature. Horn [23Horn R. The pattern of skin disease in general practice. Dermatol Pract 1986; 4: 14-9.] reports an incidence of 7% on all forms of eczema. From our previous study, conducted on 29,323 patch-tested eczematous patients, an incidence of 3.5% emerges [17Bonamonte D, Foti C, Vestita M, Ranieri LD, Angelini G. Nummular eczema and contact allergy: A retrospective study. Dermatitis 2012; 23(4): 153-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0b013e318260d5a0] [PMID: 228282 53]
], as well as a prevalence in males; literature data in this regard are however conflicting: from different observations an equal frequency in the two sexes is seen [24Sulzberger MB, Wolf J, Witten VH, et al. Dermatology: Diagnosis and Treatment 1961; 190-4.].

Regarding age, nummular eczema is predominantly an adult affliction, with a peak between 20 and 50 years, while, atopic children excluded, it is rarely observable in the first decade of life [17Bonamonte D, Foti C, Vestita M, Ranieri LD, Angelini G. Nummular eczema and contact allergy: A retrospective study. Dermatitis 2012; 23(4): 153-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0b013e318260d5a0] [PMID: 228282 53]
, 18Patrizi A, Ricci G, Neri I, et al. Eczema in chiazze nell’infanzia: Studio retrospettivo di 515 casi. Eur J Pediat Dermatol 2006; 16: 21-4., 25Cowan MA. Nummular eczema. A review, follow-up and analysis of a series of 325 cases. Acta Derm Venereol 1961; 41: 453-60.
[PMID: 13881857]
]. In pediatric age, however, the disease occurs more often in females, prevailing in males with advancing age.

The relationship of nummular eczema with atopy is rather controversial. Various studies show no association between discoid eczema and atopy [2Fowle LP, Rice JW. Etiology of nummular eczema. AMA Arch Derm Syphilol 1953; 68(1): 69-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1953.01540070072010] [PMID: 13057371]
, 3Krogh HK. Nummular eczema. Its relationship to internal foci of infection. A survey of 84 case records. Acta Derm Venereol 1960; 40: 114-26.
[PMID: 13754453]
, 25Cowan MA. Nummular eczema. A review, follow-up and analysis of a series of 325 cases. Acta Derm Venereol 1961; 41: 453-60.
[PMID: 13881857]
, 26Sirot G. Nummular eczema. Semin Dermatol 1983; 2: 68-74.], partly based on the observation of low serum immunoglobulin E levels in the first compared to the second [27Krueger GG, Kahn G, Weston WL, Mandel MJ. IgE levels in nummular eczema and ichthyosis. Arch Dermatol 1973; 107(1): 56-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1973.01620160028006] [PMID: 4118739]
]. Atopic dermatitis, however, can occur with nummular lesions in both children and adults [18Patrizi A, Ricci G, Neri I, et al. Eczema in chiazze nell’infanzia: Studio retrospettivo di 515 casi. Eur J Pediat Dermatol 2006; 16: 21-4., 28Kulthanan K, Samutrapong P, Jiamton S, Tuchinda P. Adult-onset atopic dermatitis: A cross-sectional study of natural history and clinical manifestation. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2007; 25(4): 207-14.
[PMID: 18402293]
, 29Pugliarello S, Cozzi A, Gisondi P, Girolomoni G. Phenotypes of atopic dermatitis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2011; 9(1): 12-20.
[PMID: 21054785]
], with a respective incidence of 9% and 12% [18Patrizi A, Ricci G, Neri I, et al. Eczema in chiazze nell’infanzia: Studio retrospettivo di 515 casi. Eur J Pediat Dermatol 2006; 16: 21-4.]. Recent studies indicate that nummular lesions represent the most common atypical morphological variant of atopic dermatitis, in pediatric age as well as in adults. In children it is not uncommon to observe coexisting or alternating eczematous nummular lesions along with typical folds involvement [29Pugliarello S, Cozzi A, Gisondi P, Girolomoni G. Phenotypes of atopic dermatitis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2011; 9(1): 12-20.
[PMID: 21054785]
]. Even in adult atopic dermatitis, nummular lesions represent about 50% of atypical morphological variants of atopic dermatitis [28Kulthanan K, Samutrapong P, Jiamton S, Tuchinda P. Adult-onset atopic dermatitis: A cross-sectional study of natural history and clinical manifestation. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2007; 25(4): 207-14.
[PMID: 18402293]
]. Nummular eczema, therefore, is an important pattern of presentation of atopic dermatitis, regardless of its association to high serum total IgE levels, the presence of specific IgE and the personal or family history of atopy [30Lange L, Rietschel E, Hunzelmann N, Hartmann K. Elevated levels of tryptase in children with nummular eczema. Allergy 2008; 63(7): 947-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01731.x] [PMID: 18588 568]
].

Between non-atopic and atopic nummular eczema there are several significant differences. Nummular eczema, unlike atopic dermatitis, rarely develops in the first years of life; commonly, it occurs around the age of five. Its natural history is different: cutaneous xerosis is missing and the disease generally does not continue after puberty. Nummular lesions, both in pediatric and adult age, are more exudative, unlike the usually dry and scaling atopic ones, and are less numerous, asymmetric and irregularly shaped and resolve with hyperchromic or hypochromic outcomes (especially in atopics) [31Kang IJ, Shin MK, Haw CR. Patch testing in nummular eczema: comparison of patch test results between nummular eczema and atopic dermatitis. Korean J Dermatol 2007; 45: 871-6., 32Bonamonte D, Angelini G. Disordini pigmentari da contatto. Ann Ital Dermatol Allergol Clin Sperim 2001; 55: 1-15.]. The most frequently affected sites are the extensor face of the limbs, while the flexor and the face are usually spared. When nummular eczema is etiologically linked to infections, alcohol abuse or exogenous chemical agents, it resolves quickly without recurrence with specific treatments and prevention.

The incidence of contact allergy in nummular eczema varies from 30.1% to 77.9% of cases [14Fleming C, Parry E, Forsyth A, Kemmett D. Patch testing in discoid eczema. Contact Dermat 1997; 36(5): 261-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1997.tb00214.x] [PMID: 919 7962]
-16Krupa Shankar DS, Shrestha S. Relevance of patch testing in patients with nummular dermatitis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2005; 71(6): 406-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.18945] [PMID: 16394482]
, 33Bonamonte D, Foti C, Romita P, Vestita M, Angelini G. Colors and contact dermatitis. Dermatitis 2014; 25(4): 155-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0000000000000046] [PMID: 25000 236]
]. In our previous study, conducted on a large patient population, the incidence is of 32.5%, without significant differences between atopic and non-atopic subjects [17Bonamonte D, Foti C, Vestita M, Ranieri LD, Angelini G. Nummular eczema and contact allergy: A retrospective study. Dermatitis 2012; 23(4): 153-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0b013e318260d5a0] [PMID: 228282 53]
]. In subjects with atopic nummular eczema, contact allergy can be interpreted as a “complication” of the pre-existing dermatitis, a consequence of the repeated topical application of drugs and cosmetics. In non-atopic subjects, however, contact sensitization to occupational and / or non-occupational haptens is the “primary” cause of nummular lesions.

CONCLUSION

Many factors have an etiological role in subjects with nummular eczema. Among these, contact allergy is often the primary cause. It is therefore desirable that all cases of persistent nummular eczema, both in atopic and non-atopic subjects, should be patch tested [34Bonamonte D, Foti C, Carpentieri A, et al. Dermatite allergica da contatto in età pediatrica. Ann Ital Dermatol Allergol 2010; 64: 1-7.].

The differential diagnosis between nummular contact and atopic eczema makes use of various constitutional, anamnestic, environmental and clinical-morphological criteria.

Particularly in pediatric age, the occurrence of nummular lesions in both non-atopic and atopic children is taken into account. In the latter, albeit with a low incidence, the affection can be observed especially in the first few years of life.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

Not applicable.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No animals/humans were used for studies that are the basis of this study.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

STANDARDS OF REPORTING

This study was carried out in accordance with the principles laid in CARE guideline.

AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS

Not applicable.

FUNDING

None.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

REFERENCES

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[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444317633.ch23]
[2] Fowle LP, Rice JW. Etiology of nummular eczema. AMA Arch Derm Syphilol 1953; 68(1): 69-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1953.01540070072010] [PMID: 13057371]
[3] Krogh HK. Nummular eczema. Its relationship to internal foci of infection. A survey of 84 case records. Acta Derm Venereol 1960; 40: 114-26.
[PMID: 13754453]
[4] Welbourn E, Champion RH, Parish WE. Nummular eczema with staphylococcal sensitivity. Br J Dermatol 1975; 93: 40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1975.tb06789.x]
[5] Tanaka T, Satoh T, Yokozeki H. Dental infection associated with nummular eczema as an overlooked focal infection. J Dermatol 2009; 36(8): 462-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2009.00677.x] [PMID: 1969 1752]
[6] Baer TW. Nummular eczema; Its diagnosis and treatment. Pa Med J 1954; 57(3): 230-3.
[PMID: 13133643]
[7] Higgins EM, du Vivier AW. Cutaneous disease and alcohol misuse. Br Med Bull 1994; 50(1): 85-98.
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[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000018220] [PMID: 10559579]
[10] Church R. Eczema provoked by methyl dopa. Br J Dermatol 1974; 91(4): 373-8.
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[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archderm.141.1.102-b] [PMID: 15655158]
[13] Fregert S, Hjorth N, Magnusson B, et al. Epidemiology of contact dermatitis. Trans St Johns Hosp Dermatol Soc 1969; 55(1): 17-35.
[PMID: 5804349]
[14] Fleming C, Parry E, Forsyth A, Kemmett D. Patch testing in discoid eczema. Contact Dermat 1997; 36(5): 261-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1997.tb00214.x] [PMID: 919 7962]
[15] Khurana S, Jain VK, Aggarwal K, Gupta S. Patch testing in discoid eczema. J Dermatol 2002; 29(12): 763-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2002.tb00219.x] [PMID: 1253 2040]
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[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.18945] [PMID: 16394482]
[17] Bonamonte D, Foti C, Vestita M, Ranieri LD, Angelini G. Nummular eczema and contact allergy: A retrospective study. Dermatitis 2012; 23(4): 153-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0b013e318260d5a0] [PMID: 228282 53]
[18] Patrizi A, Ricci G, Neri I, et al. Eczema in chiazze nell’infanzia: Studio retrospettivo di 515 casi. Eur J Pediat Dermatol 2006; 16: 21-4.
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[PMID: 27399024]
[20] Jiamton S, Tangjaturonrusamee C, Kulthanan K. Clinical features and aggravating factors in nummular eczema in Thais. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2013; 31(1): 36-42.
[PMID: 23517392]
[21] Devergie MGA. Traité Pratique des Maladies de la Peau 2nd ed. 1857; 238.
[22] Rayer P. Theoretical and Practical Treatise of Diseases of the skin 1845; 114.
[23] Horn R. The pattern of skin disease in general practice. Dermatol Pract 1986; 4: 14-9.
[24] Sulzberger MB, Wolf J, Witten VH, et al. Dermatology: Diagnosis and Treatment 1961; 190-4.
[25] Cowan MA. Nummular eczema. A review, follow-up and analysis of a series of 325 cases. Acta Derm Venereol 1961; 41: 453-60.
[PMID: 13881857]
[26] Sirot G. Nummular eczema. Semin Dermatol 1983; 2: 68-74.
[27] Krueger GG, Kahn G, Weston WL, Mandel MJ. IgE levels in nummular eczema and ichthyosis. Arch Dermatol 1973; 107(1): 56-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1973.01620160028006] [PMID: 4118739]
[28] Kulthanan K, Samutrapong P, Jiamton S, Tuchinda P. Adult-onset atopic dermatitis: A cross-sectional study of natural history and clinical manifestation. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2007; 25(4): 207-14.
[PMID: 18402293]
[29] Pugliarello S, Cozzi A, Gisondi P, Girolomoni G. Phenotypes of atopic dermatitis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2011; 9(1): 12-20.
[PMID: 21054785]
[30] Lange L, Rietschel E, Hunzelmann N, Hartmann K. Elevated levels of tryptase in children with nummular eczema. Allergy 2008; 63(7): 947-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01731.x] [PMID: 18588 568]
[31] Kang IJ, Shin MK, Haw CR. Patch testing in nummular eczema: comparison of patch test results between nummular eczema and atopic dermatitis. Korean J Dermatol 2007; 45: 871-6.
[32] Bonamonte D, Angelini G. Disordini pigmentari da contatto. Ann Ital Dermatol Allergol Clin Sperim 2001; 55: 1-15.
[33] Bonamonte D, Foti C, Romita P, Vestita M, Angelini G. Colors and contact dermatitis. Dermatitis 2014; 25(4): 155-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DER.0000000000000046] [PMID: 25000 236]
[34] Bonamonte D, Foti C, Carpentieri A, et al. Dermatite allergica da contatto in età pediatrica. Ann Ital Dermatol Allergol 2010; 64: 1-7.

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(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


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