Table 1: Plant extracts containing essential oils with in vitro antifungal activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus.

Plant Species (Part Used) Aspergillus Species Conditions of the Assay1 Highest Fungal Inhibition (%)   Extract Concentration (µg/mL)2 Reference
Ageratum conyzoides (leaf) A. flavus Sabouraud agar, 25°C, 5 days 48 5.0 3 [28]
Carum carvi (leaf) A. flavus Potato dextrose agar, 21°C, 7 days 95 1.0 [27]
Chenopodium ambrosioides (leaf) A. flavus Czapek agar, 28°C, 7 days 100 100 [35]
Daucus carota (ripe fruit) A. flavus Malt extract infusion, 28°C, 72 hours 100 10 [15]
Daucus carota (green fruit) A. flavus Malt extract infusion, 28°C, 72 hours 100 25 [15]
Daucus carota (flower, leaf) A. flavus Malt extract infusion, 28°C, 72 hours 100 150 [15]
Foeniculum vulgare (leaf) A. flavus
A. parasitucus
Potato dextrose agar, 28°C, 7-14 days 100
100
3,000
2,000
[13]
Ocimum basilicum (leaf) A. flavus
A. parasitucus
Potato dextrose agar, 28°C, 7-14 days 100
100
3,000
3,000
[13]
Origanum vulgare (leaf, stem) A. flavus Sabouraud agar, 28°C, 7 days 98 0.25 3 [17]
Rosmarinus officinalis (leaf) A. flavus Sabouraud agar, 28°C, 7 days 98 1.0 3 [17]
Syzygium aromaticum (leaf, stem) A. flavus Potato dextrose agar, 25°C, 5 days 87 500 [31]
Thymus vulgaris (leaf, stem) A. flavus Potato dextrose agar, 25°C, 5 days 100 350 [31]

1 Culture medium, temperature and time of incubation used in each assay. 2 Values refer to the plant extract concentrations that resulted in the highest percentage of fungal growth inhibition. 3 Values expressed in µL/mL.

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