| Paediatric vascular access
||The choice of a long-term vascular access device in children is guided by duration and frequency of therapy, the infusate’s properties, and the condition and preferences of the patient and caregivers.
| Routine versus clinically indicated replacement of intravenous catheter complications in children: a randomized clinical trial
||Randomized clinical trial
||The findings of this study showed superior clinical indication method compared with routine catheter replacement.
| Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters.
||The authors found no evidence to support changing catheters every 72 to 96 h. Consequently, they suggested that healthcare organizations consider a policy in which catheters are changed only if clinically indicated.
| Peripheral intravenous (IV) device management.
||Re-cannulation should be avoided where possible, as this will cause the child and family further distress. There is no limit to the length of time that a cannula may remain in situ and with appropriate care, several days may be possible. Cannulas only need to be replaced when there is accidental dislodgement, occlusion, Phlebitis and infection.
| Routine versus clinically indicated replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters: a randomised controlled equivalence trial.
||Randomized controlled equivalence trial
||Peripheral intravenous catheters can be removed as clinically indicated; this policy will avoid millions of catheter insertions, associated discomfort, and substantial costs in both equipment and staff workload.
| Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections
||Replace peripheral catheters in children only when clinically indicated.
| Routine resite of peripheral intravenous devices every three days did not reduce complications compared with clinically indicated resite: a randomised controlled trial
||Randomized controlled trial
||There is growing evidence to support the extended use of peripheral IVDs with removal only on clinical indication.
| Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections.
||The risk for phlebitis in children has not increased with the duration of catheterisation.
| Peripheral intravenous catheter complications in critically ill children: a prospective study.
||Replacing catheters in critically ill children every 72 hours would not decrease phlebitis, bacterial colonisation, or catheter-induced sepsis and could increase extravasation risk. Catheters can be safely maintained with adequate monitoring for up to 144 hours in critically ill children.
| Percutaneous central venous catheterization in a pediatric intensive care unit: a survival analysis of complications
||No relation was found between duration of catheterisation and the daily probability of infection.
| Infectious complications during peripheral intravenous therapy with Teflon catheters: a prospective study.
||In children in a general pediatric ward, the risk of catheter colonisation and subsequent sepsis should not be used as reasons for routinely removing complication-free peripheral Teflon catheters at 72 hours.