Table 2: Summary of optimal timing for peripheral intravenous cannula replacement in paediatrics studies.

Study Title Year Method Findings
[26] Paediatric vascular access 2015 Review The choice of a long-term vascular access device in children is guided by duration and frequency of therapy, the infusate’s properties, and the condition and preferences of the patient and caregivers.
[25] Routine versus clinically indicated replacement of intravenous catheter complications in children: a randomized clinical trial 2015 Randomized clinical trial The findings of this study showed superior clinical indication method compared with routine catheter replacement.
[12] Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. 2015 Systematic Review The authors found no evidence to support changing catheters every 72 to 96 h. Consequently, they suggested that healthcare organizations consider a policy in which catheters are changed only if clinically indicated.
[23] Peripheral intravenous (IV) device management. 2014 Guidelines Re-cannulation should be avoided where possible, as this will cause the child and family further distress. There is no limit to the length of time that a cannula may remain in situ and with appropriate care, several days may be possible. Cannulas only need to be replaced when there is accidental dislodgement, occlusion, Phlebitis and infection.
[19] Routine versus clinically indicated replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters: a randomised controlled equivalence trial. 2012 Randomized controlled equivalence trial Peripheral intravenous catheters can be removed as clinically indicated; this policy will avoid millions of catheter insertions, associated discomfort, and substantial costs in both equipment and staff workload.
[14] Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections 2011 Guidelines Replace peripheral catheters in children only when clinically indicated.
[24] Routine resite of peripheral intravenous devices every three days did not reduce complications compared with clinically indicated resite: a randomised controlled trial 2010 Randomized controlled trial There is growing evidence to support the extended use of peripheral IVDs with removal only on clinical indication.
[27] Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. 2002 Guidelines The risk for phlebitis in children has not increased with the duration of catheterisation.
[28] Peripheral intravenous catheter complications in critically ill children: a prospective study. 1992 Prospective study Replacing catheters in critically ill children every 72 hours would not decrease phlebitis, bacterial colonisation, or catheter-induced sepsis and could increase extravasation risk. Catheters can be safely maintained with adequate monitoring for up to 144 hours in critically ill children.
[29] Percutaneous central venous catheterization in a pediatric intensive care unit: a survival analysis of complications 1989 Prospective study No relation was found between duration of catheterisation and the daily probability of infection.
[30] Infectious complications during peripheral intravenous therapy with Teflon catheters: a prospective study. 1987 Prospective study In children in a general pediatric ward, the risk of catheter colonisation and subsequent sepsis should not be used as reasons for routinely removing complication-free peripheral Teflon catheters at 72 hours.