Table 2: The best-reported surface roughness (Ra) and related cutting parameters for the hard turning of AISI 4140 steel.

Reference Type of Insert Feed Rate (mm/rev) Depth of Cut (mm) Cutting Speed
(m/min)
Nose Radius (mm) Hardness (HRC) Best Ra
(µm)
Current study CBN 0.08 0.5 200 1.2 60 0.202
[Akkuş et al.] Coated carbide 0.18 0.2 120 0.8 62 0.940
[Asiltürk et al.] Coated carbide 0.18 0.6 150 0.8 57 1.170
[Elbah et al.] Wiper ceramic 0.08 0.2 115 0.8 60 0.240
[Elbah et al.] Ceramic 0.08 0.2 150 0.8 60 0.640
[Chavoshi et al.] CBN 0.1 0.3 190 1.2 60 0.222
[Das et al.] Al2O3 + TiCN mixed ceramic 0.05 0.2 180 0.8 52 0.714
[Aslan et al.] Al2O3 + TiCN mixed ceramic 0.05 0.25 100 0.8 63 0.688

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