The Open Microbiology Journal




ISSN: 1874-2858 ― Volume 13, 2019
LETTER

High Potential Risk of Zika Virus Infection Outbreak in Dengue Suspected Cases in Nepal



Yogendra Shah1, 2, *, Kishor Pandey1, 3, Dhan K. Pant2, Krishna P. Panta4, Basu D. Pandey1, 5
1 Everest International Clinic and Research Center, Kathmandu, Nepal
2 National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal
3 Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST), Lalitpur, Nepal
4 Department of Microbiology, Far-Western University, Bhimduttanagar, Nepal
5 Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital, Teku, Kathmandu, Nepal


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 236
Last Page: 238
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-13-236
DOI: 10.2174/1874285801913010236

Article History:

Electronic publication date: 30/09/2019
Collection year: 2019

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 347
Abstract HTML Views: 168
PDF Downloads: 92
ePub Downloads: 75
Total Views/Downloads: 682

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 231
Abstract HTML Views: 109
PDF Downloads: 76
ePub Downloads: 60
Total Views/Downloads: 476
Geographical View

© 2019 Shah et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Everest International Clinic and Research Center, Kathmandu, Nepal; Tel: +977-9849610127;
E-mail: yogendra90@hotmail.com






DEAR EDITOR,

The viruses in the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, cause disease in humans, including dengue, yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses [1Rigau-Pérez JG, Clark GG, Gubler DJ, Reiter P, Sanders EJ, Vorndam AV. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Lancet 1998; 352(9132): 971-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(97)12483-7] [PMID: 9752834]
]. Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is considered as one of emerging international public health problems worldwide. Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) infection are an arthropod-borne virus that transmitted to human by the bite of infected female mosquito mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopiticus [2Guzman MG, Harris E. Dengue. Lancet 2015; 385(9966): 453-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60572-9] [PMID: 25230594]
-4Lindenbach BD, Rice CM. Flaviviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: D.M. Knipe and P.M. Howley, Fields virology, 4th edition Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 991–1041.]. The same mosquitoes’ species also transmit the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and yellow fever [5Hales S, de Wet N, Maindonald J, Woodward A. Potential effect of population and climate changes on global distribution of dengue fever: An empirical model. Lancet 2002; 360(9336): 830-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09964-6] [PMID: 12243917]
]. DENV is the causative agents for Dengue Fever (DF) and of chronic cases called Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), which may lead to Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) in humans. Four DENV serotypes viz DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4 are mainly responsible for the disease [6Gubler DJ. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Clin Microbiol Rev 1998; 11(3): 480-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.11.3.480] [PMID: 9665979]
]. According to WHO, DENV infection was reported as most emerging global public health problems with 390 million dengue infections per year globally including the Americas, South-East Asia and the Western Pacific region [7Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, et al. The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature 2013; 496(7446): 504-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12060] [PMID: 23563266]
, 8Dengue: Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control 2009.]. Recently research studies revealed that ZIKA infection had similar epidemiology, transmission cycles and also same dispersal routes like DENV and CHIKV infections [9Doss CG, Siva R, Christopher BP, Chakraborty C, Zhu H. Zika 2017: how safe is India? Infect Dis Poverty 2017; 6(1): 37.]. Till date, 85 countries has been reported laboratory verification of mosquito-borne ZIKA transmission around the world [10World Health Organization. Zika virus (ZIKV) classification table 2017.http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/255767/1/zika-classification-20June17-eng.pdf?ua=1]. For instance, our open porous border country with three sites i.e. India has first reported three laboratory confirmed cases of ZIKV infection in May 2017 and one site border with China also documented first case in 2016 [10World Health Organization. Zika virus (ZIKV) classification table 2017.http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/255767/1/zika-classification-20June17-eng.pdf?ua=1]. According to DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV mosquitoes are rapidly widespread throughout the tropical and subtropical developing nations strongly associated with human migration, genotypes increased the virulence, influenced by climates, such as temperature/ rainfall, unplanned urbanization and also the growing global trade and travel [5Hales S, de Wet N, Maindonald J, Woodward A. Potential effect of population and climate changes on global distribution of dengue fever: An empirical model. Lancet 2002; 360(9336): 830-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09964-6] [PMID: 12243917]
, 11Chen B, Liu Q. Dengue fever in China. Lancet 2015; 385(9978): 1621-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60793-0] [PMID: 25943817]
, 12Tambo E, Chen JH, Zhou XN, Khater EI. Outwitting dengue threat and epidemics resurgence in Asia-Pacific countries: strengthening integrated dengue surveillance, monitoring and response systems. Infect Dis Poverty 2016; 5(1): 56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-016-0148-3] [PMID: 27233238]
]. ZIKV can cause infection results in microcephaly with severe brain malformations and other birth defects from pregnant women to the fetus. ZIKV also characterized similar clinical signs and symptoms with DENV and CHIKV like fever, chills, headache, vomiting, rashes, joint pain and conjunctivitis etc. [13Galan-Huerta KA, Rivas-Estilla AM, et al. The ZIKA virus disease: An overview Medicina Univeraitaria 2015; 18(71): 115-24.], Therefore, there is high risk of of miss-diagnosis or under-reporting of ZIKV and CHIKV infection by the physician during the treatment of DENV in endemic areas [14Carey DE. Chikungunya and dengue: a case of mistaken identity? J Hist Med Allied Sci 1971; 26(3): 243-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhmas/XXVI.3.243] [PMID: 4938938]
].

The first DENV infection was documented in Nepal from Chitwan district in 2006 followed by sporadic reports [16Pandey BD, Rai SK, Morita K, Kurane I. First case of Dengue virus infection in Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J 2004; 6(2): 157-9.
[PMID: 16295753]
]. However, DENV large outbreak has also been reported from India in 2006 affected Delhi state with at least 3613 confirmed DF and 50 deaths [14Carey DE. Chikungunya and dengue: a case of mistaken identity? J Hist Med Allied Sci 1971; 26(3): 243-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhmas/XXVI.3.243] [PMID: 4938938]
-16Pandey BD, Rai SK, Morita K, Kurane I. First case of Dengue virus infection in Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J 2004; 6(2): 157-9.
[PMID: 16295753]
]. Nepal is open porous bordered by India in the eastern, western and southern therefore infected person may be easy across the border and possible virus might be transmitted by DENV, CHIV and ZIKV infected vector with several pieces of evidences in border districts to terai region of Nepal. All four serotypes are responsible for causing DENV infection throughout the country. There were only a few cases of DENV recognized between 2007 and 2009. In contrast, the 2010 DENV large outbreak occurred in the central and western parts of Nepal with circulating DENV-1/2 serotypes followed by DENV-2 serotypes in 2014 [16Pandey BD, Rai SK, Morita K, Kurane I. First case of Dengue virus infection in Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J 2004; 6(2): 157-9.
[PMID: 16295753]
-19Pandey BD, Nabeshima T, Pandey K, et al. First isolation of dengue virus from the 2010 epidemic in Nepal. Trop Med Health 2013; 41(3): 103-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2149/tmh.2012-17] [PMID: 24155651]
, 23Dumre SP, Shakya G, Na-Bangchang K, et al. Dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus epidemiological shifts in Nepal: a case of opposing trends. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013; 88(4): 677-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0436] [PMID: 23419366]
, 24Singh S, Gupta BP, Manakkadan A, Das Manandhar K, Sreekumar E. Phylogenetic study reveals co-circulation of Asian II and Cosmopolitan genotypes of Dengue virus serotype 2 in Nepal during 2013. Infect Genet Evol 2015; 34: 402-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2015.07.006] [PMID: 26160542]
]. Potentially, a high risk threat of ZIKV infection outbreak as already reported and established of human biting mosquito vectors i.e Aedes aegypti and Aedes Albopictus causing DENV and CHIKV infections in Nepal.

Nepal is one of vulnerable countries in South East Asian region recognized for several outbreaks reported from DENV infection in including hilly districts last 10 years’ period [15WHO/SEARO. Outbreak investigation of DF in Nepal 2006.-33Poudel A, Shah Y, Khatri B, Joshi DR, Bhatta DR, Pandey BD. The burden of dengue infection in some vulnerable regions of Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J 2012; 14(2): 114-7.
[PMID: 23671960]
]. In 2014, the first CHIKV infection in Nepal was confirmed by molecular analysis (FRNT50) [28Pun SB, Bastola A, Shah R. Case report: first report of chikungunya virus in Nepal. J Infect Dev Ctries 2014; 8: 790-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.3701] [PMID: 24916880]
-30Pandey K, Pandey BD, Chaurasiya RR, et al. Evidence of Chikungunya virus circulation in the Terai region of Nepal in 2014 and 2015. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2017; 111(7): 294-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trx059] [PMID: 29165625]
]. Some of the South Asian countries already reported ZIKV cases, mainly Bangladesh and Myanmar in 2016, and India in 2017 [34Reuters Bangladesh confirms first case of Zika virus 2016. http://ww w.reuters.com/article/us-health-zika-bangladesh-idUSKCN0WO0VJ, 35World Health Organization. Emergencies preparedness, response: Zika virus infection – India 2017.http://www.who.int/csr/don/26-may- 2017-zika-ind/en/]. Nepal has open porous bordered by India in the Eastern, Western and Southern regions, therefore, DENV,CHIV and ZIKV infected person can easily cross the border from India to Nepal. Nepal being high risk for possible ZIKA outbreak due to open border with India and International travel from other countries [36Dhimal M, Dahal S, Dhimal ML, et al. Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region. Infect Dis Poverty 2018; 7(1): 40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0426-3]
]. Due to the lack of information on the diagnosis of ZIKV infection in DENV endemic regions in Nepal were unreported previously. Therefore, early differential molecular diagnosis of ZIKV from suspected DENV infections is an urgent need in Nepal. Highly specific and sensitive molecular methods are required because the high percentage of cross-reactivity among the flaviviruses when serological approaches are used [37Balmaseda A, Stettler K, Medialdea-Carrera R, Collado D, Jin X, Zambrana JV. Antibody based assay discriminates Zika virus infection from other flaviviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017; 1;114(31): 8384-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1704984114]
, 38World Health Organization. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: diagnosis, treatment and control 1997.].

Government of Nepal should take quick and urgent action to prevent the flavivirus infection including (DEN, ZIKV, CHIKV) by initiate surveillance mechanism integrated with vector control program to abate from an outbreak of particular flavivirus infection especially in every year monsoon season. The responsible health authorities should trace out the possible high risk of ZIKV infection hotspot region of both diseases in Nepal and neighboring countries. The government of Nepal, Ministry of Health and Population should be provide molecular testing facilities for RT-PCR and Trioplex RT-PCR in each regional hospital and also strong recommended to policymaker and planner for the further strategy to diagnosis, vector-borne control and prevention in the future outbreak of DENV and ZIKA infections throughout Nepal by applying One Health approaches.

REFERENCES

[1] Rigau-Pérez JG, Clark GG, Gubler DJ, Reiter P, Sanders EJ, Vorndam AV. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Lancet 1998; 352(9132): 971-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(97)12483-7] [PMID: 9752834]
[2] Guzman MG, Harris E. Dengue. Lancet 2015; 385(9966): 453-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60572-9] [PMID: 25230594]
[3] Barcelos FL. Dengue virus 2 American-Asian Genotype identifiedduring the 2006/2007 outbreak in Piaui, Brazil reveals a Caribbean route ofintroduction and dissemination of dengue virus in Brazil (vol 9, e104516, 2014). PLoS One 2014; 9: 516.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104516]
[4] Lindenbach BD, Rice CM. Flaviviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: D.M. Knipe and P.M. Howley, Fields virology, 4th edition Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 991–1041.
[5] Hales S, de Wet N, Maindonald J, Woodward A. Potential effect of population and climate changes on global distribution of dengue fever: An empirical model. Lancet 2002; 360(9336): 830-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09964-6] [PMID: 12243917]
[6] Gubler DJ. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Clin Microbiol Rev 1998; 11(3): 480-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.11.3.480] [PMID: 9665979]
[7] Bhatt S, Gething PW, Brady OJ, et al. The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature 2013; 496(7446): 504-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12060] [PMID: 23563266]
[8] Dengue: Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control 2009.
[9] Doss CG, Siva R, Christopher BP, Chakraborty C, Zhu H. Zika 2017: how safe is India? Infect Dis Poverty 2017; 6(1): 37.
[10] World Health Organization. Zika virus (ZIKV) classification table 2017.http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/255767/1/zika-classification-20June17-eng.pdf?ua=1
[11] Chen B, Liu Q. Dengue fever in China. Lancet 2015; 385(9978): 1621-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60793-0] [PMID: 25943817]
[12] Tambo E, Chen JH, Zhou XN, Khater EI. Outwitting dengue threat and epidemics resurgence in Asia-Pacific countries: strengthening integrated dengue surveillance, monitoring and response systems. Infect Dis Poverty 2016; 5(1): 56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-016-0148-3] [PMID: 27233238]
[13] Galan-Huerta KA, Rivas-Estilla AM, et al. The ZIKA virus disease: An overview Medicina Univeraitaria 2015; 18(71): 115-24.
[14] Carey DE. Chikungunya and dengue: a case of mistaken identity? J Hist Med Allied Sci 1971; 26(3): 243-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhmas/XXVI.3.243] [PMID: 4938938]
[15] WHO/SEARO. Outbreak investigation of DF in Nepal 2006.
[16] Pandey BD, Rai SK, Morita K, Kurane I. First case of Dengue virus infection in Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J 2004; 6(2): 157-9.
[PMID: 16295753]
[17] Takasaki T, Kotaki A, Nishimura K, et al. Dengue virus type 2 isolated from an imported dengue patient in Japan: First isolation of dengue virus from Nepal. J Travel Med 2008; 15(1): 46-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2007.00165.x] [PMID: 18217869]
[18] Malla S, Thakur GD, Shrestha SK, et al. Identification of all dengue serotypes in Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis 2008; 14(10): 1669-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1410.080432] [PMID: 18826846]
[19] Pandey BD, Nabeshima T, Pandey K, et al. First isolation of dengue virus from the 2010 epidemic in Nepal. Trop Med Health 2013; 41(3): 103-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2149/tmh.2012-17] [PMID: 24155651]
[20] WHO. 2011.http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Dengue_Dengue_update_SEA_2010.pdf
[21] Pun SB. Dengue: an emerging disease in Nepal. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2011; 51(184): 203-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.31729/jnma.33] [PMID: 22922903]
[22] Pandey BD, Morita K, Khanal SR, et al. Dengue virus, Nepal. Emerg Infect Dis 2008; 14(3): 514-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1403.070473] [PMID: 18325280]
[23] Dumre SP, Shakya G, Na-Bangchang K, et al. Dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus epidemiological shifts in Nepal: a case of opposing trends. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013; 88(4): 677-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.12-0436] [PMID: 23419366]
[24] Singh S, Gupta BP, Manakkadan A, Das Manandhar K, Sreekumar E. Phylogenetic study reveals co-circulation of Asian II and Cosmopolitan genotypes of Dengue virus serotype 2 in Nepal during 2013. Infect Genet Evol 2015; 34: 402-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2015.07.006] [PMID: 26160542]
[25] Gupta BP, Singh S, Kurmi R, Malla R, Sreekumar E, Manandhar KD. Re-emergence of dengue virus serotype 2 strains in the 2013 outbreak in Nepal. Indian J Med Res 2015; 142(7)(Suppl.): S1-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-5916.176564] [PMID: 26905233]
[26] Epidemiology of Diseases Control Division. EWARS weekly bulletin Ministry of Health, Department of Health Services Kathmandu
[27] Dumre SP, Bhandari R, Shakya G, et al. Dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2 responsible for major dengue outbreaks in nepal: Clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological features. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017; 97(4): 1062-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0221] [PMID: 29031282]
[28] Pun SB, Bastola A, Shah R. Case report: first report of chikungunya virus in Nepal. J Infect Dev Ctries 2014; 8: 790-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.3701] [PMID: 24916880]
[29] Pandey BD, Neupane B, Pandey K, Tun MM, Morita K. Detection of Chikungunya virus in Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015; 93(4): 697-700.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0092] [PMID: 26195462]
[30] Pandey K, Pandey BD, Chaurasiya RR, et al. Evidence of Chikungunya virus circulation in the Terai region of Nepal in 2014 and 2015. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2017; 111(7): 294-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trx059] [PMID: 29165625]
[31] Pandey BD, Pandey K, Neupane B, et al. Persistent dengue emergence: The 7 years surrounding the 2010 epidemic in Nepal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2015; 109(12): 775-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trv087] [PMID: 26507529]
[32] Shah Y, Katuwal A, Pun R, et al. Dengue in western Terai region of Nepal. J Nepal Health Res Counc 2012; 10(21): 152-5.
[PMID: 23034379]
[33] Poudel A, Shah Y, Khatri B, Joshi DR, Bhatta DR, Pandey BD. The burden of dengue infection in some vulnerable regions of Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J 2012; 14(2): 114-7.
[PMID: 23671960]
[34] Reuters Bangladesh confirms first case of Zika virus 2016. http://ww w.reuters.com/article/us-health-zika-bangladesh-idUSKCN0WO0VJ
[35] World Health Organization. Emergencies preparedness, response: Zika virus infection – India 2017.http://www.who.int/csr/don/26-may- 2017-zika-ind/en/
[36] Dhimal M, Dahal S, Dhimal ML, et al. Threats of Zika virus transmission for Asia and its Hindu-Kush Himalayan region. Infect Dis Poverty 2018; 7(1): 40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0426-3]
[37] Balmaseda A, Stettler K, Medialdea-Carrera R, Collado D, Jin X, Zambrana JV. Antibody based assay discriminates Zika virus infection from other flaviviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017; 1;114(31): 8384-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1704984114]
[38] World Health Organization. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: diagnosis, treatment and control 1997.

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Table of Contents


Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open