Table 3: Oral bacteria associated with esophageal cancers.

Cancer Phylum Genus/species Main findings N Technology used Case sample Control sample Reference
ESCC Bacteroidetes Porphyromonas gingivalis Presence associated with a higher risk of ESCC ESCC: 25 cases, and 25 controls
EAC: 81 cases, and 79 controls
16S rRNA sequencing Pre-diagnostic oral mouthwash from patients Pre-diagnostic oral mouthwash from matching controls Peters et al., 2017 [73]
Bacteroidetes Porphyromonas Relative abundance increased in the ESCC group compared to non-ESCC groups 87 diagnosed ESCC, 63 patients with dysplasia, and 85 healthy controls 16S rRNA pyrosequencing Saliva sample from cases Saliva sample from controls Chen et al., 2015 [72]
Firmicutes Streptococcus