The Open Microbiology Journal




ISSN: 1874-2858 ― Volume 14, 2020
EDITORIAL

HIV Patients are more Prone to COVID-19: Fact or Myth?



Pooja A. Chawla1, *, Viney Chawla2
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, ISF College of Pharmacy, GT Road, Moga, Punjab, India
2 Department of Pharmaceutics, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 122
Last Page: 122
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-14-122
DOI: 10.2174/1874285802014010122

Article History:

Electronic publication date: 21/05/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Chawla and Chawla.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, ISF College of Pharmacy, GT Road, Moga, Punjab, India; Tel: +91-8057952150; E-mail: pvchawla@gmail.com





The World Health Organization has declared COrona VIrus Disease (COVID-19) a pandemic. It has been raging unabatedly in about 210 countries and the concomitant lockdown has devastated the global economy [1https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/accessed2020.].

In the absence of a proven vaccine, the most effective means of saving oneself from this malady has a strong natural immunity. Immunity, as we know, is defined as the body’s ability to combat pathogens. Hence prima facie it follows that someone with poor immunity is at greater risk of being infected with COVID-19. This editorial shall focus on one such group i.e. the patients suffering from HIV-AIDS. Patients with very less CD4 cell count (<200) or invaded by opportunistic organisms or people who are not on anti HIV (anti retroviral) treatment may be at greatest risk. Additionally, elderly HIV patients (50 years or above) whose condition is aggravated by other health issues like diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension may fall prey to the coronavirus very easily. Patients with HIV with an active or recent infection of tuberculosis and consequently having damaged lungs may be much more susceptible to COVID-19 [2https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/]. But unfortunately, there are no evidence to prove that certainly these patients are more prone. However, what we can say with certainty is that if they are taking regular anti HIV treatment, AIDS patients have to be equally vigilant and fastidious as non HIV infected individuals. Anti-retrovirals are under high consideration these days to treat or an effort to treat COVID-19. A study in the New England Journal of Medicine has highlighted the probable utility of lopinavir in combination with ritonavir. Trials are going on across the globe to establish the fact that some of the drugs used in HIV therapy could combat coronavirus disease. Some drugs meriting graver consideration are lopinavir along with ritonavir or with ritonavir and interferon beta. The viral growth could be arrested by targeting active viral enzymes including integrases and proteases thus putting a period on the spread of the virus. The virion could not be active without the involvement of protease enzyme that leads to cleavage of polyprotein complex. Hence if we can successfully inhibit protease enzyme, as is done in anti HIV therapy, the immature virus particle can be paralysed. Protease inhibitor anti -HIV drugs like lopinavir, and ritonavir, asunaprevir, indinavir have shown positive results in docking studies and can be used after clinical trials to treat this dreadful disease [3Shah B, Modi P, Sagar SR. In silico studies on therapeutic agents for COVID-19: Drug repurposing approach. Life Sci 2020; 252117652
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117652] [PMID: 32278693]
, 4Ford N, Vitoria M, Rangaraj A, Norris SL, Calmy A, Doherty M. Systematic review of the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral drugs against SARS, MERS or COVID-19: Initial assessment. J Int AIDS Soc 2020; 23(4)e25489
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25489] [PMID: 32293807]
].

In a nutshell, we can say that whether the HIV-AIDS status of a person shall have any bearing on his/her chances of contracting, COVID-19 is yet to be ascertained and without further research nothing concrete can be said. Yet we must recall the old adage that prevention is better than cure and hence AIDS sufferers ought to exercise sufficient prudence and sagacity in the global fight against this unprecedented affliction [5https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/hiv.html-8https://www.iasociety.org/covid-19-hiv].

REFERENCES

https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/accessed2020.
https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/
Shah B, Modi P, Sagar SR. In silico studies on therapeutic agents for COVID-19: Drug repurposing approach. Life Sci 2020; 252117652
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117652] [PMID: 32278693]
Ford N, Vitoria M, Rangaraj A, Norris SL, Calmy A, Doherty M. Systematic review of the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral drugs against SARS, MERS or COVID-19: Initial assessment. J Int AIDS Soc 2020; 23(4)e25489
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25489] [PMID: 32293807]
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/hiv.html
https://www.avert.org/coronavirus/covid19-HIV/
Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D. A trial of lopinavir–ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. The New England Journal of Medicine 2020.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001282]
https://www.iasociety.org/covid-19-hiv
Track Your Manuscript:


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Table of Contents


Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open