The Open Microbiology Journal




ISSN: 1874-2858 ― Volume 14, 2020
LETTER

Ambient Temperature Interferes to COVID-19



Manouchehr A. Hedayati1, 2, *
1 Liver and Digestive Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 140
Last Page: 141
Publisher Id: TOMICROJ-14-140
DOI: 10.2174/1874285802014010140

Article History:

Electronic publication date: 29/06/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Manouchehr Ahmadi Hedayati.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Liver and Digestive Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran; Tel: +989184733010; Fax: +98876664654; E-mail: Dr.ahmadi2000@gmail.com; or M.ahmadi@muk.ac.ir





Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a blood pressure regulating enzyme that is attached to the outer surface in cells of the lungs, arteries, kidney, heart and intestines [1Imai Y, Kuba K, Penninger JM. The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and its role in acute lung injury in mice. Exp Physiol 2008; 93(5): 543-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2007.040048] [PMID: 18448662]
]. In addition to blood pressure regulating, ACE2 is involved in the pathophysiological processes by converting angiotensin isozymes during cell injury [2Batlle D, Jose Soler M, Ye M. ACE2 and diabetes: ACE of ACEs? Diabetes 2010; 59(12): 2994-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db10-1205] [PMID: 21115782]
]. ACE2 converts Angiotensin II to Angiotensin-(1-7) [3Karpe PA, Tikoo K. Heat shock prevents insulin resistance-induced vascular complications by augmenting angiotensin-(1-7) signaling. Diabetes 2014; 63(3): 1124-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-1267] [PMID: 24270982]
]. ACE2 is also a receptor for some coronaviruses, including HCoV-NL63 (Human Coronavirus NL63), SARS-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus) and SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -associated Coronavirus-2), infectious agent of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) worldwide [4Wan Y, Shang J. Rachel Graham, Ralph S. Baric, Fang Li. Receptor recognition by novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS. J Virol 2020.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00127-20] [PMID: 31996437]
]. Many hypotheses have been made about COVID-19. Underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and cancer, and environmental factors such as preventative methods and ambient temperature have been suggested to be involved in the outbreak of COVID-19. Because of the unclear treatment results and the panic following COVID-19, some news about prevention and treatment strategies have been quickly spread among people through virtual networks. One of these news is the effect of heat and ambient temperature on the contagion of SARS-CoV-2. This paper has surveyed the scientific possibility of intervention of ambient temperature on COVID-19.

Previous studies have shown that cells in the human body biosynthesize heat shock proteins when exposed to adverse environmental conditions such as low and high temperatures [5Mayengbam P, Tolenkhomba TC, Upadhyay RC. Expression of heat-shock protein 72 mRNA in relation to heart rate variability of Sahiwal and Karan-Fries in different temperature-humidity indices. Vet World 2016; 9(10): 1051-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2016.1051-1055] [PMID: 27847412]
]. Heat shock protein contributes to the robustness and survival of cellular protein structures by its chaperone function [5Mayengbam P, Tolenkhomba TC, Upadhyay RC. Expression of heat-shock protein 72 mRNA in relation to heart rate variability of Sahiwal and Karan-Fries in different temperature-humidity indices. Vet World 2016; 9(10): 1051-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2016.1051-1055] [PMID: 27847412]
]. Previous studies show that HSP72 (Heat Shock Protein 72) is expressed in human cells under changes of temperature out of physiologic ranges [5Mayengbam P, Tolenkhomba TC, Upadhyay RC. Expression of heat-shock protein 72 mRNA in relation to heart rate variability of Sahiwal and Karan-Fries in different temperature-humidity indices. Vet World 2016; 9(10): 1051-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2016.1051-1055] [PMID: 27847412]
]. In regards to COVID-19, HSP72 increases the gene expression of ACE2 as SARS-CoV-2 virus receptor [4Wan Y, Shang J. Rachel Graham, Ralph S. Baric, Fang Li. Receptor recognition by novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS. J Virol 2020.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00127-20] [PMID: 31996437]
].

On the other hand, ACE2 converts Angiotensin II to Angiotensin-(1-7) that affects phosphorylation and activation of AKT, AMPK and Sirt1 molecules through MAS membrane receptors [6Rajapaksha IG, Gunarathne LS, Asadi K, et al. Liver-targeted angiotensin converting enzyme 2 therapy inhibits chronic biliary fibrosis in multiple drug-resistant gene 2-knockout mice. Hepatol Commun 2019; 3(12): 1656-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1434] [PMID: 31832573]
]. Mentioned proteins activate the p-eNOS (Phospho-Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase) that increases intracellular NO (Nitric Oxide) [2Batlle D, Jose Soler M, Ye M. ACE2 and diabetes: ACE of ACEs? Diabetes 2010; 59(12): 2994-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db10-1205] [PMID: 21115782]
, 3Karpe PA, Tikoo K. Heat shock prevents insulin resistance-induced vascular complications by augmenting angiotensin-(1-7) signaling. Diabetes 2014; 63(3): 1124-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-1267] [PMID: 24270982]
]. After binding the SARS-CoV-2 virus to ACE2, because of decreased ACE2 levels, Angiotensin II is not converted to Angiotensin-(1-7) (1 and 3). Follow of decreased Angiotensin-(1-7), nitrogen radical production and viral genome degradation will cease [7Molteni CG, Principi N, Esposito S. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during viral infections. Free Radic Res 2014; 48(10): 1163-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10715762.2014.945443] [PMID: 25039433]
]. On the other hand, in ACE2 deficiency conditions, the cellular signaling between Angiotensin II and Angiotensin-(1-7) will be unbalanced toward Angiotensin II signaling [1Imai Y, Kuba K, Penninger JM. The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and its role in acute lung injury in mice. Exp Physiol 2008; 93(5): 543-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2007.040048] [PMID: 18448662]
]. Angiotensin II increases inflammation response by producing inflammatory cytokines and ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), due to pneumonia and cell death [1Imai Y, Kuba K, Penninger JM. The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and its role in acute lung injury in mice. Exp Physiol 2008; 93(5): 543-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2007.040048] [PMID: 18448662]
].

In conclusion, staying in a hot environment, such as the dry and wet sauna or cold environment such as cold water pool for at least 15 minutes, can due to stress shock in the cells and gene expression of HSP72 (3 and 6). HSP72 increases the ACE2 gene expression, as the receptor of SARS-COV-2 virus, inflammation, cell death and finally pneumonia [6Rajapaksha IG, Gunarathne LS, Asadi K, et al. Liver-targeted angiotensin converting enzyme 2 therapy inhibits chronic biliary fibrosis in multiple drug-resistant gene 2-knockout mice. Hepatol Commun 2019; 3(12): 1656-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1434] [PMID: 31832573]
]. Therefore, avoiding stress shocks such as heat and cold is recommended to reduce the risk of SARS-COV-2 virus infection.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author declares no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

REFERENCES

[1] Imai Y, Kuba K, Penninger JM. The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and its role in acute lung injury in mice. Exp Physiol 2008; 93(5): 543-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2007.040048] [PMID: 18448662]
[2] Batlle D, Jose Soler M, Ye M. ACE2 and diabetes: ACE of ACEs? Diabetes 2010; 59(12): 2994-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db10-1205] [PMID: 21115782]
[3] Karpe PA, Tikoo K. Heat shock prevents insulin resistance-induced vascular complications by augmenting angiotensin-(1-7) signaling. Diabetes 2014; 63(3): 1124-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-1267] [PMID: 24270982]
[4] Wan Y, Shang J. Rachel Graham, Ralph S. Baric, Fang Li. Receptor recognition by novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS. J Virol 2020.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00127-20] [PMID: 31996437]
[5] Mayengbam P, Tolenkhomba TC, Upadhyay RC. Expression of heat-shock protein 72 mRNA in relation to heart rate variability of Sahiwal and Karan-Fries in different temperature-humidity indices. Vet World 2016; 9(10): 1051-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2016.1051-1055] [PMID: 27847412]
[6] Rajapaksha IG, Gunarathne LS, Asadi K, et al. Liver-targeted angiotensin converting enzyme 2 therapy inhibits chronic biliary fibrosis in multiple drug-resistant gene 2-knockout mice. Hepatol Commun 2019; 3(12): 1656-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1434] [PMID: 31832573]
[7] Molteni CG, Principi N, Esposito S. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during viral infections. Free Radic Res 2014; 48(10): 1163-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10715762.2014.945443] [PMID: 25039433]
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