Table 1.: TLRs (or RNA Helicases) in Viral Infections and Possible Evasion Mechanisms of TLR-Mediated Antiviral Immunity

Class* Virus family Virus Type of nucleic
TLR (or RNA helicases) Possible immune evasion
I Herpesviridae Herpes Simplex Virus ds DNA, enveloped TLR2 [49,50], TLR3 [52], ΤLR7 [53], TLR9 [54]  
Varicella Zoster Virus ds DNA, enveloped TLR2 [48]
Cytomegalovirus ds DNA, enveloped TLR2/CD14 [42], TLR3 [20,45], TLR9 [45]
Epstein Barr Virus ds DNA, enveloped TLR2 [9], TLR7 [71] EBV manipulates TLR7 signaling [71]
Poxviridae Vaccinia Virus ds DNA, complex coats TLR2 [68] N1L inhibits NFkB and IRF3 signaling [104]
A52R and A46R inhibit TIR signaling and NFkB activation [100,101,103]
Adenoviridae Adenovirus ds DNA, naked TLR9 [61,63]  
Papovaviridae Papillomavirus ds circular DNA, naked MyD88 [66], TLR7 [67]
II Parvoviridae Parvovirus (Adeno-associated) ss DNA, naked TLR9 [112]
III Reoviridae Reovirus ds RNA, segm., naked TLR3 [20], RIG-I, MDA5 [39]
IV Picornaviridae Rhinovirus ss RNA TLR3 [22]
Encephalomyocarditis virus ss RNA MDA5 [38]
Hepatitis A virus ss RNA MDA5 [38] 3ABC cleavage of MAVS [113]
Flaviviridae Hepatitis C virus ss RNA, enveloped TLR2 [80], TLR3[98], TLR4 [81], TLR7 [80][77,78], NS3/4A cleavage of TRIF [98] and MAVS [88]
TLR2/1, TLR2/6 [85], RIG-I [99] NS5A interacts with MyD88 and impairs TLR signaling [87]
West Nile virus ss RNA, enveloped TLR3 (TNFa) [23]  
Japanese encephalitis virus ss RNA, enveloped RIG-I [38]
Dengue virus ss RNA, enveloped RIG-I, MDA5 [39]
V Orthomyxoviridae Influenza virus ss RNA, segm, enveloped TLR3 [33], TLR7 [27,29], RIG-1 [35,38,39] NS1 protein inhibits function of RIG-I [96]
Paramyxoviridae Measles virus ss RNA, enveloped TLR2 [115], TLR4 [95] P protein suppresses TLR signaling through upregulation of A20 [95]
Respiratory syncytial virus ss RNA, enveloped TLR4 [7,36], TLR3 [33], TLR7/MyD88 [116],RIG-I [39]  
Sendai virus ss RNA TLR7/8 [40], RIG-1 [38] V protein binds to MDA5 and inhibits its activity [94]
    Newcastle Disease virus ss RNA RIG-1 [38]  
Rhabdoviridae Vesicular Stomatitis virus ss RNA TLR3 [20], TLR7/MyD88 [29], RIG-1 [38]
Arenaviridae Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus LCMV ss RNA, 2 RNAs TLR3 [20]
VI Retroviridae HIV ss RNA, enveloped TLR7/8 [72,73]
HTLV ss RNA, enveloped MyD88 [74], TLR4 [75] p30 interferes with TLR4 signaling [75]
MMTV ss RNA, enveloped TLR4 [76]  
VII Hepadnaviridae Hepatitis B virus ds circular TLR2 [91,92], TLR3 [93], TLR4, TLR5, TLR7 [91]  

* according to Baltimore classification of viruses.