Table 1: Summary of the reviewed papers.

Authors Year Country Objective Quality Attributes Method Results
Aronsky and Haug (2000) America To examine whether clinical data routinely available in a computerized patient record (CPR) can be used to drive a complex guideline that supports physicians in real time and at the point of care in assessing the risk of mortality for patients with community acquired pneumonia Availability, Concordance Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study From a clinical perspective, the current level of data quality in the HELP System and its CPR supports the automation and the prospective evaluation of the Pneumonia Severity Index as a computerized decision support tool.
Stiell et al. (2003) America To measure the prevalence of physician-reported information gaps for patients presenting to an emergency department Completeness Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study Information gaps were present in almost one-third of the visits to emergency department. They were more common in sicker patients and were independently associated with a prolonged stay in the emergency department.
Jones et al. (2003) England To determine whether narrative information in emergency department surveillance systems can be systematically interrogated to improve our understanding of the causes of injury Accuracy completeness Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study The proportion of records carrying an informative emergency department code was higher in records containing narrative information.
Smith et al. (2004) Australia (i)To design and implement a quality assessment tool to determine the quality of the ambulance patient care record (PCR) information. (ii) To identify critical demographic and clinical items on the ambulance PCR that needed improvement Completeness Quantitative/ Retrospective cohort study A quality assessment tool and associated user guide was developed .Three critical patient care record (PCR) components required improvement (patient details, observations and management).
Downing et al. (2005) England To link ambulance services and Emergency Department (ED) data for assault patients, to look at the potential advantages of this linkage, and to investigate the quality of coding in the two data sets Concordance Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study Data linkage between ambulance services and ED can increase the amount of information available in both data set.
Kanegaye et al. (2005) America To measure the effect of introduction of a structured encounter form on the completeness of documentation of pediatric wound management in a teaching hospital Completeness Quantitative/ Prospective (Pre-post study) The use of a structured complaint-specific form improved overall completeness of wound-care documentation (80% vs 68% for free text).
Gorelick et al. (2005) America To determine the availability and completeness of selected data elements from administrative and clinical sources for emergency department (ED) visits in a national pediatric research network. Availability Quantitative/ Retrospective study Data elements important in emergency medical care for children are frequently missing in existing administrative and medical record sources.
Nagurney et al. (2005) America To describe and test a model that compares the accuracy of data gathered prospectively versus retrospectively among adult emergency department patients admitted with chest pain. Completeness, accuracy Quantitative/ Prospective and retrospective study Information obtained retrospectively from the abstraction of medical records is less accurate than information obtained prospectively from patients. This study indicates that clinicians document elements of care delivered to patients very poorly.
McKenzie et al. (2005) Australia To examine the concordance of trauma registry and hospital records in Queensland in 1998 Concordance Completeness, accuracy Quantitative Retrospective This study identified four main types of error including failure to identify relevant patients, inappropriate inclusion of patients, insufficient/inaccurate data in hospital records, insufficient/ inaccurate data in the trauma registry.
Considine et al. (2006) Australia To examine the effect of written ED nursing practice standards augmented by an in-service education programme on the documentation of the initial nursing assessment Completeness Quantitative/ (Pre-post test study) Written ED nursing practice standards improved emergency nurses’ documentation of the initial nursing assessment except oxygen saturation, heart rate or blood pressure.
Travers et al. (2006) America To measure the time of availability of participating EDs’ diagnosis data in a state-based syndromic surveillance system. Availability, Timeliness Quantitative/ Prospective study A majority of the ED visits transmitted to the state surveillance system did not have a diagnosis until more than a week after the visit. Reasons for the lack of timely transmission of diagnoses included coding problems, logistical issues and the lack of IT personnel at smaller hospitals.
Porter et al. (2006) America (i)To identify the extent to which information provided by parents in the pediatric emergency department (ED) can drive the assessment and categorization of data on allergies to medications.(ii)To identify errors related to the capture and documentation of allergy data at specific process level steps during ED care. Accuracy Quantitative/ Observational study There are significant gaps in the quality of information management regarding medication allergies in the pediatric ED.
Hripcsak et al. (2007) America To assess how clinical information from previous visits is used in the emergency department Accessibility Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study Common data types were used up to 5% to 20% from the ED, but not a majority of the time. Less than half the time, even when the user was notified of the availability of data, other data were used.
Hunt et al. (2007) America To evaluate the completeness and accuracy of E codes for work-related and non-work-related injuries reported to a statewide Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System (EDISS) Completeness, Accuracy Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study E-codes reliably identified the mechanism of injury, but their inaccuracies and incompleteness suggested areas for training of hospital admissions staff, providers, and coders
Gorelick et al. (2007) America To determine the agreement on final diagnoses between two sources, electronic administrative sources and manually abstracted medical records, for pediatric ED visits in a multicenter network Agreement Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study Overall, 67% of diagnoses from the administrative and abstracted sources were within the same diagnosis group. Agreement varied by site, ranging from 54% to 77% and by diagnosis.
Brice et al. (2008) America To determine the accuracy of EMS information in patients who activated,EMS for chest pain and to describe the types of errors committed Accuracy, Agreement Quantitative/ Retrospective, consecutive case series study The use of EMS-generated demographic data demonstrates moderate agreement and linkage with hospital records. Name and date of birth are more reliable data elements for matching than social security number..
Cwinn et al. (2009) Canada To determine the frequency and type of clinically important information gaps for patients transferred to an emergency department (ED) from a nursing home or senior's residence. To determine the impact of a regional transfer form on the rate of information gaps Completeness Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study When the standardized transfer form was used, information gaps were seen in 74.9% of transfers compared with 93.5% of the transfers when the form was not used (p < 0.001).
Mears et al. (2010) America To create and validate a linkage of the North Carolina EMS Data System (NC-EMS-DS) with data contained in the North Carolina Stroke Care Collaborative (NCSCC) Registry Agreement, accuracy Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study Matching between (NCSCC) Registry with the North Carolina EMS Data System (NC-EMS-DS) was (63%). Most verification failures were due to incorrect date ⁄ time stamp and inability to find a corresponding EMS record.
Porter et al. (2010) America To determine if a patient-driven health information technology called ParentLink produced higher-quality data than documentation completed by nurses and physicians Completeness Accuracy Validity Quantitative /quasi-experimental interventional study Parents’ valid reports of allergies to medications were higher than those of nurses and physicians. ParentLink produced more complete information on History Patient Illness(HPI) for head trauma than the medical records.
Koronios et al. (2010) Australia To discuss the actual data quality issues with the operation-level and middle-level managers emerged during the ED dashboard development projects. Accuracy Timeliness Consistency Completeness Integrity Conformity Qualitative/ Literature review Data quality issues were summarized under the well-known technology, organization, people (TOP) model, that provided guidance on the types of data that needed to be collected and required quality dimensions for reliable decision-making.
Xie et al. (2010) America To define dimensions for describing information quality deficiencies concerning the information flow across units from the communication center to dispatch center, to mobile rescue units, and to emergency department (ED) Timeliness, Completeness, Accuracy, Conciseness Relevancy, Accessibility Understandability Privacy, Security Qualitative/ Literature review A list of eight dimensions were defined from literature and used in describing information quality deficiencies in EMS performance of three cases.
Dalawari et al. (2011) America To determine whether the use of a transfer from increases the availability of essential information needed for patient care and to examine its effect on case resolution time and disposition status Completeness Quantitative/ Retrospective review Essential information for providing emergency department patient care was significantly increased with the use of a transfer form.
AbuYassin et al. (2011) Saudi Arabia To investigate the role of pharmacists in identifying discrepancies in medication histories at admission to a tertiary referral hospital in Saudi Arabia. Completeness, Accuracy Qualitative/ Prospective Observational study The most common omissions were related to medications (35%) and dosage errors (35%). Pharmacists could potentially play a major role in obtaining medication history at the time of hospital admission.
Remen and Grimsmo (2011) Norway To study information access and information needs in inpatient emergency departments, and how clinicians in these departments handle deficits in available information. Completeness Quantitative/Observational study  Information medications and past medical history were described in most referrals. For a significant number of patients the examining doctor believed that information gaps had clinical implications.
Liaw et al. (2012) Australia  To estimate the reliability of “principal diagnosis” to identify people with diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Firstnet, the emergency department (ED) module of the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) in NSW health Accuracy, Concordance Qualitative/ Literature review  The incomplete concordance of diagnoses of the selected chronic diseases generated via different modules of the same information system raises doubts about the reliability of data and information quality collected, stored and used by the EMR.
Gao et al. (2012) Australia To adopt a process-oriented approach to understand how data quality issues emerged through the ED data collection and reporting processes. Completeness, Consistency Timeliness Accuracy Integrity Conformity Qualitative/ Literature review   The development of the ED process maps is central to a comprehensive data quality assessment. These process maps will not only serve as a roadmap of where to look for data quality problems, but would also allow for possible optimization of information resources
Ward et al. (2013) America To assess operational data quality in an emergency department (ED) immediately before and after an EHR implementation Accuracy Timeliness Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study Using electronic timestamps for operational assessment and decision making following implementation should recognize the magnitude and compounding of errors when computing service times.
Hu et al. (2014) America To test the hypothesis that the analysis of continuous vital signs acquired automatically, without prehospital provider input, improves vital signs data quality, and changes Trauma Injury Severity Scores compared with retrospectively compiled prehospital trauma registry data. Accuracy Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study Continuous vital signs acquisition (VDSR technology) captures more extreme perturbations than trauma registry. The use of this technology may also lead to the development of better trauma prognostic models.
Murphyet al. (2014) America Understanding the cause of information problems and the impact that they can have on the hospital’s workflow in ED. Accuracy, Timeliness, Consistency, Completeness, Availability Qualitative/ Observation and interview study   Information problems impact the collaborative patient-care including the cascading workflow effects and ambiguous accountability.
Morphetet al, (2014)  America To investigate the documentation of resident transfers to ED, and the effect transfer documentation on the resident ED journey Completeness Quantitative/ Retrospective review study  The reason for transfer to the ED (48.2%); baseline cognitive function (59.7%); and vital signs at time of complaint (69.9%) were missing.
Sundermannet al. (2015) Australia To evaluate the accuracy of PCR in the detection two critical resuscitation events, ROSC and RA, and to compare it with the capabilities of ECG and other signals recorded on the defibrillator monitor Accuracy Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study PCRs were insufficient in capturing ROSC and RA events. Inaccuracy in reporting the post-RA ECG rhythm reflects the lack of texture that may be present in PCR data as well.
Dawson et al. (2015) Australia To determine whether it is possible to collect episode-level data at six small rural emergency services (EDs) and quantify the accuracy of eight fields. Completeness, accuracy Quantitative/ Prospective cross-sectional study Data entry accuracy was high for all fields audited, and data entry completeness was low for procedures.
Coffey et al. (2015) America To compare the completeness of paper documentation with that of electronic documentation for trauma resuscitations Completeness Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study Electronic documentation produced superior records of pediatric trauma resuscitations compared with paper documentation
Ward et al. (2015) America To estimate how data errors in electronic health records (EHRs) can affect the accuracy of common emergency department (ED) operational performance metrics Completeness, Accuracy, Timeliness Quantitative/ Cross-sectional study Infrequent and small-magnitude data errors in EHR time stamps can compromise a clinical organization's ability to determine it accurately.