Table 1: Pharmacology and tissue distribution of VGCCs as well as related channelopthies (reprinted from [68]).

Cav1 Pharmacology Tissue affected Syndromes associated
Cav1.1
Cav1.2


Cav1.3


Cav1.4
Dihydropyridne, Benzothiazepine, Phenylalkylamine, TaiCatoxin, Calciseptine Calcicludine, FS-2 skeletal musclesubiquitary

ubiquitary

retina
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis type 1
(HypoPP1), malignant hyperthermia type 5 (MHS5)
Timothy syndrome  (LQT8, epilepsy)
Not known
x-linked conginital stationary night blindness 2 (xCSNB2), X-linked cone-rod dystrophy type 3 (CORDX3)
Cav2.1  


Cav2.2

Cav2.3
ω-Agatoxin IVA   


ω-Conotoxin GVIA

SNX-482, Ni2+
CNS 


CNS/PNS 

CNS/PNS
Absence-epilepsy, episodic ataxia type 2, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, familial hemiplegic migraine, Lambert-Eaton myastenie-Syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myastenie-syndrome

Not known
Cav3.1 Cav3.2 Cav3.3  Mibefradil, Kurtoxin, Ni2+ CNS/PNS
CNS/heart 
 CNS
Not known
Absence-epilepsy (CAE), Autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
Not known

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