Table 1: Studies on mindfulness with at- risk adolescents.

Citation Design/Country Sample Intervention Data Collection Results
Barnert et al., (2014) Mixed methods
US-California
N =29 incarcerated male adolescents MBA curriculum for At-risk youth 1 day retreat Focus group
MAAS
TCS
HSR
PSS
Sig—Self regulation
Qualitative: enhanced well being, self discipline, social cohesiveness, awareness, some resistance to meditation
Biegel et al. (2009) RCT
US
N= 102
14-18 yr. psychiatric disorders
8 week MBSR-T SES
SCL-90R
PSS
Sig- more self-esteem, less anxiety, perceived stress, somatic, obsessive compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depressive symptoms
Edwards et al. (2014) Quasi Experimental
US-Southwest
8 Male/12 Female Latino middle school students 8 week MBSR-T  MAAS, SCS, PSS, SCL-90R Increase mindfulness, self-compassion, less stress & psychological distress. NS- anxiety symptoms
Gould et al. (2012) Pilot RCT
US
N = 97 4th & 5th grade urban disadvantaged youth 12 week secular yoga-inspired intervention Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire-Child
Emotion Profile Inventory
Reponses to Stress
Involuntary Engagement Scale
NS- emotional-regulatory for gender or grade
Sig-Impulsive action, Involuntary engagement stress; higher depressive symptoms most improvement
Himelstein et al., (2012) Qualitative
US-California
N = 23 incarcerated male adolescents 10 week MBA Semi structured interviews Increased subjective well being, self regulation, self awareness, positive group experience and accepting attitude toward treatment
Lau & Hue (2011) Pilot Control Trial
Hong Kong
N = 48 low academic performance ages 14-16 yr. 6 week modified MBSR MAAS
FMI
SPWB
DASS
PSS
Decreased depression, improved personal growth, wellbeing
NS-stress, mindfulness
Sibinga et al. (2011) Single group pretest posttest
US
N = 26
13-21 y.o. HIV + and at-risk urban youth
9 week modified MBSR CHIP-AE
SCL-90R
Sig reductions hostility general & emotional discomfort
Sibinga et al. (2013) RCT
US-Maryland
N = 41
41 7th & 8th grader urban males from low income—95% AA
12 sessions school based MBSR vs control of 12 sessions health education SCL-90R
CAMM
COPE Inventory
Sleep diaries, Actiwatch
Salivary cortisol levels
NS- sleep
MBSR less anxiety, rumination than HT
Increased cortisol levels during academic terms for HT remained constant for MBSR
Rawlett
(2014)
RCT
US-Maryland
N=23
Ages 11-13 yr. females at-risk for not graduating HS
6 weekly sessions school based
using L2B Mindfulness curriculum
RSQ
PANAS-C (10 item)
MAAS
NS-differences in coping, Mindfulness was greater after the interventions
Tan & Martin (2013) Single group longitudinal design
Australia
N =10 adolescents with psychiatric disorders 5 week Taming the Adolescent Mind DASS-21
SES
CAMM
AFQ-Y8 short version
Sig. decrease in psychological distress; increase in mindfulness & self-esteem.
Tan & Martin (2015) RCT
Australia
N = 80
13-18 yr with mental disorders
5 week Taming the Adolescent Mind vs TAU SES
DASS-21
AFQ-Y8 short version
CAMM
CBCL
RSCA
Higher mindfulness, self-esteem, improved psychological inflexibility, decreased mental distress
No change in resiliency

MBA- Mind Body Awareness; MBSR- Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction; TAU-Treatment as usual; CAMM - Children’s Acceptance and Mindfulness Measure-short version (Greco, Smith & Baer, 2011); DASS-21- Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - short version (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995); CBCL- The Child Behaviour Checklist (Achenbach, 1999); RSCA- Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (Prince-Embury, 2006); AFQ-Y8- Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (Greco, Lambert, & Baer, 2008); HSR-Healthy Self-regulation scale (West, 2008); TCS-Teen Conflict Survey, impulsiveness subscale (Bosworth and Espelage, 1995); SES-Rosenberg Self Esteem scale (1989); SCL-90R: Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (Derogates, 1977); MBSR-T -Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Teens; SCS-Self Compassion Scale; MAAS-Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (Brown & Ryan, 2003); CHIP-AE- Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition; RSQ-Response to Stress Questionnaire-Child Self-report on Peer Stress (Connor-Smith et al., 2000); PANAS-C (10 item)-Positive and Negative Affect Scale (10 item) for Children (Ebesutani et al., 2012).

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