Table 1: Participant characteristics (n = 118).

Category Description Treatment Group
(n = 59)
Control Group
(n = 59)
P-Value Test Statistics††
Age Mean ± SD 58 ± 10.13 63 ± 9.77 0.01 – 2.62
Sex (n, %) Male 38 (64.41) 34 (57.63) 0.4502 0.57
Female 21 (35.59) 25 (42.37) - -
Marriage (n, %) Yes 57 (96.61) 55 (93.22) 0.6793§ 0.7024
No 2 (3.39) 4 (6.78) - -
Education (n, %) Graduate school or higher 3 (5.17) 2 (3.39) <0.0001§ 20.6863
College 16 (27.59) 10 (16.95)
High school 34 (58.62) 24 (40.68)
Middle school 3 (5.17) 23 (38.98)
Elementary school 2 (3.45) 0 (0)
Religion (n, %) Buddhism 16 (27.12) 14 (23.73) 0.1711 6.4016
Protestantism 15 (25.42) 7 (11.86)
Catholicism 2 (3.39) 7 (11.86)
Others 7 (11.86) 7 (11.86)
Nothing 19 (32.2) 24 (40.68)
Employed (n, %) Yes 38 (64.41) 25 (43.1) 0.0208 5.341
No 21 (35.59) 33 (56.9)
Cancer stage (n, %) 0 2 (3.39) 4 (6.78) 0.2269 5.6498
I 14 (23.73) 8 (13.56)
II 14 (23.73) 17 (28.81)
III 16 (27.12) 23 (38.98)
IV 13 (22.03) 7 (11.86)
Type of surgery (n, %) Stoma present 2 (3.45) 3 (5.17) >0.9999 0.2090
Stoma not present 56 (96.55) 55 (94.83)
Diagnosis (n, %) Colon cancer 44 (74.58) 33 (55.93) 0.1594§ 5.6538
Rectal cancer 13 (22.03) 21 (35.59)
Colorectal cancer 2 (3.39) 3 (5.08)
Others 0 (0) 2 (3.38)
Days of hospitalization 0.3432 − 0.94793
Mean ± SD 7.32 ± 3.23 7.68 ± 3.54
Median [range] 6 [4-25] 7 [3-27]
Days of hospitalization after surgery 0.1082 − 1.60651
Mean ± SD 4.78 ± 3.14 5 ± 3.12
Median [range] 4 [3-23] 4 [2-25]
Operative method (n, %) Right hemicolectomy 13 (22.03) 20 (33.9) 0.2042§ 4.7348
Left hemicolectomy 1 (1.69) 3 (5.08)
Anterior resection 45 (76.27) 35 (59.32)
Hartmann’s operation 0 (0) 1 (1.69)
Time after surgery until first drinking water (hours) 0.4951 0.68217
Mean ± SD 18.05 ± 6.63 (n=58) 17.78 ± 7.51
Median [range] 18 [8-60] 18 [10-61]
Use of painkiller in addition to patient-controlled analgesia (n, %) Yes 24 (40.68) 26 (44.07) 0.709 0.1388
No 35 (59.32) 33 (55.93)
Post-surgery infection (n, %) Yes 2 (3.57) 3 (5.66) 0.673§ 0.2715
No 54 (96.43) 50 (94.34)

p-value based on t-test p-value based on chi-squared test §p-value based on Fisher’s exact test p-value based on Wilcoxon rank-sum test †† t-value determined using a t-test, Z using Wilcoxon, chi-squared statistics using chi-squared, and f-value using analysis of covariance. Abbreviation: SD, Standard Deviation.

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