Table 1: Differences of outcome variables by characteristics of the participants (N=305).

Characteristics n (%) or
M±SD
Posttraumatic Growth
M±SD
t or F
(p)
Deliberate Rumination M±SD t or F (p)
Age (year) <20 107 (35.1) 50.18±16.07 0.65(.516) 25.00±7.52 1.81(.071)
≥20 198 (64.9) 51.46±16.62 26.65±7.57
20.22±1.61
Gender Male 81 (26.6) 49.98±14.80 -0.66(.510) 24.80±7.39 -1.77(.078)
Female 224 (73.4) 51.39±16.97 26.53±7.62
Grade 1 105 (34.4) 51.11±16.53 2.55(.080) 25.37±7.47 2.81(.062)
2 158 (51.8) 49.62±15.92 25.87±7.68
4 42 (13.8) 56.02±16.41 28.57±7.14
Religion No 187 (61.3) 48.79±15.47 3.04(.003) 25.58±7.81 1.41(.158)
Yes 118 (38.7) 54.55±17.29 26.84±7.18
Distress <8 115 (37.7) 50.59±14.50 -0.37(.711) 24.91±7.47 -2.09(.037)
≥8 190 (62.3) 51.27±17.50 26.77±7.58
7.63±1.88
Total M±SD 51.01±16.41 26.07±7.58

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