Table 2: Mean, SD, minimum and maximum scores of JSE-HP-S and the frequency of items responses (n=202).

Items Mean SD minimum maximum Agree% Disagree%
  1. Health care providers' understanding of their patients' feelings and the feelings of their patients' families does not influence treatment outcome *4.84 2.13 1 7 30.2 60.9
  2. Patients feel better when their health care providers understand their feelings 4.92 2.02 1 7 60.9 28.2
  3. It is difficult for a health care provider to view things from patients' perspectives *4.17 1.66 1 7 29.7 43.6
  4. Understanding body language is as important as verbal communication in health care provider - patient relationships. 4.64 1.93 1 7 56.9 29.2
  5. A health care provider's sense of humor contributes to a better clinical outcome 4.99 1.93 1 7 67.3 21.3
  6. Because people are different, it is difficult to see things from patients' perspectives *3.70 1.96 1 7 48.0 35.1
  7. Attention to patients' emotions is not important in patient interview *5.16 2.09 1 7 23.3 63.9
  8. Attentiveness to patients' personal experiences does not influence treatment outcomes *4.67 1.98 1 7 30.2 56.9
  9. Health care providers should try to stand in their patients' shoes when providing care to them 5.08 1.94 1 7 64.9 22.8
  10. Patients value a health care provider's understanding of their feelings which is therapeutic in its own right. 4.65 1.91 1 7 53.5 27.7
  11. Patients' illnesses can be cured only by targeted treatment; therefore, health care providers' emotional ties with their patients do not have a significant influence in treatment outcomes *4.81 2.19 1 7 30.7 59.9
  12. Asking patients about what is happening in their personal lives is not helpful in understanding their physical complaints *4.66 1.88 1 7 30.2 55.9
  13. Health care providers should try to understand what is going on in their patients' minds by paying attention to their non-verbal cues and body language 4.53 1.77 1 7 49.5 29.2
  14. I believe that emotion has no place in the treatment of medical illness *4.98 2.03 1 7 26.7 62.4
  15. Empathy is a therapeutic skill without which a health care provider's success is limited. 4.55 1.82 1 7 50.0 29.2
  16. Health care providers' understanding of the emotional status of their patients, as well as that of their families is one important component of the health care provider – patient relationship 4.86 1.75 1 7 61.9 24.3
  17. Health care providers should try to think like their patients in order to render better care 4.64 1.82 1 7 52.0 23.3
  18. Health care providers should not allow themselves to be influenced by strong personal bonds between their patients and their family members *3.75 1.71 1 7 39.6 30.2
  19. I do not enjoy reading non-medical literature or the arts *4.35 2.16 1 7 39.1 50.5
  20. I believe that empathy is an important factor in patients' treatment 5.00 1.92 1 7 67.3 24.3
       Total Empathy Score 92.9 16.40 50 134

*: reversely scored items (i.e., Strongly Agree=1…Strongly Disagree=7), while the other items are directly scored on their Likert weights (i.e., Strongly Disagree=1…Strongly Agree=7

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