Table 1: The frequency distribution of some demographic variables in the three groups

Variable Group Chi-square test
Ice Placebo Control Total
n % n % n % n %
Gender Female 9 26.5 12 35.3 9 26.5 30 29.4 p=0.654
Male 25 73.5 22 64.7 25 73.5 72 72.6
Education Illiterate 27 79.4 29 85.3 28 82.4 84 82.4 Fisher exact p=0.823
Under Diploma 1 2.9 3 8.8 2 5.9 6 5.9
Diploma 4 11.8 1 2.9 3 8.8 8 7.8
University 2 5.9 1 2.9 1 2.9 4 3.9
Pain tolerance Very high 7 20 3 8.8 6 17.6 16 15.7 Fisher exact p=0.355
high 20 58.8 17 50 15 44.1 52 51
Moderate 3 8.8 9 26.5 10 29.4 22 21.6
low 3 8.8 2 5.9 1 2.9 6 5.9
Very low 1 2.9 3 8.8 2 5.9 6 5.9
Worst pain Angina 16 47.1 21 61.8 23 67.6 60 58.8 p=0.206
Others 18 52.9 13 38.2 11 32.4 42 41.2
Smoking No 28 82.4 30 88.2 30 88.2 88 86.3 Fisher exact p=0.819
Yes 6 17.6 4 11.8 4 11.8 14 13.7
Drug abuse No 28 82.4 27 79.4 29 85.3 84 82.4 p=0.946
Yes 6 17.6 7 20.6 5 14.7 18 17.6
Type of drain Thoracic 16 47.1 19 55.9 16 47.1 51 50 p=0.703
Mediastinal 18 52.9 15 44.1 18 52.9 51 50

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