Table 1: Demographic characteristics of participants; Data expressed as M±SD or frequency (percentage, %).

Characteristics Total samples (N=300) Low self-efficacy
(N=250)
High self-efficacy (N=50)
12 item OSES-A score 658.43±222.014 591.96±174.429 990.80±104.371
OSES-A exercise 306.17±153.752 265.72±131.658 508.40±78.020
OSES-A calcium 352.27±112.667 326.24±99.098 482.40±82.575
Agea* - - -
≤44 59.7 56.8 74.0
≥45 40.3 43.2 26.0
Genderb* - - -
Male 46 43.2 60.0
Female 54 56.8 40.0
Marital statusc - - -
Single 23 21.6 30.0
Not single 77 78.4 70.0
Educational levels - - -
< 12 years 21 22.0 16.0
≥ 12 years 79 78.0 84.0
Employment status - - -
Working 84 84.4 82.0
Not working 16 15.6 18.0
Monthly income (ID) - - -
≤ 500,000 38 38.4 36.0
> 500,000 62 61.6 64.0
Living place - - -
Rural 22 21.2 26.0
Urban 78 78.8 74.0
Ever heard about osteoporosis - - -
No 7 7.2 6.0
Yes 93 92.8 94.0
Osteoporosis diagnosis or screening c - - -
No 82 80.8 88.0
Yes 18 19.2 12.0
self-reported osteoporosis b ** - - -
No 89.3 87.2 0.0
Yes 10.7 12.8 100.0
Family history of osteoporosis c - - -
No 72.7 72.4 74.0
Yes 27.3 27.6 26.0
Family history of fracture - - -
No 59 58.0 64.0
Yes 41 42.0 36.0
Smoking habit - - -
Not smoking 79.3 79.2 80.0
Smoking 20.7 20.8 20.0
Alcohol habit - - -
Non alcoholic 99.3 99.6 98.0
alcoholic 0.7 0.4 2.0

IQD: Iraqi dinar; significant association between groups *P<0.05, **P<0.01; significant difference aP<0.001, bP<0.01, cP<0.05.

Back to Article