The Open Nursing Journal




ISSN: 1874-4346 ― Volume 13, 2019
REVIEW ARTICLE

Nurse Managers’ Emotional Intelligence and Effective Leadership: A Review of the Current Evidence



Panagiotis E Prezerakos*
Laboratory of Integrated Health Care, Nursing Department, University of Peloponnese E & St. Valioti and Plateon Str., 23100, Sparta, Greece

Abstract

Background:

Emotional Intelligence has made a significant contribution to effective leadership, becoming one of the key characteristics of leaders.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to review qualitative and quantitative studies concerning Emotional Intelligence of nurse leaders and the evidence-based composition of their results.

Method:

A search was performed in the electronic databases (Pubmed, Scopus and CINAHL) for articles, which were published in the period 2000-2017 in English or Greek. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 10 were quantitative and one was qualitative.

Results:

The results suggested that Emotional Intelligence is a useful tool for nurse leaders and contributes decisively to the achievement of effective management in healthcare.

Conclusion:

It is necessary for nurses to improve their social and emotional skills because of the particular nature of the nursing profession, which places the healthy or weak person at its center.

Keywords: : Emotional Intelligence, Leadership, Nurses, Nurse managers, Nurse leaders, Calcium.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 86
Last Page: 92
Publisher Id: TONURSJ-12-86
DOI: 10.2174/1874434601812010086

Article History:

Received Date: 26/1/2018
Revision Received Date: 21/3/2018
Acceptance Date: 7/5/2018
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2018
Collection year: 2018

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© 2018 Panagiotis E Prezerakos.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to the author at the Laboratory of Integrated Health Care, Nursing Department, University of Peloponnese E & St. Valioti and Plateon Str., 23100, Sparta, Greece, Tel. +30 6976 333 405, Fax +30 2731 89721; E-mail prezerpot@gmail.com




1. BACKGROUND

“Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ” was the title of Goleman's book [1Goleman D. Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ 1995.] which made the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) widely known and contributed significantly to the expansion of research in this field. Salovey& Mayer [2Salovery P, Mayer J. Emotional Intelligence. Imagin Cogn Pers 1990; 9: 85-211.] define EI as, “the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions”. Emotionally intelligent individuals are able to use, understand and manage their feelings in a way that benefits themselves and others [3Mayer JD, Salovey P, Caruso DR. Emotional intelligence: new ability or eclectic traits? Am Psychol 2008; 63(6): 503-17.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.63.6.503] [PMID: 18793038] ]. Studies conducted with children, adolescents and adults highlight the beneficial effect of EI on the happiness of the individual [4Chamorro-Premuzic T, Bennett E, Furnham A. The happy personality: Mediational role of trait emotional intelligence. Pers Individ Dif 2007; 42: 1633-9.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.029] ], emotional control [5Mikolajczak M, Nelis D, Hansenne M, Quoidbach J. If you can regulate sadness, you can probably regulate shame: Associations between trait emotional intelligence, emotion regulation and coping efficiency across discrete emotions. Pers Individ Dif 2008; 44: 1356-68.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.12.004] ], decision making [6Sevdalis N, Petrides KV, Harvey N. Trait emotional intelligence and decision-related emotions. Pers Individ Dif 2007; 42: 1347-58.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.012] ], job satisfaction [7Coladonato AR, Manning ML. Nurse leader emotional intelligence: How does it affect clinical nurse job satisfaction? Nurs Manage 2017; 48(9): 26-32.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NUMA.0000522174.00393.f2] [PMID: 28857835] ], occupational commitment [8Akhtar R, Boustani L, Tsivrikos D, Chamorro-Premuzic T. The engageable personality: Personality and trait EI as predictors of work engagement. Pers Individ Dif 2015; 73: 44-9.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.040] ] and Human Resources Management [9Villanueva JJ, Sánchez JC. Trait emotional intelligence and leadership self-efficacy: their relationship with collective efficacy. Span J Psychol 2007; 10(2): 349-57.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1138741600006612] [PMID: 17992961] ].

Recent theories emphasize that effective leadership is affected by the personality of the leader, the general conditions in the workplace and the quality characteristics of employees [10Grossman S, Valiga T. The new leadership challenge: Creating the future of nursing 3rd ed. 3rd ed.2009.].More specifically, Skinner and Spurgeon [11Skinner C, Spurgeon P. Valuing empathy and emotional intelligence in health leadership: A study of empathy, leadership behaviour and outcome effectiveness. Health Serv Manage Res 2005; 18(1): 1-12.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/0951484053051924] [PMID: 15807976] ] note that health leadership involves understanding and communicating with a wide variety of individuals in a number of different situations and not just focusing on work results and rational processes. From this perspective, the fact that the EI has made a significant contribution to effective leadership becomes one of the key characteristics of leaders. As Cummings and his colleagues [12Cummings G, Hayduk L, Estabrooks C. Mitigating the impact of hospital restructuring on nurses: The responsibility of emotionally intelligent leadership. Nurs Res 2005; 54(1): 2-12.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-200501000-00002] [PMID: 15695934] ] support, emotionally intelligent nurses with an administrative position inspire emotions, passion and motivation helping thus to achieve goals that might otherwise have not been conquered.

The aim of the present study was to systematically review qualitative and quantitative studies concerning EI of nurse leaders and the evidence-based composition of their results. In particular, it was attempted to highlight the reasons why EI is important for achieving effective nursing leadership

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

A search was performed in the electronic databases (Pubmed, Scopus and CINAHL) for articles, which were published in the period 2000-2017 in English or Greek. The literature review was carried out from September to October 2017. The keywords used were: Emotional Intelligence, Leadership, and Nursing. The inclusion criteria that were applied included (a) the publication date had to be between 2000 and 2017, (b) the languages were Greek or English, (c) both qualitative and quantitative studies were included, and (d) the sample of studies reviewed included only nurses. In order to achieve a final list of related studies, a broad literature search was conducted to identify abstracts that met the inclusion criteria. The titles and abstracts were printed, duplicates were discarded and the remaining abstracts were examined using the inclusion/exclusion criteria (Fig. 1).

Fig. (1)
The entire sample was then critically analyzed in order to outline the reasons why EI is important for achieving effective nursing leadership in the health sector.


3. RESULTS

The literature review included 470 articles. Of these, 300 abstracts were evaluated by the author with regard to their compatibility with the inclusion criteria in the analysis (Flowchart). Finally, eleven (11) studies met the inclusion criteria Table 1, of which seven (7) were conducted in the United States of America [13Ohlson SM, Anderson MA. Ability emotional intelligence of nurse managers in the Midwestern United States. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs 2015; 2(2): 82-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2347-5625.155733] [PMID: 27981098] -19Moss S, Ritossa D, Ngu S. The effect of follower regulatory focus and extraversion on leadership behavior: The role of emotional intelligence. J Individ Differ 2006; 27: 93-107.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001.27.2.93] ], one (1) in Turkey [20Erkutlu H, Chafra J. The impact of team empowerment on proactivity: the moderating roles of leader’s emotional intelligence and proactive personality. J Health Organ Manag 2012; 26(4-5): 560-77.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777261211256918] [PMID: 23115905] ], one (1) in Australia [22Leggat SG, Balding C. Achieving organisational competence for clinical leadership: the role of high performance work systems. J Health Organ Manag 2013; 27(3): 312-29.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JHOM-Jul-2012-0132] [PMID: 23885396] ] and one (1) in Canada [23Lucas V, Laschinger HK, Wong CA. The impact of emotional intelligent leadership on staff nurse empowerment: The moderating effect of span of control. J Nurs Manag 2008; 16(8): 964-73.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008.00856.x] [PMID: 19094109] ]. Only one (1) of the selected studies was qualitative [22Leggat SG, Balding C. Achieving organisational competence for clinical leadership: the role of high performance work systems. J Health Organ Manag 2013; 27(3): 312-29.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JHOM-Jul-2012-0132] [PMID: 23885396] ], in which the researchers used focus groups to investigate the research question. In the remaining studies [13Ohlson SM, Anderson MA. Ability emotional intelligence of nurse managers in the Midwestern United States. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs 2015; 2(2): 82-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2347-5625.155733] [PMID: 27981098] -21Spagnuolo A, De Santis M, Torretta C, Filippi M, Talucci C. [Emotional Leadership: a survey on the emotional skills expressed by nursing management]. Prof Inferm 2014; 67(4): 203-10.[PMID: 25837475] , 23Lucas V, Laschinger HK, Wong CA. The impact of emotional intelligent leadership on staff nurse empowerment: The moderating effect of span of control. J Nurs Manag 2008; 16(8): 964-73.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008.00856.x] [PMID: 19094109] ] data collection was carried out using structured questionnaires. With regard to the sampling method, only two studies [20Erkutlu H, Chafra J. The impact of team empowerment on proactivity: the moderating roles of leader’s emotional intelligence and proactive personality. J Health Organ Manag 2012; 26(4-5): 560-77.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777261211256918] [PMID: 23115905] , 23Lucas V, Laschinger HK, Wong CA. The impact of emotional intelligent leadership on staff nurse empowerment: The moderating effect of span of control. J Nurs Manag 2008; 16(8): 964-73.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008.00856.x] [PMID: 19094109] ] were randomly sampled.

Table 1
An overview of studies’ characteristics, aims and main findings


Three of the eleven studies included in the review explored the leadership style applied by emotionally intelligent nurses holding an administrative position [14Echevarria IM, Patterson BJ, Krouse A. Predictors of transformational leadership of nurse managers. J Nurs Manag 2017; 25(3): 167-75.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12452] [PMID: 27910229] , 17Spano-Szekely L, Quinn Griffin MT, Clavelle J, Fitzpatrick JJ. Emotional intelligence and transformational leadership in nurse managers. J Nurs Adm 2016; 46(2): 101-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000303] [PMID: 26796823] , 18Tyczkowski B, Vandenhouten C, Reilly J, Bansal G, Kubsch SM, Jakkola R. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers. Nurs Adm Q 2015; 39(2): 172-80.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000094] [PMID: 25714956] ]. The critical analysis of their results revealed the positive correlation between the Emotional Inelegance and the transformational leadership in which the leader works with subordinates to increase their motivation and promote their commitment to the organization [24Burns JM. Leadership 1978.]. In two studies [17Spano-Szekely L, Quinn Griffin MT, Clavelle J, Fitzpatrick JJ. Emotional intelligence and transformational leadership in nurse managers. J Nurs Adm 2016; 46(2): 101-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000303] [PMID: 26796823] , 18Tyczkowski B, Vandenhouten C, Reilly J, Bansal G, Kubsch SM, Jakkola R. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers. Nurs Adm Q 2015; 39(2): 172-80.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000094] [PMID: 25714956] ], there was a statistically significant positive correlation of the EI with the outcome of the leadership on the extra effort, effectiveness and satisfaction of EI, Spano-Szekely and her colleagues [17Spano-Szekely L, Quinn Griffin MT, Clavelle J, Fitzpatrick JJ. Emotional intelligence and transformational leadership in nurse managers. J Nurs Adm 2016; 46(2): 101-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000303] [PMID: 26796823] ] underline the negative relationship between the EI and the laissez-faire leadership, in the course of which, according to Harms and Credé [25Harms PD, Crede M. Emotional intelligence and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis. J Leadersh Organ Stud 2010; 17: 5-17.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1548051809350894] ], leaders are avoiding decision making, are reluctant to take action and their role is typical. In contrast, in the study conducted by Tyczkowski and her associates [18Tyczkowski B, Vandenhouten C, Reilly J, Bansal G, Kubsch SM, Jakkola R. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers. Nurs Adm Q 2015; 39(2): 172-80.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000094] [PMID: 25714956] ], the above negative relationship is not confirmed. Furthermore, no significant correlation observed between EI and transactional leadership styles [18Tyczkowski B, Vandenhouten C, Reilly J, Bansal G, Kubsch SM, Jakkola R. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers. Nurs Adm Q 2015; 39(2): 172-80.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000094] [PMID: 25714956] ].

Erkutlu and Chafra’s [20Erkutlu H, Chafra J. The impact of team empowerment on proactivity: the moderating roles of leader’s emotional intelligence and proactive personality. J Health Organ Manag 2012; 26(4-5): 560-77.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777261211256918] [PMID: 23115905] ] study, on a sample of 910 nurses, revealed that high nurse leaders’ EI have a strong positive impact on the pro-activity and empowerment of the team [23Lucas V, Laschinger HK, Wong CA. The impact of emotional intelligent leadership on staff nurse empowerment: The moderating effect of span of control. J Nurs Manag 2008; 16(8): 964-73.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008.00856.x] [PMID: 19094109] ]. The results of Munro’s study [16Munro JC. Nurse Manager Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor to Registered Nurse Job Satisfaction and RN Perceptions of the Practice Environment and the Relationship to Patient, Nursing and Hospital Outcomes. PhD Dissertation 2011.] pointed out that the high EI of nurses performing administrative tasks is associated with increased patient satisfaction with the care provided. In addition, EI along with resilience, self-awareness and understanding of other clinical disciplines were revealed as important qualifications for nurse managers. Moreover, emotionally intelligent leadership, through the skills of good emotional management, promotes well-being at the workplace [21Spagnuolo A, De Santis M, Torretta C, Filippi M, Talucci C. [Emotional Leadership: a survey on the emotional skills expressed by nursing management]. Prof Inferm 2014; 67(4): 203-10.[PMID: 25837475] ]. Regarding the relationship of EI and demographic characteristics, it was noticed that nurses, who exercised administrative duties and had not received any specialization, showed modest emotional intelligence in contrast to their colleagues, who were specialized [13Ohlson SM, Anderson MA. Ability emotional intelligence of nurse managers in the Midwestern United States. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs 2015; 2(2): 82-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2347-5625.155733] [PMID: 27981098] ]. In addition, nurses, who held a post-graduate degree in nursing science, had enhanced their skills in the proper use of emotions, compared to nurses who had specialized in another field [15Prufeta P. Emotional Intelligence of Nurse Managers: An Exploratory Study. J Nurs Adm 2017; 47(3): 134-9.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000455] [PMID: 28198761] ]. Equally important was the experience in management positions, as managers with less than two years of experience experienced the less successful use of their feelings than those with longer seniority in management positions [15Prufeta P. Emotional Intelligence of Nurse Managers: An Exploratory Study. J Nurs Adm 2017; 47(3): 134-9.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000455] [PMID: 28198761] ].

4. DISCUSSION

The results of this study suggest that EI is a useful tool for nurse leaders and contributes decisively to the achievement of effective management in healthcare. The nature of the nursing profession itself, aimed at health promotion, disease prevention and care of physically and mentally ill and disabled people of any age [26American Nurses Association (ANA). Nursing: A social policy statement 1980.], requires nurses to be emotionally intelligent in order to respond to their multifarious duties. The anthropocentric nature of nursing requires Emotional Intelligence as a high-level skill that contributes to effective patient centered care [27Cadman C, Brewer J. Emotional intelligence: A vital prerequisite for recruitment in nursing. J Nurs Manag 2001; 9(6): 321-4.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0966-0429.2001.00261.x] [PMID: 11879479] ]. More specifically, with regard to the exercise of management functions, EI becomes an important “virtue” in the hands of nurse-leaders who must be equipped with skills to successfully meet the growing demands of the modern health care system. Management skills, such as negotiating resources, building trust relationships, encouraging partnership development, and making evidence-based decisions, require a strong foundation of perceiving, using, understanding and managing feelings [13Ohlson SM, Anderson MA. Ability emotional intelligence of nurse managers in the Midwestern United States. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs 2015; 2(2): 82-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2347-5625.155733] [PMID: 27981098] ]. Analysis of a number of the studies selected [14Echevarria IM, Patterson BJ, Krouse A. Predictors of transformational leadership of nurse managers. J Nurs Manag 2017; 25(3): 167-75.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12452] [PMID: 27910229] , 17Spano-Szekely L, Quinn Griffin MT, Clavelle J, Fitzpatrick JJ. Emotional intelligence and transformational leadership in nurse managers. J Nurs Adm 2016; 46(2): 101-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000303] [PMID: 26796823] , 18Tyczkowski B, Vandenhouten C, Reilly J, Bansal G, Kubsch SM, Jakkola R. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers. Nurs Adm Q 2015; 39(2): 172-80.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000094] [PMID: 25714956] ] revealed that EI was associated with the exercise of the transformational leadership. According to Bass and Avolio [28Bass BM, Avolio BJ. Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership 1994.] transformational leadership refers to the idealized influence that the leader exercises on his/her subordinates, the feeling of pride which he/she inculcates as well as the feeling of safety and confidence that they can cope with the organization’s goals and vision. The high ability to understand, regulate and manage emotions that transformational leaders have, contributes decisively to the cultivation of corresponding skills in their followers [29Kumar S. Establishing linkages between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Ind Psychiatry J 2014; 23(1): 1-3.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-6748.144934] [PMID: 25535436] ]. EI’s strong association with transformational leadership is not present only in the health sector but also in a variety of other organizations [30Gardner L, Stough C. Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level managers. Leadersh Organ Dev J 2002; 23: 68-78.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730210419198] -33Lowe KB, Kroeck KG, Sivasubramaniam N. Effectiveness correlates of transformation and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. Leadersh Q 1996; 7: 385-425.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(96)90027-2] ]. Barling, Slater and Kelloway’s study [34Barling J, Slater F, Kelloway EK. Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: An exploratory study. Leadersh Organ Dev J 2000; 21: 157-61.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730010325040] ], which deals with a large pulp and paper industry, revealed a positive correlation between the EI and the three aspects of transformational leadership: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, and individualized consideration. Similarly, in Sivanathan and Fekken’s [35Sivanathan N, Fekken GC. Emotional intelligence, moral reasoning and transformational leadership. Leadersh Organ Dev J 2002; 23: 198-204.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730210429061] ] study, in the university community, established that high levels of emotional intelligence were associated with transformational leadership model. Furthermore, the same analysis revealed that the emotionally intelligent management “triggers» proactivity [20Erkutlu H, Chafra J. The impact of team empowerment on proactivity: the moderating roles of leader’s emotional intelligence and proactive personality. J Health Organ Manag 2012; 26(4-5): 560-77.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777261211256918] [PMID: 23115905] ], the team empowerment [20Erkutlu H, Chafra J. The impact of team empowerment on proactivity: the moderating roles of leader’s emotional intelligence and proactive personality. J Health Organ Manag 2012; 26(4-5): 560-77.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777261211256918] [PMID: 23115905] , 23Lucas V, Laschinger HK, Wong CA. The impact of emotional intelligent leadership on staff nurse empowerment: The moderating effect of span of control. J Nurs Manag 2008; 16(8): 964-73.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008.00856.x] [PMID: 19094109] ], patient satisfaction of care provided [16Munro JC. Nurse Manager Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor to Registered Nurse Job Satisfaction and RN Perceptions of the Practice Environment and the Relationship to Patient, Nursing and Hospital Outcomes. PhD Dissertation 2011.], wellbeing at work [21Spagnuolo A, De Santis M, Torretta C, Filippi M, Talucci C. [Emotional Leadership: a survey on the emotional skills expressed by nursing management]. Prof Inferm 2014; 67(4): 203-10.[PMID: 25837475] ] and contributes decisively to pay extra effort on the part of subordinates, efficiency and job satisfaction [17Spano-Szekely L, Quinn Griffin MT, Clavelle J, Fitzpatrick JJ. Emotional intelligence and transformational leadership in nurse managers. J Nurs Adm 2016; 46(2): 101-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000303] [PMID: 26796823] , 18Tyczkowski B, Vandenhouten C, Reilly J, Bansal G, Kubsch SM, Jakkola R. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers. Nurs Adm Q 2015; 39(2): 172-80.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000094] [PMID: 25714956] ]. Developed emotional skills of leaders and followers, are instrumental in achieving a healthy work environment, not only in the healthcare field but also in ministries, public services, security bodies, private companies, industries, schools, reinforce organizational commitment [36Webb K. How Managers’ Emotional Intelligence Impacts Employees’ Satisfaction and Commitment: A Structural Equation Model. IUP J Organ Behav 2014; 13: 7-24.-39Salami SO. Demographic and Psychological factors predicting Organizational Commitment among Industrial workers. Anthropologist 2008; 10: 31-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2008.11891026] ], job satisfaction [36Webb K. How Managers’ Emotional Intelligence Impacts Employees’ Satisfaction and Commitment: A Structural Equation Model. IUP J Organ Behav 2014; 13: 7-24.-38Brunetto Y, Teo S, Shacklock K, Wharton R. Emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, well-being and engagement: Explaining organizational commitment and turnover intentions in policing. Hum Resour Manage 2012; 22: 428-41.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2012.00198.x] , 40Zampetakis LA, Moustakis V. Managers’ Trait Emotional Intelligence and Group Outcomes: The Case of Group Job Satisfaction. Small Group Res 2011; 42: 77-102.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046496410373627] , 41Sy T, Tram S, O’Hara A. Relation of employee and manager emotional intelligence to job satisfaction and performance. J Vocat Behav 2006; 68: 461-73.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2005.10.003] ] and wellbeing in the workplace [38Brunetto Y, Teo S, Shacklock K, Wharton R. Emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, well-being and engagement: Explaining organizational commitment and turnover intentions in policing. Hum Resour Manage 2012; 22: 428-41.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2012.00198.x] ].

CONCLUSION

EI is important for achieving effective leadership in healthcare organizations and contributes decisively to their good-functioning and successful operation. Individuals have the ability to identify and experience a wide range of emotions in everyday life. However, some of them are not able to use, understand and manage these emotions. That fact suggests that it is necessary to improve their social and emotional skills. As regards nurses, at every level, the above need is considered imperative because of the particular nature of the nursing profession, which places the healthy or weak person at its center. By implementing social and emotional learning programs, nurses can acquire knowledge, attitudes and skills that are necessary for understanding and managing emotions, achieving positive goals, and maintaining positive relations and accountable decisions.

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

EI = Emotional Intelligence

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author declares no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none

REFERENCES

[1] Goleman D. Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ 1995.
[2] Salovery P, Mayer J. Emotional Intelligence. Imagin Cogn Pers 1990; 9: 85-211.
[3] Mayer JD, Salovey P, Caruso DR. Emotional intelligence: new ability or eclectic traits? Am Psychol 2008; 63(6): 503-17.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.63.6.503] [PMID: 18793038]
[4] Chamorro-Premuzic T, Bennett E, Furnham A. The happy personality: Mediational role of trait emotional intelligence. Pers Individ Dif 2007; 42: 1633-9.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.029]
[5] Mikolajczak M, Nelis D, Hansenne M, Quoidbach J. If you can regulate sadness, you can probably regulate shame: Associations between trait emotional intelligence, emotion regulation and coping efficiency across discrete emotions. Pers Individ Dif 2008; 44: 1356-68.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.12.004]
[6] Sevdalis N, Petrides KV, Harvey N. Trait emotional intelligence and decision-related emotions. Pers Individ Dif 2007; 42: 1347-58.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.012]
[7] Coladonato AR, Manning ML. Nurse leader emotional intelligence: How does it affect clinical nurse job satisfaction? Nurs Manage 2017; 48(9): 26-32.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NUMA.0000522174.00393.f2] [PMID: 28857835]
[8] Akhtar R, Boustani L, Tsivrikos D, Chamorro-Premuzic T. The engageable personality: Personality and trait EI as predictors of work engagement. Pers Individ Dif 2015; 73: 44-9.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.040]
[9] Villanueva JJ, Sánchez JC. Trait emotional intelligence and leadership self-efficacy: their relationship with collective efficacy. Span J Psychol 2007; 10(2): 349-57.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1138741600006612] [PMID: 17992961]
[10] Grossman S, Valiga T. The new leadership challenge: Creating the future of nursing 3rd ed. 3rd ed.2009.
[11] Skinner C, Spurgeon P. Valuing empathy and emotional intelligence in health leadership: A study of empathy, leadership behaviour and outcome effectiveness. Health Serv Manage Res 2005; 18(1): 1-12.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/0951484053051924] [PMID: 15807976]
[12] Cummings G, Hayduk L, Estabrooks C. Mitigating the impact of hospital restructuring on nurses: The responsibility of emotionally intelligent leadership. Nurs Res 2005; 54(1): 2-12.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-200501000-00002] [PMID: 15695934]
[13] Ohlson SM, Anderson MA. Ability emotional intelligence of nurse managers in the Midwestern United States. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs 2015; 2(2): 82-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2347-5625.155733] [PMID: 27981098]
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