Table 5: Genetic, morphological, ecological and ethological differences within the eisenmanni / subandina / caeruleiceps and picta / emma group.

Taxon DNA Morphological between Species Morphological within Species Ecological* Altitude Call Frequences Peak
eisenmanni Yes (to all taxa of the complex) Mayor to subandina, caeruleiceps, emma, picta Yes (moist tropical rainforest / low mountain rainforest) 100 - 1660 m 18,3 kHz
subandina Mayor to eisenmanni, caeruleicep, emma, picta Yes (Magdalena Valley montane forests) 20 - 1200 m
caeruleiceps Mayor to eisenmanni, subandina, emma, picta Minor (cheek colouration) Yes (Cordillera Oriental Montane Forests) 400 - 2200 m 16,2 kHz
pantchenkoi Yes Mayor to eisenmanni, subandina, emma, picta Minor (cheek colouration) Yes (Cordillera Oriental Montane Forests) 400 - 2200 m -
emma Yes Mayor to eisenmanni, subandina, caeruleiceps, picta Yes (Cordillera La Costa montane forests, humid and wet forest) 250 - 1700 m 16,0 kHz
picta Yes Mayor to eisenmanni, subandina, caeruleiceps, emma Yes (humid terra firme, varzea, tepuis slopes, coastal sand ridge, savanna forest) 0 - 1800 m 18,3 kHz

* different habitat types based on Fund [41]; altitude of caeruleiceps based on Botero-Delgadillo & Paez [42], eisenmanni based on Forshaw [43], emma and picta based on Hilty [44]

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