Table 2: MHC class I DNA alleles found in wild Carduelis individuals. GenBank accession numbers are also shown.

Species Common Name (Number of Analysed Individuals in Brackets) Alleles GenBank
Carduelis spinus Eurasian siskin
Casp-F*0101 FJ266399
Casp-F*0102 FJ266400
Casp-F*0103 FJ266401
Casp-F*0106 FJ266404
Casp-F*0201 FJ266409
Casp-F*0202 FJ266410
Casp-F*0203 FJ266411
Casp-F*0301 FJ266412
Casp-F*0401 FJ266414
Casp-F*0402 FJ266415
Casp-F*0403 FJ266416
Casp-F*0501 FJ266421
Casp-F*0502 FJ266422
Casp-F*0503 FJ266423
Casp-F*0504 FJ266424
Casp-F*0505 FJ266425
Casp-F*0601 FJ266426
Casp-F*0701 FJ266427
Casp-F*0702 FJ266428
Casp-F*0901 FJ266434
Carduelis pinus Pine siskin
Capi-F*0101 FJ266376
Capi-F*0201 FJ266379
Capi-F*0301 FJ266381
Capi-F*0401 FJ266383
Capi-F*0501 FJ266384
Capi-F*0601 FJ266385
Capi-F*0701 FJ266388
Capi-F*0803 FJ266391
Carduelis atrata Black siskin
Caat-F*0101 FJ266350
Caat-F*0102 FJ266351
Caat-F*0201 FJ266354
Caat-F*0202 FJ266355
Caat-F*0301 FJ266359
Caat-F*0302 FJ266360
Caat-F*0401 FJ266361
Caat-F*0402 FJ266362
Caat-F*0501 FJ266365
Caat-F*0601 FJ266367
Caat-F*0901 FJ266371
Caat-F*1002 FJ266373
Carduelis notata Black-headed siskin
Cano-F*0101 DQ257468
Cano-F*0201 DQ257469
Carduelis spinescens Andean siskin
Caspe-F*0101 DQ257472
Carduelis olivacea Olivaceous siskin
Caol-F*0101 DQ257470
Caol-F*0201 DQ257471
Carduelis cucullata Red siskin
Cacu-F*0101 DQ257465
Cacu-F*0102 DQ257466
Carduelis xanthogastra Yellow-bellied siskin
Caxa-F*0101 DQ257473
Caxa-F*0201 DQ257474
Carduelis yarrellii Yellow-faced siskin
Caya-F*0101 DQ257475
Caya-F*0201 DQ257476
Carduelis magellanica Hooded siskin
Cama-F*0101 DQ257467

Black-headed siskin (C. notata)
This bird is found in Middle America, Central Mexico and Nicaragua. It is observed in conifer and oak forests and lower edges of cloud forests, both in summer and in winter [4]. This siskin or a related ancestor was thriving on Earth about 3 million years ago (Fig. 1) and it probably is the extant ancestor of South American siskin radiation [11]. Two different alleles were found in this species in 1 individual (Table 2).
Black Siskin (C. atrata)
It thrives in Andes from central Peru to western Argentina. Specifically inhabits in puna grassland, rocky slopes, crags, gullies and hillsides, both in winter and in summer [4]. The time of appearance on Earth of this species is approximately 500,000 years ago (Fig. 1), being part of South American siskin radiation group; its extant ancestor which gave rise to South American siskin radiation is C. notata [11]. In the present work, twelve different alleles were found in 8 different individuals (Table 2).
Andean Siskin (C. spinescens)
This species lives in northern South America, mainly it is found in areas such as low bushes, forests, open hillsides, subtropical and paramo zones in scrub [4]. This bird appeared on Earth approximately 500,000 years ago (Fig. 1) and it is a descent of C. notata, being part of South American siskin radiation [8, 11]. Only one allele is found in 1 individual (Table 2).
Olivaceous Siskin (C. olivacea)
This siskin lives in South America, especially in areas from Ecuador to northern Peru and Bolivia. It is observed in forest edges of the subtropical zone [4]. Olivaceous siskin appeared on Earth about 1.2 million years ago (Fig. 1). Two different alleles were found in 1 individual (Table 2).
Red Siskin (C. cucullata)
This bird can be found in northern Venezuela and Colombia, in forests, dry scrubs and grassy areas with scattered trees [4]. Red siskin belongs to South American siskin group and appeared on Earth 1 million year ago (Fig. 1, Table 2) from the common ancestor of this group of siskins, the Black-headed siskin (C. notata) or an extinct relative. Two different alleles were found in 1 individual (Table 2).
Yellow-Bellied Siskin (C. xanthogastra)
This species inhabits in Central and northern South America, mainly in tropical and subtropical forest edges and pastures [4]. It appeared on Earth approximately 1.2 million years ago considering our phylogenetic results shown in Fig. (1). Two different alleles were found in 1 individual in our present analyses.
Yellow-Faced Siskin (C. yarrellii)
This siskin may be observed in northern Brazil, in areas such as, lowland humid forests, woodland and edges of plantations [4]. It appeared on Earth 500,000 years ago being part of South American siskins (Fig. 1). Two different alleles were found in 1 individual of this species (Table 2).
Hooded Siskin (C. magellanica)
It thrives in South America. It may be observed in woods, groves or plantations, edges of cultivation, scrubs, parks and large gardens from coastal lowlands to tropical and subtropical zones [4]. This bird as well as Yellow-faced siskin appeared on Earth 500,000 years ago (Fig. 1). Only one allele is found in 1 individual in the present study (Table 2).