Table 3: Joint protection Principles/Approaches that were reported from the included studies.

Author(s) Year Joint Protection Principles
Siegel 2017 the session was ranging from 45 minutes to 120 minutes
McGee 2017 In a standing position, participants maintained standardized glenohumeral and elbow joint positions as well as hand placements to control for the distal kinetic variance that might result from non-standardized posturing.
Carandang 2016 Uses guidelines that include techniques such as balancing rest and activity and the use of large joints Stresses education about disease, symptoms, and prognosis (especially effects of synovitis); incorporates family and routine
Williams 2015 The Number of sessions dependent on clinical need up to a maximum of three sessions or 1.5 hours in total. Rheumatoid Arthritis, a booklet providing general information about the disease and its management; Looking After Your Joints When You Have Arthritis, describing various self-management techniques and JP advice; and Keep Moving – How a few Simple Exercises can Make You Feel Better About Yourself and Your Arthritis, a booklet providing general exercise information along with suggestions as to specific exercises that could be performed for all parts of the body
Hammond 2015 • Joint protection: Respect pain; distribute the load over several joints; use the strongest, largest joint to perform an activity; avoid working in positions of potential deformity; reduce effort by using assistive devices and avoiding lifting and carrying, and avoid prolonged periods of working in the same position. • Energy conservation: Pace by balancing rest and work and alternate heavy and light activities; use work simplification; use correct working positions and postures.
Dziedzic 2013 distributing the weight of what you lift over several joints (e.g., spread the load over two hands) avoiding putting strain on the thumb and repetitive thumb movements avoiding prolonged grips in one position using as large a grip as possible reducing the effort needed to do a task (e.g., use labor-saving gadgets; avoid lifting heavy objects, and reduce the weight of what you lift) energy conservation (activity pacing and planning)
Ekelman 2014 Training includes movement training to promote daily manual work by reducing pain and joint strain, preventing deformity, and maintaining functional capacity; self-exercise programs for hands; and provision of information on assistive devices, methods to adapt the environment, and the value, use, and handling of orthoses.
Niedermann 2012 Demonstrations and supervised practice of hand JP methods, mostly in kitchen activities, and demonstration of appropriate assistive devices. The interventions consisted of five 45-minute sessions, four over a three-week period and one booster session two months later
Beasley 2012 Respect pain, balance rest and activity, perform the exercise in a pain-free range, avoid positions of deformity, reduce the effort and force, use larger/stronger joints
Swann 2011 The main techniques for joint protection are to (Arthritis Research UK, 2010): Use larger, stronger joints, Spread the load over several joints, Reduce effort by using labor-saving gadgets, Avoid gripping things tightly, Avoid positions that push joints towards
Boustedt 2010 Joint protection consists of information about hand anatomy, osteoarthritis, and theoretical and practical information about pain and how to cope with it [6]. To introduce alternate working methods to reduce difficulties of daily activities the women tried grip assistive devices and elastic thumb splints during the day both at the clinic and at home.
Hammond 2008 joint protection (including 45min demonstration and practice), managing fatigue, aims of splinting, managing stress and relaxation (45 min practice)
Masiero 2007 Principles of JP and energy conservation, including a demonstration of various hand-JP techniques, plus a homework task to identify problem activities and find solutions based on the imparted principles, work difficulties, etc.
O’Brien 2006 basic principles of joint protection, energy conservation, ‘top tips’ relating to personal and household activities,
Hammond 2004 Both education programmes consisted of four 2-hour weekly meetings.
Stamm 2002 joint protection instruction: the need for balance between movement and resting a joint; dividing stress between as many joints as possible; using larger and stronger joints; using each joint in its most stable plane to reduce pressure on the joint; avoiding staying in one position, and avoiding vibrations for the finger joints.
Hammond 2001 principles of joint protection and energy conservation; demonstration of some hand-joint protection methods; and a homework task to identify problem activities and to find solutions using the principles taught.
Hammond 1999 Arthritis and Rheumatism council leaflets
Hammond 1998 Altering ways of moving hands during daily activities to reduce joint strain
Hammond 1994 Four JP principles were assessed: (1) distributing the load over several joints; (2) using each joint in its most stable position; (3) reducing effort by use of aids and avoiding lifting; and (4) avoiding positions of possible joint deformity
Neuberger 1993 Joint Protection Principles