SH classification, aetiologies of injury, age distributions and follow up data of included studies.

Study SH I SH II SH III SH IV SH V Type VI Males Females Total no. of Patients Aetiology of Injuries Age Range Avg. Age at Injury F/u Range
(avg. f/u)
Arkader A., Warner W., Horn, D., Shaw R., Wells L., 2007(21) 18 43 4 7 1 0 67a 16a 73 MVA including pedestrian vs. motor vehicle
Sports related (most common American Football)
0.41 to 17 years 10 years 1.5 to 7 years
(2 years)
Buess-Watson E., Exner G., Illo O., 1994(48) 1 9 4 0 0 0 28b 15b 14 High energy trauma at winter-sports
Bicycle
Athletics/pedestrian/fall
6.25 to 14.75 years 11.75 years -
(13 years)
Caterini R., Farsetti P., d’Arrigo C., Ippolito E., 1991(49) 1 4 0 2 0 0 5 2 7 2/7 obstetric injuries, otherwise not mentioned Birth to 14.5 years 8.77 years 12.08 to 36.67 years
(22.69 years)
Edmunds I., Nade S., 1993(15) 0 16 4 2 1 0 23a 10a 23 Motor vehicle vs. pedestrian or cyclist
Fall
Motorcycle accident
Motor vehicle accident
Sporting accident
4 to18 years 12 years ‘1 year minimum’
(4.8 years)
Eid A., Hafez M., 2002 (16) 39 65 19 22 6 0 129 22 151 Sports-related activities
Road traffic accidents
Various falls
0.83 to 16 years 12.3 years 2 to 19 years
(not provided)
Garrett B., Hoffman E., Carrara H., 2011(29) 4 46 2 3 0 0 - - 40 Motor vehicle accident, including those involving a pedestrian or cyclist
Crush injuries
Falls
Sports-related
- 10 years (median) 2 years until skeletal maturity
(not provided)
Graham J., Gross R., 1990(17) 2 7 0 1 0 0 9 1 10 (American) Football
Other sports
Auto-pedestrian accident
Nil provided 13 years -
(not provided)
Havranek P., Pesl T., 2010(36) 0 0 0 0 0 8 21b 15b 8 All Type VI bony injuries of body:
Athletic sports, Soccer, Gymnastics
Stumbling/ fall from height
Traffic injuries
Gunshot wounds
4 to16 years 11.6 years (median) 2 to 4 years
(not provided)
Ilharreborde B., Raquillet C., Morel E., Fitoussi F., Bensahel H., Penneçot G., Mazda K., 2006(50) 0 20 0 0 0 0 16 4 20 MVA versus pedestrian or cyclist
Sports related (ski, soccer, judo)
Fall
8 to 15 years 11 years 0.25 to 11 years
(4.08 years)
Kritsaneepaiboon S., Shah R., Murray M., Kleinman P., 2009(51) 0 6 0 0 0 0 6 0 6 Hyper-extension injury
Direct injury to the knee
8 to 16 years 12.5 years 0.15 to 1.5 years
(not provided)
Krueger-Franke M., Siebert C., Pfoerringer W., 1992(52) 2 4 2 2 0 0 60b 25b 10 Soccer
Skiing
Gymnastics
Other
4 to 17 years 12.3 years (male), 12.9 years (female) ‘Conclusion of growth’
(not specifically provided)
Lippert W., Owens R., Wall E., 2010(53) 0 0 14 0 0 0 2 12 14 Fall/ fall down stairs/ from bicycle
Tombstone fell on leg
(American) football
7.67 to 17.92 years 13.87 years 0.167 to 3.92 years
(1.79 years)
Partio E., Tuompo P., HIrvensalo E., Böstman O., Rokkanen P., 1997(54) 0 2 5 1 1 * 0 8 1 9 Motorbike accidents
Ice hockey
Fall whilst horse riding/ from bicycle
13.42 to 16.58 years 15.5 years 1 to 2.83 years
(1.79 years)
Plánka L., Skvaril J., Stary D., Jochymek J., Gál P., 2008 (28) (55) 3 26 2 0 0 0 16 15 31 ‘Mainly sports and traffic accidents’ 2 to 16 years 11.9 years 0.25 years only
Thomson J., Stricker S., Williams M., 1995(19) 0 24 2 4 0 0 22 7 29 (30 injuries) Nil recorded 0.5 to 15 years 10.9 years 1 to 8 years
(3.80 years)

Abbreviations: Avg, Average; F/u, Follow-up; MVA, Motor Vehicle Accident.



Study Particular SH Class Reduced or Particular Position of Fracture Displacement Lower Energy Injury Mechanism Patient Age at Time of Injury
Arkader A., Warner W., Horn, D., Shaw R., Wells L., 2007 (21) Y Ya N N
Buess-Watson E., Exner G., Illo O., 1994(48) N - - N
Caterini R., Farsetti P., d’Arrigo C., Ippolito E., 1991(49) Y N - -
Edmunds I., Nade S., 1993(15) Y - - -
Eid A., Hafez M., 2002 (16) Nb - - Y
Garrett B., Hoffman E., Carrara H., 2011(29) Y N Y T
Graham J., Gross R., 1990(17) - - - -
Havranek P., Pesl T., 2010(36) - - - -
Ilharreborde B., Raquillet C., Morel E., Fitoussi F., Bensahel H., Penneçot G., Mazda K., 2006(50) - Y - -
Kritsaneepaiboon S., Shah R., Murray M., Kleinman P., 2009(51) - - - -
Krueger-Franke M., Siebert C., Pfoerringer W., 1992(52) Y - - -
Lippert W., Owens R., Wall E., 2010(53) - - - -
Partio E., Tuompo P., HIrvensalo E., Böstman O., Rokkanen P., 1997(54) - - - -
Plánka L., Skvaril J., Stary D., Jochymek J., Gál P., 2008 (28) - - - -
Thomson J., Stricker S., Williams M., 1995(19) N Y - N

Association between improved clinical outcomes and patient and injury characteristics.
Abbreviations: - Association between factor and patient outcome not investigated by paper; Y, Association between factor and patient outcome found; N, Association between factor and patient outcome not found; T, Trend only, not statistically significant; a, Presence, not direction of displacement; b, Worsening prognosis from SH I, III, IV, II, V.

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