The Open Orthopaedics Journal




ISSN: 1874-3250 ― Volume 13, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Distal Linear Metatarsal Osteotomy Combined with Akin Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus with Hallux Valgus Interphalangeus



Kazuki Kanazawa*, Ichiro Yoshimura, Tomonobu Hagio, Takuaki Yamamoto
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan

Abstract

Background:

Minimally invasive distal linear metatarsal osteotomy is commonly performed to correct mild-to-moderate hallux valgus. The technique is easy to perform, fast, and has a low complication rate with satisfactory clinical results. However, it has so far not been applied to hallux valgus with concomitant hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity.

Objective:

We aimed to investigate the short-term clinical results of distal linear metatarsal osteotomy combined with Akin osteotomy in hallux valgus with concomitant hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity.

Methods:

We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients (10 feet) who underwent surgery for hallux valgus with hallux valgus interphalangeus between 2012 and 2016. Akin osteotomy was performed and fixated with a screw/K-wire, followed by distal linear metatarsal osteotomy and K-wire fixation. Clinical evaluations pre- and postoperatively used the Japan Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) scale and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Radiography pre-and postoperatively assessed the hallux valgus, hallux valgus interphalangeus, and the intermetatarsal angle.

Results:

The mean follow-up period was 20.2 months. Both the JSSF and VAS score improved significantly, from 64.5 to 90.0 and from 5.5 to 1.1, respectively. In all patients, bone healing was complete within four months with no osteonecrosis of the metatarsal head or malunion at the osteotomy site. The hallux valgus angle improved from 31.5° to 7.7°, the hallux valgus interphalangeus angle from 17.2° to 5.8°, and the intermetatarsal angle from 11.7° to 5.5°.

Conclusion:

Distal linear metatarsal osteotomy combined with Akin osteotomy safely and effectively corrects mild-to-moderate hallux valgus with hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity.

Keywords: Akin osteotomy, Hallux valgus, Hallux valgus interphalangeus, Metatarsal osteotomy, Minimally invasive, Surgical procedure.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 13
First Page: 34
Last Page: 41
Publisher Id: TOORTHJ-13-34
DOI: 10.2174/1874325001913010034

Article History:

Received Date: 04/03/2018
Revision Received Date: 07/1/2019
Acceptance Date: 16/1/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/1/2019
Collection year: 2019

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1037
Abstract HTML Views: 703
PDF Downloads: 300
ePub Downloads: 237
Total Views/Downloads: 2277

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 628
Abstract HTML Views: 471
PDF Downloads: 180
ePub Downloads: 137
Total Views/Downloads: 1416
Geographical View

© 2019 Kanazawa et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan; Tel: +81928011011; Fax: +81928649055; E-mail: kanazawa@cis.fukuoka-u.ac.jp




1. INTRODUCTION

Hallux Valgus (HV) is a common deformity of the forefoot. It is more prevalent in females and the elderly, and characterized by malposition of the first metatarsophalangeal joint caused by lateral deviation of the proximal phalanx of the great toe combined with medial deviation of the first metatarsal bone with bunion formation. Conservative treatments include properly fitting footwear, stretching, and the use of an orthosis. However, the value of conservative treatment has been questioned. If conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment may be considered. Over 150 different operation techniques have been described for the correction of HV [1Wagner E, Ortiz C. Osteotomy considerations in hallux valgus treatment: Improving the correction power. Foot Ankle Clin 2012; 17(3): 481-98.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcl.2012.06.007] [PMID: 22938 646] ]. Good clinical results have been reported with proximal metatarsal osteotomies, distal metatarsal osteotomies, and diaphyseal metatarsal osteotomies [2Wülker N. Hallux valgus Orthopade 1997; 26(7): 654-64.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001320050137] ].

Minimally invasive surgery is becoming increasingly common. Distal linear metatarsal osteotomy (DLMO; modified Bösch technique) as a minimally invasive technique has been performed for the correction of mild-to-moderate HV [3Bösch P, Wanke S, Legenstein R. Hallux valgus correction by the method of Bösch: a new technique with a seven-to-ten-year follow-up. Foot Ankle Clin 2000; 5(3): 485-498, v-vi.[PMID: 11232393] -6Chiang CC, Lin CF, Tzeng YH, Huang CK, Chen WM, Liu CL. Distal linear osteotomy compared to oblique diaphyseal osteotomy in moderate to severe hallux valgus. Foot Ankle Int 2012; 33(6): 479-86.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3113/FAI.2012.0479] [PMID: 2273 5320] ]. DLMO has the advantages that it is technically easy to perform, has relatively short operating times, and low complication rates. The technique was developed for rapid recovery and better cosmetic appearance, and satisfactory clinical results have been reported to this end in previous studies [3Bösch P, Wanke S, Legenstein R. Hallux valgus correction by the method of Bösch: a new technique with a seven-to-ten-year follow-up. Foot Ankle Clin 2000; 5(3): 485-498, v-vi.[PMID: 11232393] -5Angthong C, Yoshimura I, Kanazawa K, Hagio T, Ida T, Naito M. Minimally invasive distal linear metatarsal osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus: A preliminary study of clinical outcome and analytical radiographic results via a mapping system. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2013; 133(3): 321-31.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-012-1665-6] [PMID: 2322 4562] , 7Bösch P, Markowski H, Rannicher V. Technik und erste Ergebnisse der subkutanen distalen Metatarsale-I-Osteotomie. Orthop Prax 1990; 26: 51-6.-9Giannini S, Faldini C, Nanni M, Di Martino A, Luciani D, Vannini F. A minimally invasive technique for surgical treatment of hallux valgus: Simple, effective, rapid, inexpensive (SERI). Int Orthop 2013; 37(9): 1805-13.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-013-1980-8] [PMID: 2382 0757] ]. DLMO consists of fixation with a single K-wire that passes under the subcutaneous tissue to the distal end of the big toe. This approach has so far not been applied to cases of Hallux Valgus Interphalangeus (HVI) deformity occurring together with hallux valgus. HVI is defined as a lateral deviation of the distal phalanx of the big toe that exceeds 10° [10Coughlin MJ, Saltzman CL, Nunley JA II. Angular measurements in the evaluation of hallux valgus deformities: A report of the ad hoc committee of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society on angular measurements. Foot Ankle Int 2002; 23(1): 68-74.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107110070202300114] [PMID: 1182 2697] ].

We decided to combine Akin osteotomy with DLMO (DLMO-A) to improve fixation for HV with concomitant HVI. The present study aimed to investigate the short-term clinical and radiological results of DLMO-A in the treatment of this combined deformity.

2. PATIENTS AND METHODS

2.1. Patients

This retrospective, descriptive study included 10 patients (10 feet) who had been diagnosed with both HV and HVI and were treated with DLMO-A between November 2012 and November 2016 at our institution. Of the 10 patients, nine were female and one was a male. The mean age at surgery was 59.8 years (range, 43–77 years), and the mean duration of follow-up was 20.2 months (range, 12–31 months). The inclusion criterion was painful primary mild-to-moderate HV with idiopathic HVI deformity (Fig. 1). The exclusion criteria were hallux rigidus and a history of previous surgery of the affected great toe. All patients received conservative treatment for at least three months before surgery.

This study was approved by the Research Ethics Com-mittee of Fukuoka University (2018M063), and all subjects provided informed consent before study inclusion.

Clinical and radiographic investigations were performed at the initial examination and at the final outpatient follow-up visit. With regard to clinical assessments, we evaluated the Japan Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) score, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, and recorded any postoperative complications. The JSSF score is a 100-point clinical score comprising the following three items: a pain score (40 points maximum), functionality (45 points maximum), and alignment (15 points maximum) [11Niki H, Aoki H, Inokuchi S, et al. Development and reliability of a standard rating system for outcome measurement of foot and ankle disorders I: Development of standard rating system. J Orthop Sci 2005; 10(5): 457-65.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00776-005-0936-2] [PMID: 1619 3356] ]. The VAS score ranges from 0 to 10, with 0 representing no pain and 10 representing the worst pain imaginable. Additionally, the self-administered foot evaluation questionnaire (SAFE-Q) score [12Niki H, Tatsunami S, Haraguchi N, et al. Validity and reliability of a self-administered foot evaluation questionnaire (SAFE-Q). J Orthop Sci 2013; 18(2): 298-320.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00776-012-0337-2] [PMID: 2329 9996] , 13Niki H, Haraguchi N, Aoki T, et al. Responsiveness of the Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire (SAFE-Q) in patients with hallux valgus. J Orthop Sci 2017; 22(4): 737-42.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2017.04.005] [PMID: 285014 33] ] was used. The SAFE-Q has the following five subscales: 1) pain and pain-related, 2) physical functioning and daily living, 3) social functioning, 4) shoe-related, and 5) general health and well-being. The subscales are scored from 0 to 100. With regard to radiographic assessments, we evaluated the HV Angle (HVA), first Intermetatarsal Angle (IMA), and HVI Angle (HVIA) in standing dorsoplantar and lateral radiographs (Fig. 2).

Fig. (1)
Representative preoperative image of hallux valgus with hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity (case 4).


2.2. Operative Technique

In all patients, surgery was performed in the supine position under epidural anesthesia with intravenous sedation, a pneumatic ankle tourniquet (pressure set to 250 mmHg), and an image intensifier. Akin closing wedge osteotomy was per-formed at the middle of the proximal phalangeal shaft through a 1.5 cm dorsal skin incision. The first osteotomy was performed parallel to the phalangeal base, and the second osteotomy was performed parallel to the articular surface of the phalangeal head. The thickness of the bony wedge was decided based on the required correction of the HVIA. Fixation was performed with one mini screw or K-wire from the proximal to the distal part of the phalanx. Lateral soft tissue release was performed for the first and second metatarsal heads through a 1.5 cm dorsal skin incision if HV could not be corrected with closed manual reduction. In the next step, a 1.5 cm skin incision was made on the medial aspect of the neck of the first metatarsal bone. A periosteal elevator was used to strip the neck of the first metatarsal bone. A 2.0 mm K-wire was inserted manually from the incision to the medial side of the big toe using the retrograde technique. Osteotomy was performed with a micro-bone saw at the subcapital level of the metatarsus, perpendicular to the metatarsal shaft in the sagittal plane, and parallel to the metatarsal shaft in the coronal plane. Lateral translation of the distal fragment was sufficiently obtained, and the K-wire was pushed back into the medullary canal of the first metatarsal shaft (Figs. 3 and 4).

Fig. (2)
Representative preoperative dorsoplantar and lateral radiograph of hallux valgus with hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity. Hallux valgus with deformity of hallux valgus interphalangeus (case 4).


Fig. (3)
Representative postoperative dorsoplantar and lateral radiographs of the correction with distal linear metatarsal osteotomy with Akin osteotomy. Akin osteotomy fixation of proximal phalanx using a small headless screw and DLMO fixation of metatarsus using a 2.0 mm K-wire (case 4).


Weight-bearing on the heel in special postoperative shoes was allowed on the first postoperative day. The K-wire was removed six weeks postoperatively. The patients were allowed to wear normal shoes, and forefoot weight-bearing was encouraged from eight weeks postoperatively.

2.3. Statistical Analysis

Preoperative and final follow-up clinical data were compared using a paired t-test. All statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS for Windows, version 21 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). A p-value of < 0.05 was consid-ered to denote statistical significance.

3. RESULTS

Clinical and radiological results are depicted in Table 1. There were statistically significant improvements in all JSSF, SAFE-Q subscale, and VAS scores, as well as in the HVA, IMA, and HVIA at the final follow-up.

Fig. (4)
Postoperative image with the location of incisions. The photograph shows the result of the minimally invasive approach with two 1.5 cm (dorsal and medial) sutures of the skin (case 4).


Table 1
Clinical and radiographic outcomes of 10 patients after distal linear metatarsal osteotomy with Akin osteotomy.


Table 2
Pre- and post- operative Japan Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores.


The mean JSSF score significantly improved from 64.5 preoperatively to 90.0 postoperatively (p < 0.001). The mean VAS score also significantly improved from 5.3 preoperatively to 1.1 postoperatively (p < 0.001) (Table 2).

The mean SAFE-Q subscale scores significantly im-proved in all patients after surgery (p < 0.001) (Table 3).

The mean HVA significantly improved from 31.5° (preoperatively) to 7.7° (postoperatively) (p < 0.001), the mean IMA from 11.7° to 5.5° (p < 0.001), and the mean HVIA from 17.2° to 5.8° (p < 0.001) (Figs. 5-7 and Table 4). No patient developed transfer metatarsalgia, infection, non-union, malunion, or avascular necrosis of the first metatarsal head. However, a mild restriction of the range of motion of the inter-phalangeal joint was observed postoperatively in one patient.

Table 3
Pre- and postoperative self-administered foot evaluation questionnaire subscale scores.


Fig. (5)
Representative dorsoplantar and lateral radiographs 29 months after DLMO-A. Complete healing of the osteotomies is visible (case 2).


Fig. (6)
Representative dorsoplantar and lateral radiographs 31 months after DLMO-A. Complete healing of the osteotomies is visible (case 1).


Fig. (7)
Representative dorsoplantar and lateral radiographs 18 months after DLMO-A. Complete healing of the osteotomies is visible (case 4).


Table 4
Pre and postoperative radiographic measurements of angles relevant for outcomes in hallux valgus.


4. DISCUSSION

Many different surgical procedures have been described for the surgical treatment of HV depending on the degree of the deformity. In recent years, minimally invasive surgery has become increasingly common [3Bösch P, Wanke S, Legenstein R. Hallux valgus correction by the method of Bösch: a new technique with a seven-to-ten-year follow-up. Foot Ankle Clin 2000; 5(3): 485-498, v-vi.[PMID: 11232393] -5Angthong C, Yoshimura I, Kanazawa K, Hagio T, Ida T, Naito M. Minimally invasive distal linear metatarsal osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus: A preliminary study of clinical outcome and analytical radiographic results via a mapping system. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2013; 133(3): 321-31.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-012-1665-6] [PMID: 2322 4562] , 7Bösch P, Markowski H, Rannicher V. Technik und erste Ergebnisse der subkutanen distalen Metatarsale-I-Osteotomie. Orthop Prax 1990; 26: 51-6.-9Giannini S, Faldini C, Nanni M, Di Martino A, Luciani D, Vannini F. A minimally invasive technique for surgical treatment of hallux valgus: Simple, effective, rapid, inexpensive (SERI). Int Orthop 2013; 37(9): 1805-13.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-013-1980-8] [PMID: 2382 0757] , 14Kadakia AR, Smerek JP, Myerson MS. Radiographic results after percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity. Foot Ankle Int 2007; 28(3): 355-60.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3113/FAI.2007.0355] [PMID: 17371659] -16Iannò B, Familiari F, De Gori M, Galasso O, Ranuccio F, Gasparini G. Midterm results and complications after minimally invasive distal metatarsal osteotomy for treatment of hallux valgus. Foot Ankle Int 2013; 34(7): 969-77.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100713481453] [PMID: 23463 780] ]. Percutaneous distal first metatarsal osteotomy was first described by Bösch et al. in 1990 [7Bösch P, Markowski H, Rannicher V. Technik und erste Ergebnisse der subkutanen distalen Metatarsale-I-Osteotomie. Orthop Prax 1990; 26: 51-6.], and satisfactory results were reported in 2000 [3Bösch P, Wanke S, Legenstein R. Hallux valgus correction by the method of Bösch: a new technique with a seven-to-ten-year follow-up. Foot Ankle Clin 2000; 5(3): 485-498, v-vi.[PMID: 11232393] ]. Magnan et al. reported a mean total American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score of 88.2 (out of a total of 100) using percutaneous distal osteotomy [4Magnan B, Pezzè L, Rossi N, Bartolozzi P. Percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005; 87(6): 1191-9.[PMID: 15930526] ]. Seki et al. reported a mean total JSSF score of 90.4 using DLMO with selective release of lateral soft tissue after a mean postoperative follow-up of 38.8 months [8Seki H, Suda Y, Takeshima K, et al. Minimally invasive distal linear metatarsal osteotomy combined with selective release of lateral soft tissue for severe hallux valgus. J Orthop Sci 2018; 23(3): 557-64.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2018.02.013] [PMID: 29573 864] ].

In our study, a mean total JSSF score of 90.0 was documented for a mean postoperative follow-up of 20.2 months, and there were no serious complications. However, a mild restriction of the range of motion of the interphalangeal joint was observed postoperatively in one patient. We considered this joint stiffness to be associated with the K-wire placement to temporarily fix the metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. Previous studies have reported K-wire removal four [3Bösch P, Wanke S, Legenstein R. Hallux valgus correction by the method of Bösch: a new technique with a seven-to-ten-year follow-up. Foot Ankle Clin 2000; 5(3): 485-498, v-vi.[PMID: 11232393] , 7Bösch P, Markowski H, Rannicher V. Technik und erste Ergebnisse der subkutanen distalen Metatarsale-I-Osteotomie. Orthop Prax 1990; 26: 51-6.-9Giannini S, Faldini C, Nanni M, Di Martino A, Luciani D, Vannini F. A minimally invasive technique for surgical treatment of hallux valgus: Simple, effective, rapid, inexpensive (SERI). Int Orthop 2013; 37(9): 1805-13.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-013-1980-8] [PMID: 2382 0757] ], six [5Angthong C, Yoshimura I, Kanazawa K, Hagio T, Ida T, Naito M. Minimally invasive distal linear metatarsal osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus: A preliminary study of clinical outcome and analytical radiographic results via a mapping system. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2013; 133(3): 321-31.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-012-1665-6] [PMID: 2322 4562] , 15Oliva F, Longo UG, Maffulli N. Minimally invasive hallux valgus correction. Orthop Clin North Am 2009; 40(4): 525-530, x.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2009.06.005] [PMID: 197730 58] ], and seven [14Kadakia AR, Smerek JP, Myerson MS. Radiographic results after percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity. Foot Ankle Int 2007; 28(3): 355-60.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3113/FAI.2007.0355] [PMID: 17371659] ] weeks postoperatively. In the present study, the K-wire was removed six weeks postoperatively. However, we considered that it is necessary to remove the wire earlier, ideally once callus formation is observed.

At the same time, complications and poor outcomes have been reported for minimally invasive methods in other articles [14Kadakia AR, Smerek JP, Myerson MS. Radiographic results after percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity. Foot Ankle Int 2007; 28(3): 355-60.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3113/FAI.2007.0355] [PMID: 17371659] , 16Iannò B, Familiari F, De Gori M, Galasso O, Ranuccio F, Gasparini G. Midterm results and complications after minimally invasive distal metatarsal osteotomy for treatment of hallux valgus. Foot Ankle Int 2013; 34(7): 969-77.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100713481453] [PMID: 23463 780] ]. Therefore, the use of DLMO for the treatment of HV is still controversial. DLMO involves fixation with only a single K-wire that is passed under the subcutaneous tissue to the distal end of the big toe. Accordingly, DLMO has not been applied for HV with HVI deformity. We decided to use DLMO and additionally perform Akin osteotomy to improve fixation. Akin osteotomy is a popular technique for isolated HVI [17Vander Griend R. Correction of hallux valgus interphalangeus with an osteotomy of the distal end of the proximal phalanx (distal Akin osteotomy). Foot Ankle Int 2017; 38(2): 153-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100716670389] [PMID: 27672 063] -19Douthett S, Plaskey N, Fallat L, Kish J. Retrospective analysis of the Akin osteotomy. J Foot Ankle Surg 2018; 57(1): 38-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2017.06.026] [PMID: 28974 346] ], and the fixation in Akin osteotomy can also be performed with a K-wire, monofilament wire or screw [20Langford JH. ASIF Akin osteotomy: A new method of fixation. J Am Podiatry Assoc 1981; 71(7): 390-6.[http://dx.doi.org/10.7547/87507315-71-7-390] [PMID: 72641 55] , 21Murphy JS, Mozena JD, Walker RE. J-wire technique for fixation of the Akin osteotomy. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1989; 79(6): 291-3.[http://dx.doi.org/10.7547/87507315-79-6-291] [PMID: 2746 487] ], which aligns with the minimally invasive approach of DLMO.

Chiang et al. reported that Bösch osteotomy, despite a generally reliable correction of the deformity, resulted in 12.5% of early arthritic changes [6Chiang CC, Lin CF, Tzeng YH, Huang CK, Chen WM, Liu CL. Distal linear osteotomy compared to oblique diaphyseal osteotomy in moderate to severe hallux valgus. Foot Ankle Int 2012; 33(6): 479-86.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3113/FAI.2012.0479] [PMID: 2273 5320] ]. They explained the degenerative change as being related to an increased reactive force after extensive correction and immobilization of the metatarsophalangeal joint with a K-wire. We believe that overcorrection of HV with a single K-wire in case of concomitant HVI can increase the stress load on the metatarso-phalangeal joint, and alignment correction with the Akin procedure can help to reduce the stress load on the metatarso-phalangeal joint.

The present study has some limitations. It was a retrospective study with a small number of patients (a total of 10 feet operated) and a short postoperative follow-up (mean 20.2 months).

CONCLUSION

DLMO-A safely and effectively corrects mild-to-moderate HV with HVI, however, the postoperative follow-up period is short. It is necessary to conduct a longer follow-up to detect possible stiffness or new deformities. Further studies with a larger number of patients and a longer follow-up period are needed to adequately assess the value of DLMO-A in HV with concomitant HVI.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

DLMO = Distal Linear Metatarsal Osteotomy
DLMO-A = Distal Linear Metatarsal Osteotomy Combined with Akin Osteotomy
HV = Hallux Valgus
HVA = HV Angle
HVI = Hallux Valgus Interphalangeus
HVIA = HVI Angle
IMA = Intermetatarsal Angle
JSSF = Japan Society for Surgery of the Foot
SAFE-Q = Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire
VAS = Visual Analog Scale

FUNDING

No funding was obtained for this study.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Fukuoka University (2018M063), and all subjects provided informed consent before study inclusion.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No animal were used in the research, All procedures performed involving human participants were in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Written informed consent was obtained from all participants for prospective data collection, follow-up examinations, and publication of the clinical results and images in international journals.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors report no conflict of interest concerning the materials or methods used in this study or the findings specified in this paper.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank Editage (www.editage.jp) for English language editing.

REFERENCES

[1] Wagner E, Ortiz C. Osteotomy considerations in hallux valgus treatment: Improving the correction power. Foot Ankle Clin 2012; 17(3): 481-98.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcl.2012.06.007] [PMID: 22938 646]
[2] Wülker N. Hallux valgus Orthopade 1997; 26(7): 654-64.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s001320050137]
[3] Bösch P, Wanke S, Legenstein R. Hallux valgus correction by the method of Bösch: a new technique with a seven-to-ten-year follow-up. Foot Ankle Clin 2000; 5(3): 485-498, v-vi.[PMID: 11232393]
[4] Magnan B, Pezzè L, Rossi N, Bartolozzi P. Percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005; 87(6): 1191-9.[PMID: 15930526]
[5] Angthong C, Yoshimura I, Kanazawa K, Hagio T, Ida T, Naito M. Minimally invasive distal linear metatarsal osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus: A preliminary study of clinical outcome and analytical radiographic results via a mapping system. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2013; 133(3): 321-31.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-012-1665-6] [PMID: 2322 4562]
[6] Chiang CC, Lin CF, Tzeng YH, Huang CK, Chen WM, Liu CL. Distal linear osteotomy compared to oblique diaphyseal osteotomy in moderate to severe hallux valgus. Foot Ankle Int 2012; 33(6): 479-86.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3113/FAI.2012.0479] [PMID: 2273 5320]
[7] Bösch P, Markowski H, Rannicher V. Technik und erste Ergebnisse der subkutanen distalen Metatarsale-I-Osteotomie. Orthop Prax 1990; 26: 51-6.
[8] Seki H, Suda Y, Takeshima K, et al. Minimally invasive distal linear metatarsal osteotomy combined with selective release of lateral soft tissue for severe hallux valgus. J Orthop Sci 2018; 23(3): 557-64.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2018.02.013] [PMID: 29573 864]
[9] Giannini S, Faldini C, Nanni M, Di Martino A, Luciani D, Vannini F. A minimally invasive technique for surgical treatment of hallux valgus: Simple, effective, rapid, inexpensive (SERI). Int Orthop 2013; 37(9): 1805-13.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-013-1980-8] [PMID: 2382 0757]
[10] Coughlin MJ, Saltzman CL, Nunley JA II. Angular measurements in the evaluation of hallux valgus deformities: A report of the ad hoc committee of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society on angular measurements. Foot Ankle Int 2002; 23(1): 68-74.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107110070202300114] [PMID: 1182 2697]
[11] Niki H, Aoki H, Inokuchi S, et al. Development and reliability of a standard rating system for outcome measurement of foot and ankle disorders I: Development of standard rating system. J Orthop Sci 2005; 10(5): 457-65.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00776-005-0936-2] [PMID: 1619 3356]
[12] Niki H, Tatsunami S, Haraguchi N, et al. Validity and reliability of a self-administered foot evaluation questionnaire (SAFE-Q). J Orthop Sci 2013; 18(2): 298-320.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00776-012-0337-2] [PMID: 2329 9996]
[13] Niki H, Haraguchi N, Aoki T, et al. Responsiveness of the Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire (SAFE-Q) in patients with hallux valgus. J Orthop Sci 2017; 22(4): 737-42.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2017.04.005] [PMID: 285014 33]
[14] Kadakia AR, Smerek JP, Myerson MS. Radiographic results after percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity. Foot Ankle Int 2007; 28(3): 355-60.[http://dx.doi.org/10.3113/FAI.2007.0355] [PMID: 17371659]
[15] Oliva F, Longo UG, Maffulli N. Minimally invasive hallux valgus correction. Orthop Clin North Am 2009; 40(4): 525-530, x.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2009.06.005] [PMID: 197730 58]
[16] Iannò B, Familiari F, De Gori M, Galasso O, Ranuccio F, Gasparini G. Midterm results and complications after minimally invasive distal metatarsal osteotomy for treatment of hallux valgus. Foot Ankle Int 2013; 34(7): 969-77.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100713481453] [PMID: 23463 780]
[17] Vander Griend R. Correction of hallux valgus interphalangeus with an osteotomy of the distal end of the proximal phalanx (distal Akin osteotomy). Foot Ankle Int 2017; 38(2): 153-8.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100716670389] [PMID: 27672 063]
[18] Martinelli N, Giacalone A, Bianchi A, Hosseinzadeh M, Bonifacini C, Malerba F. Distal Akin osteotomy for hallux valgus interphalangeus. Foot Ankle Surg 2018; 24(3): 205-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2017.02.003] [PMID: 29409 216]
[19] Douthett S, Plaskey N, Fallat L, Kish J. Retrospective analysis of the Akin osteotomy. J Foot Ankle Surg 2018; 57(1): 38-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2017.06.026] [PMID: 28974 346]
[20] Langford JH. ASIF Akin osteotomy: A new method of fixation. J Am Podiatry Assoc 1981; 71(7): 390-6.[http://dx.doi.org/10.7547/87507315-71-7-390] [PMID: 72641 55]
[21] Murphy JS, Mozena JD, Walker RE. J-wire technique for fixation of the Akin osteotomy. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1989; 79(6): 291-3.[http://dx.doi.org/10.7547/87507315-79-6-291] [PMID: 2746 487]

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open