Fig. (3) Mechanical testing. Left: Push-out test performed with the 3.5 mm thick specimen placed on metal support jig. In the corner, a
picture of the implant/bone specimen after the implant has been pushed from the bone, demonstrating in-substance bone failure mode.
Displacement velocity 5 mm/min. Right: Load (N) displacement (mm) curve enables calculation of ultimate shear strength (MPa), apparent
shear stiffness (MPa/mm), and total energy absorption (KJ/m2)