Table 1: Showing a summary of PhD thesis included in the review.

References Reference list Number Study Context Data Source Sample Characteristics Key Findings
1. Caman, S (2017) 32 Sweden European Homicide Monitor
National homicide dataset
Forensic Homicide Database
All solved homicides (N = 1,725) in Sweden between 1990 and 2013.
All male-perpetrated
homicides (N = 211) in Sweden between 2007 and 2009
All female-perpetrated (n = 9) and stratified male-perpetrated (n = 36) between 2007 and 2009
-Decline in male-perpetrated Intimate Partner Homicides (IPH), compared to female-perpetrated IPH
-Female-perpetrators likely unemployed,
has history of substance use and
been victimized by the male victim
-Male IPH perpetrators are older, employed, less likely previously convicted and have less persistent criminal histories
-Perpetrators of IPH likely to commit suicide
2. Dufort, M (2015) 33 Sweden Swedish National Public
Health Survey, 2004 to 2009,
Three separate cohorts of women exposed to IPV:
help seekers recruited from women’s shelters and social services; non-help seekers
Men and women aged 16-84 (2005-2007) and 18-84 years (2004).
(n=50,350).
-Prevalence of physical IPV 0.7% women; 0.4% men
-Risk factors were being foreign born, lack of social support, psychological distress and hazardous drinking and financial
problems
-Increased risk of suicidal thoughts and attempts among male victims
-Increased psychological and
psychosocial impairments among women seeking help for IPV
-Help seeking women were younger, had lower education, still in a relationship with and had children together with the perpetrator.
3. Sundborg, E (2015) 22 Sweden Nurses and district nurses Nurses and district nurses working at health centers in two different counties.
Nurses and district nurses n=192
11 district nurses for interview
District nurses n=304
-Nurses lack knowledge and preparedness IPV response
-Many had preconceived notions about victims
-Nurses screen depending on interest
-Nurses commonly referred abused women to doctors.
-Intervention to improve IPV response showed positive potentials
4. Zacarias, A (2012) 26 Mozambique Women visiting Forensic Services 1442 women aged 15-49 years-old -Past year prevalence of IPV was 70%
-Risk factors were middle/high educational, divorce/separation, children at home, controlling behaviors, being a perpetrator; childhood abuse
-About 69% of the women were IPV perpetrators
-Mental health symptoms
5. Okenwa, L (2011) 24 Nigeria women visiting a healthcare facility
2008 Nigeria DHS
934 Women 15-49 years old
33,385 women and 15,486 men
-Past year prevalence of IPV 23% psychological, 9% physical and 8% sexual
-Risk factors were lack of access to
information, women’s autonomy in decision making and contribution to household expenses
-54% not willing to disclose IPV
-Disclose mostly to only friends, relatives or religious leaders
-Only 1% willing to disclose to police
- IPV significantly associated with using modern forms of contraception; miscarriages, induced abortions, stillbirths and having many children.
-More women than men justified IPV
-Access to radio/tv was associated with increased justification of abuse.
6. Uthman, O (2011) 35 Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe. DHS data from 17 subsaharan African countries between 2003-2007 Women 15-49 years old
165,983 women; 68,501 men
-More women than men justify IPV
-Gender disparity in attitudes
- Education, access to information and joint decision making were associated with decreased tolerance of IPV
-Neighbourhood and contextual factors influenced levels of IPV tolerance
-Risk factors for justifying IPV were living in disadvantaged communities, husband having higher education and polygamy
-Tolerant attitudes to and witnessing IPV was significantly associated with disclosing IPV.
7. Ali, TS (2011) 29 Pakistan, health outcomes Household surveys of 759 living in two different towns
Five FGDs with women with diverse sociodemographic background
Married women aged 25–60 years -Life time IPV prevalence 57.6%
-Past year prevalence 56.3%
-Risk factors low education, illiteracy, large family size
-Tolerant attitudes to protect family honor
- Suicidal thoughts and feelings of worthlessness common among victims.
8. John, IA (2010) 30 Nigeria Healthcare providers (HCP) and women visiting a teaching hospital in northern Nigeria Healthcare providers (HCP) comprising of nurses, midwives, doctors and social workers
507 Women visiting the healthcare facility
-74% Healthcare providers (HCP) did not inquire about IPV
-HCP scored low on readiness to screen
-Social workers had higher efficacy and network to screen and refer.
9. Hamzeh, B (2009) 23 Iran Potential victims and perpetrators; stakeholders 435 Women, 447 Men;
23 key informants from healthcare, religious, judicial etc. sectors
9 males and 13 women attending mandatory premarital education center, 4 female gate keepers, i.e. facilitators at center;
-Causes of IPV identified by men and women were partner’s addiction, mental disorder, unemployment, unsuitable clothes etc.
-Victim blaming among key informants
-Participants suggest familiarity with women’s rights according to Islamic laws as solution
-Observed gender differences in participants suggestions for interventions.
10. Dalal, K (2008) 31 India Multi source married women between aged 14-49yr
719 boys; 681 girls in India
4411 Household surveys in two sub-districts in rural Bangladesh
14016 women from 2005 DHS Egypt
5878 women from Kenyan DHS 2003
-Mothers’ exposure and IPV tolerance were determinants of child abuse
-Religion, illiteracy, suspected husband’s infidelilty, large age difference between partners, dowry are risk factors for IPV
-In Bangladesh 41% physical abuse; 5% sustenance abuse
-In Kenya 11% emotional, 11% sexual and 25% physical IPV.
-The economic burden of violence arising from injury, death, deprivation and others are enormous especially on families.
11. Vung N (2008) 28 Vietnam 5 FGDs
Household surveys
883 married/partnered women aged 17-60 years -30.9% lifetime and 8.3% past year IPV
-Psychological IPV most prevalent; 33% past year and 54.4% lifetime
-Risk factors, low education, polygamy, women witnessing IPV between parents, low household income, low occupational status.
-Health consequences were depression, chronic pains and suicidal thoughts.
12. Kaye, D (2006) 25 Uganda Women visiting antenatal and post natal clinics - 379 women attending antenatal clinic
-16 in depth interviews with pregnant adolescents
-Case control study of 942 women seeking post-abortion care
-Prospective cohort of women with low birth weight babies and antepartum hospitalisation
-57% moderate to severe IPV associated with being adolescent, abuse in childhood and first pregnancy.
-Risk factors are bride price, modernisation, urban migration, men’s unemployment, misconceptions about pregnancy changes, household division of labour, negotiating for sex.
-Women seeking induced abortion were 18 times likely to be experiencing IPV.
-19% of low birth weight and 74% antepartum hospitalisations were attributable to IPV.
13. Rubertsson, C (2004) 34 Sweden National cohort of 4600 Swedish-speaking women women in antenatal and postnatal care - IPV prevalence first post partum year was 2% i.e. 52 women
-Only 3 women reported to police.
-IPV determinants were age 24 years or younger, country of birth outside Europe, having a partner born outside Europe, being single and being unemployed.

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