Table 4: Bivariate analysis of socio-cultural, economic, physical accessibility and health need factors of participants.

Characteristics < 4 ANC (%) ≥ 4 ANC (%) p value OR (95% CI)
(n= 191) (n=137) Lower Upper
Caste type
Terai Dalit 185 (96.9) 111 (81.0) 1
Hill Dalit 6 (3.1) 26 (19.0) <0.001 7.22 2.883 18.09
Mother's age in year
≥20 157 (82.2) 103 (75.2) 1
< 20 34 (17.8) 34 (24.8) 0.124 1.52 0.891 2.606
Family size
≥6 136 (71.2) 96 (70.1) 1
<6 55 (28.8) 41 (29.9) 0.824 1.06 0.653 1.709
Family type
Joint or extended 135 (70.7) 91 (66.4) 1
Nuclear 56 (29.3) 46 (33.6) 0.412 1.22 0.76 1.954
Mother's education
No 173 (90.6) 84(61.3) 1
Yes 18 (9.4) 53 (38.7) <0.001 6.06 3.345 10.99
Husband's education
No 136 (71.2) 56 (40.9) 1
Yes 55 (28.8) 81 (59.1) <0.001 3.58 2.252 5.681
Women autonomy
Lowest 54 (28.3) 35 (25.5) 1
Middle 61 (31.9) 70 (51.1) 0.041 1.77 1.025 3.058
Highest 76 (39.8) 32 (23.4) 0.154 0.65 0.359 1.175
Practice from traditional healers
Yes 161 (84.3) 108 (78.8) 1
No 30 (15.7) 29 (21.2) 0.205 1.44 0.819 2.537
Mother's occupation
Daily wage 57 (29.8) 5 (3.6) 1
Non-daily wage 134 (70.2) 132 (96.4) <0.001 11.2 4.364 28.9
Husband's occupation
Daily wage 167 (87.4) 96 (70.1) 1
Non-daily wage 24 (12.6) 41 (29.9) <0.001 2.97 1.693 5.217
Wealth status
1 Lowest) 80 (41.9) 29 (21.2) 1
2 (middle) 71 (37.2) 38 (27.7) 0.187 1.48 0.827 2.635
3 (Highest) 40 (20.9) 70 (51.1) <0.001 4.83 2.715 8.585
Time to reach nearest ANC site
>30 Min 44 (23.0) 40(29.2) 1
≤ 30 Min 147 (77.0) 97 (70.8) 0.208 0.726 0.441 1.196
Availability of motorized transport
No 149 (78.0) 84 (61.3) 1
Yes 42 (22.0) 53 (38.7) 0.001 2.238 1.378 3.636
Perceive of “good quality” ANC
No 176 (92.1) 88 (64.2) 1
Yes 15 (7.9) 49 (35.8) <0.001 6.533 3.471 12.297
Parity of mother
Multiparous 157 (82.2) 91 (66.4) 1
Primiparous 34 (17.8) 46 (33.6) 0.001 2.334 1.397 3.899
Planning of last pregnancy
No 129 (67.5) 56 (40.9) 1
Yes 62 (32.5) 81 (59.1) <0.001 3.01 1.908 4.747
Advised for HF delivery
No 146 (76.4) 43 (31.4) 1
Yes 45 (23.6) 94 (68.6) <0.001 7.093 4.337 11.598
Association of mother in mother's group/ network
No 153 (80.1) 78 (56.9) 1
Yes 38 (19.9) 59 (43.1) <0.001 3.046 1.865 4.974
Heard about SDIP
No 117 (61.3) 36 (26.3) 1
Yes 74(38.7) 101(73.7) <0.001 4.436 2.747 7.162
Exposure to maternal health message
No 167 (87.4) 69 (50.4) 1
Yes 24 (12.6) 68 (49.6) <0.001 6.857 3.983 11.807
Absence of HWs in health facilities
Yes 69 (36.1) 32 (23.4) 1
No 122 (63.9) 105 (76.6) 0.014 1.856 1.133 3.041
Perception of HW behavior as discriminatory
Yes 91 (47.6) 29 (21.2) 1
No 100 (52.4) 108 (78.8) <0.001 3.389 2.058 5.58
Exposure to FCHV
No 60 (31.4) 10 (7.3) 1
Yes 131 (68.6) 127 (92.7) <0.001 5.817 2.852 11.862

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