The Open Public Health Journal




ISSN: 1874-9445 ― Volume 12, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Incidence of Breast Cancer in Markazi, Iran, Population-based Cancer Registry Results



Majid Taheri1, Javad Nazari2, Ali Arash Anoshirvani3, Reza Aghabozorgi3, Masoud Bahrami4, Amir Almasi Hashiani4, *
1 Medical Ethics and Law Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
3 Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
4 Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

Abstract

Background:

Breast Cancer (BC) is the most prevalent malignancy and a significant cause of cancer deaths in females all around the world. BC includes 16 percent of all cancers.

Objective:

This study aimed at examining the epidemiology of BC in Markazi.

Materials and Methods:

This was an epidemiological study in which data resulted from the population-based cancer registry program in Markazi, Iran was used during the years 2010-2014. Data was recorded in Excel software and coded based on ICD-O and all duplicate reports were removed according to their unique codes. All cases out of Markazi were excluded from study and cases with code C-50 (all BC) were included in this study. SPSS ver.18 was used to analyze the data.

Results:

In this study, 1,254 new cases of BC in Markazi were included in the analysis. The highest cancer rate was reported in 2012 (319 cases). The highest crude rate of BC was reported in 2012 (45/100,000 people) and the lowest crude rate was reported in 2010 (26.2 /100,000 people). The Age-Specific Rates (ASR) of BC were 27, 37.3, 45.7, 39.8 and 31.5 per 100.000 people in 2010 to 2014, respectively. The highest ASR of BC was reported in 2012 (45.7/100,000 people) and the lowest ASR was reported in 2010 (27/100,000 people).

Conclusion:

The results showed similar incidence rate of BC in Markazi as compared to other provinces in Iran. Efficient approaches should be considered for cancer registry systems especially BC.

Keywords: Age-specific rate, Breast cancer, Epidemiology, Markazi, Malignancy, ICD-O.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 12
First Page: 228
Last Page: 231
Publisher Id: TOPHJ-12-228
DOI: 10.2174/1874944501912010228

Article History:

Received Date: 03/01/2019
Revision Received Date: 04/04/2019
Acceptance Date: 15/04/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2019
Collection year: 2019

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© 2019 Taheri et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran;Tel: +98 9127067291; Email: amiralmasi2007@gmail.com




1. INTRODUCTION

BC is the most prevalent malignancy and the most important death cause due to cancer all around the world [1Power EJ, Chin ML, Haq MM. Breast cancer incidence and risk reduction in the hispanic population. Cureus 2018; 10(2)e2235[http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2235] [PMID: 29713580] ]. BC includes 32% of female's cancers and is the first death cause in 40-44 years old females [2Hironaka-Mitsuhashi A, Tsuda H, Yoshida M, et al. Invasive breast cancers in adolescent and young adult women show more aggressive immunohistochemical and clinical features than those in women aged 40-44 years. Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan) 2018.]. This cancer includes one-third of all females' cancers [3Baeyens-Fernández JA, Molina-Portillo E, Pollán M, et al. Trends in incidence, mortality and survival in women with breast cancer from 1985 to 2012 in Granada, Spain: a population-based study. BMC Cancer 2018; 18(1): 781.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4682-1] [PMID: 30068302] ]. The BC incidence in developed countries is higher than in developing countries [4Ghoncheh M, Pournamdar Z, Salehiniya H. Incidence and mortality and epidemiology of breast cancer in the world. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016; 17(S3): 43-6.[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S3.43] [PMID: 27165206] ].

The Islamic Republic of Iran is a developing country and it is in transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases [5Naghavi M, Shahraz S, Sepanlou SG, et al. Health transition in Iran toward chronic diseases based on results of Global Burden of Disease 2010. Arch Iran Med 2014; 17(5): 321-35.[PMID: 24784861] ]. Cancer is the third leading cause of death in Iran and this rate is increased over time [6Enayatrad M, Mirzaei M, Salehiniya H, et al. Trends in incidence of common cancers in iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016; 17(S3): 39-42.[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S3.39] [PMID: 27165205] ]. The results of studies showed that Iran was a middle BC prevalence country [7Rafiemanesh H, Salehiniya H, Lotfi Z. Breast cancer in iranian woman: Incidence by age group, morphology and trends. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016; 17(3): 1393-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.3.1393] [PMID: 27039778] ]. This cancer includes 16% of all cancers reported in Iran [8Farhood B, Geraily G, Alizadeh A. Incidence and mortality of various cancers in iran and compare to other countries: A review article. Iran J Public Health 2018; 47(3): 309-16.[PMID: 29845017] ].

The increasing rate of the incidence of various cancers is expected by increasing the life expectancy and aging index in Iran. Age pattern and incidence of BC have been considered less in the various studies in Iran. The distribution and incidence of BC are affected by regional and environmental conditions. Therefore, the BC incidence trend measurement is required in all regions. This study was conducted due to the lack of information about the incidence of BC in Markazi, Iran.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Study Design

This is an epidemiological study in which data reportedby the population-based cancer registry program in Markazi of Iran was used during the years 2010-2014. Markazi is located in district 4, western Iran. Arak is the capital of this province. The population of Markazi is estimated at 1.14 million. The neighboring provinces of Markazi are Qom, Isfahan, Lorestan, Hamadan, Qazvin and Tehran.

2.2. Data Collection

The data reported fromthis study were extracted from population-based cancer registry national program. This program was conducted in 2014 in 11 provinces of Iran. This registry information was collected from various sources such as pathology reports, medical records center, death registry, and other sources (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, insurance, etc.). The data collection forms included questions such as demographic information, duration of cancer, location, cancer type, method of diagnosis, the exact location of tumor, the ICD-O code, location of metastasis and cancer stage. This data was obtained from the registration center. Data was recorded in Excel software and coded based on ICD-O and all duplicate reports were eliminated according to their unique codes. All cases out of Markazi provinces were excluded from study and cases with code C-50 were included in this study.

2.3. Population Estimate

The population of Markazi was 1,413,959 people (717,026 males and 696,933 females) in the census of 2016. The population of other years has also been estimated. The exponential (Geometric) growth formula was used as follows to estimate population over the years studied:

Pn = P0(1+r)n

Where, Pn is the population in the year to be estimated, p0 is population in the census year (i.e. 2011), r is the growth rate (0.22), and n is the number of years after the census. The gender and age group ratios were considered the same as that of the census year, the year when their population was estimated.

2.4. Crude and Age Standardized Rate (ASR)

The findings were shown as the number of cases by age groups and years, with crude rate, age-specific and ASR per 100,000 persons. Also, the direct standardization method was used with the World standard population to calculate the ASR.

3. RESULTS

In this study, 1,254 new cases of BC from Markazi were included in the analysis. The highest rate of cancers was reported in 2012 (319 cases), and the lowest rate was reported in 2010 (183 cases). Also, the mean and standard deviation in terms of age in all year groups are shown in Table 1.

The crude rate (per 100,000) and ASR of BC in Markazi is shown in Table 2. The results showed that increasing age causes to increase the incidence of BC and the highest incidence rate was observed in the groups older than 50 years old. The highest crude rate of BC was reported in 2012 (45 cases per 100,000 people) and the lowest crude rate was reported in 2010 (26.2 per 100,000 people). The ASR of BC were 27, 37.3, 45.7, 39.8 and 31.5 per 100,000 people in 2010 t0 2014, respectively. The highest ASR of BC was reported in 2012 (45.7 cases per 100,000 people) and the lowest ASR was reported in 2010 (27 cases per 100,000 people).

Table 1
The mean and standard deviation of age based on years.


Table 2
The Crude Rate (per 100,000) and Age-Standardized Rate of BC in Markazi.


4. DISCUSSION

The results obtained from our study showed that the ASR of BC in Markazi was increased from 27/100000 to 45.7/100000 in 2012. This rate was decreased again to 31.5 in 2014. An increasing trend was observed in ASR in this study from 2010 to 2014.

The various studies conducted in Iran have shown similar results. ASR was examined for BC during the 11-year period in Mirzaie’s study in Kashan in 2016. ASR was increased from 20.2/100000 in 2001 to 32.8/100000 in 2011 [9Asgarian F, Mirzaei M, Asgarian S, Jazayeri M. Epidemiology of breast cancer and the age distribution of patients over a period of ten years. Iranian J Breast Dis 2016; 9(1): 31-6.]. In a study conducted by Nouruzinezhad in Mazandaran, BC was ranked first with ASR 23.76 [10Norouzi Nejad F, Ramezani Daryasar R, Ghafari F. Epidemiology of cancer in Mazandaran province 2006. Majallah-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Mazandaran 2009; 19(72): 61-5.]. Also, Babae et al. in their study showed that BC with ASR 21.3 was first cancer in the age group of 40-44 years old [11Babaei M, Mousavi S, Malek M, et al. Cancer occurrence in Semnan Province, Iran: results of a population-based cancer registry. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2005; 6(2): 159-64.[PMID: 16101326] ]. While the ASR was 67.8 in developed countries, it was 23.8 in the developing countries and is 37.5 all around the world [12Globocan. 2002.]. In a study conducted in 2012 on the epidemiological pattern of BC in Iranian females, it was shown that ASR for BC was 28 per 100,000 person-years. This study identified an unusually rapid increase in BC rate at the age of 25. The ASR of BC was significantly lower in females from Turkmen ethnicity and those from rural areas. This study showed that ASR of BC increases annually at age 25, and then after a decrease, the second peak occurs at age 65 [10Norouzi Nejad F, Ramezani Daryasar R, Ghafari F. Epidemiology of cancer in Mazandaran province 2006. Majallah-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Mazandaran 2009; 19(72): 61-5.]. ASR was reported to be 18.4% for BC by GLOBOCAN in Iran in 2008 [12Globocan. 2002.]. A study conducted in Kermanshah from 2001 to 2006 showed that the annual change in BC incidence was increased and the ASR of BC has been increased by 1.5/100,000 [13Miri E, Najafi F. The 5-year incidence of breast cancer in Kermanshah Province. In: The 1st student national congresson social determinants of health.; 2005.2005.]. Another study conducted by Mehrbani et al. in Fars showed that the BC incidence was increased [14Mehrbani D, Tabeei S, Heydari ST, et al. Cancer Occurrence in Fars Province, Southern Iran 2008.]. In general, the various studies showed that the incidence trend of BC was similar and additive in all provinces that this issue can be also observed in Markazi. However, the incidence of BC has been decreasing in Italy [15D’alò D, Stracci F, Cassetti T, Scheibel M, Pascucci C, La Rosa F. Recent trends in incidence, mortality and survival after cancer of the female breast and reproductive organs. Umbria, Italy: 1978-2005. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2010; 31(2): 174-80.[PMID: 20527234] ], French [16Fontenoy AM, Leux C, Delacour-Billon S, et al. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence rates in the Loire-Atlantique, France: A decline since 2003. Cancer Epidemiol 2010; 34(3): 238-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2010.03.007] [PMID: 20409772] ], and the USA [17Ravdin PM, Cronin KA, Howlader N, et al. The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. N Engl J Med 2007; 356(16): 1670-4.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsr070105] [PMID: 17442911] ], which is opposite to that reported in Iran.

This study showed that most BC cases occurred at the age of 50-60 in all years. Mostly reported, ASR were for these ages. BC had the highest frequency in 5 and 6 decades of life. The ASR of BC was increased in the age of 50 and then decreased after menopause [18Traina A, Cusimano R, Ravazzolo B, et al. Comparison of female breast cancer registration in the city and province of palermo with other italian cancer registries. Nutr Cancer 2006; 56(2): 241-6.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc5602_16] [PMID: 17474871] ]. A review study showed that most cases of BC occurred in the age of 40-49 and this result was not consistent with our study [19Shahkhodabandeh S, Piri Z, Biglo M, Asadi M, Chakhmachi DN. Breast cancer in Iran: Iranian scientists approach to breast cancer researchers in Medline database. 2009.]. The other studies also suggested that the most incidence rate was for the age under 50 [10Norouzi Nejad F, Ramezani Daryasar R, Ghafari F. Epidemiology of cancer in Mazandaran province 2006. Majallah-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Mazandaran 2009; 19(72): 61-5.]. In a study conducted in Mazandaran, the highest rate of ASR of BC was reported at age of 50-55 that was consistent with our results [20Naghibi SA, Shojaizadeh D, Montazeri A, Yazdani Cherati J. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Mazandaran Province, 2009-2010. Majallah-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Mazandaran 2013; 23(102): 112-9.].

CONCLUSION

BC incidence rate and ASR were reported to increase in Markazi in 2010-2014. According to this result, the evaluation of measuring parameters of this increase is required. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct further studies related to various factors that can increase the incidence of BC.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ASR = Age Specific Rate
BC = Breast Cancer

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

The protocol of the study was approved by the ethics committee of Arak University of Medical Sciences under grant number IR.ARAKMU.REC.1397.184.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No animals were used in this research. All human research procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the committee responsible for human experimentation (institutional and national), and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Written informed consent was obtained from all the participants prior to publication.

AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS

Not applicable.

FUNDING

This study was supported by Arak University of Medical Sciences [Grant Number 3237].

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

REFERENCES

[1] Power EJ, Chin ML, Haq MM. Breast cancer incidence and risk reduction in the hispanic population. Cureus 2018; 10(2)e2235[http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2235] [PMID: 29713580]
[2] Hironaka-Mitsuhashi A, Tsuda H, Yoshida M, et al. Invasive breast cancers in adolescent and young adult women show more aggressive immunohistochemical and clinical features than those in women aged 40-44 years. Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan) 2018.
[3] Baeyens-Fernández JA, Molina-Portillo E, Pollán M, et al. Trends in incidence, mortality and survival in women with breast cancer from 1985 to 2012 in Granada, Spain: a population-based study. BMC Cancer 2018; 18(1): 781.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4682-1] [PMID: 30068302]
[4] Ghoncheh M, Pournamdar Z, Salehiniya H. Incidence and mortality and epidemiology of breast cancer in the world. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016; 17(S3): 43-6.[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S3.43] [PMID: 27165206]
[5] Naghavi M, Shahraz S, Sepanlou SG, et al. Health transition in Iran toward chronic diseases based on results of Global Burden of Disease 2010. Arch Iran Med 2014; 17(5): 321-35.[PMID: 24784861]
[6] Enayatrad M, Mirzaei M, Salehiniya H, et al. Trends in incidence of common cancers in iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016; 17(S3): 39-42.[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.S3.39] [PMID: 27165205]
[7] Rafiemanesh H, Salehiniya H, Lotfi Z. Breast cancer in iranian woman: Incidence by age group, morphology and trends. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016; 17(3): 1393-7.[http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.3.1393] [PMID: 27039778]
[8] Farhood B, Geraily G, Alizadeh A. Incidence and mortality of various cancers in iran and compare to other countries: A review article. Iran J Public Health 2018; 47(3): 309-16.[PMID: 29845017]
[9] Asgarian F, Mirzaei M, Asgarian S, Jazayeri M. Epidemiology of breast cancer and the age distribution of patients over a period of ten years. Iranian J Breast Dis 2016; 9(1): 31-6.
[10] Norouzi Nejad F, Ramezani Daryasar R, Ghafari F. Epidemiology of cancer in Mazandaran province 2006. Majallah-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Mazandaran 2009; 19(72): 61-5.
[11] Babaei M, Mousavi S, Malek M, et al. Cancer occurrence in Semnan Province, Iran: results of a population-based cancer registry. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2005; 6(2): 159-64.[PMID: 16101326]
[12] Globocan. 2002.
[13] Miri E, Najafi F. The 5-year incidence of breast cancer in Kermanshah Province. In: The 1st student national congresson social determinants of health.; 2005.2005.
[14] Mehrbani D, Tabeei S, Heydari ST, et al. Cancer Occurrence in Fars Province, Southern Iran 2008.
[15] D’alò D, Stracci F, Cassetti T, Scheibel M, Pascucci C, La Rosa F. Recent trends in incidence, mortality and survival after cancer of the female breast and reproductive organs. Umbria, Italy: 1978-2005. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2010; 31(2): 174-80.[PMID: 20527234]
[16] Fontenoy AM, Leux C, Delacour-Billon S, et al. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence rates in the Loire-Atlantique, France: A decline since 2003. Cancer Epidemiol 2010; 34(3): 238-43.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2010.03.007] [PMID: 20409772]
[17] Ravdin PM, Cronin KA, Howlader N, et al. The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. N Engl J Med 2007; 356(16): 1670-4.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsr070105] [PMID: 17442911]
[18] Traina A, Cusimano R, Ravazzolo B, et al. Comparison of female breast cancer registration in the city and province of palermo with other italian cancer registries. Nutr Cancer 2006; 56(2): 241-6.[http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc5602_16] [PMID: 17474871]
[19] Shahkhodabandeh S, Piri Z, Biglo M, Asadi M, Chakhmachi DN. Breast cancer in Iran: Iranian scientists approach to breast cancer researchers in Medline database. 2009.
[20] Naghibi SA, Shojaizadeh D, Montazeri A, Yazdani Cherati J. Epidemiology of Breast Cancer in Mazandaran Province, 2009-2010. Majallah-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Mazandaran 2013; 23(102): 112-9.

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