Table 2: Selected papers for analysis.

Setting Design Sample Themes/findings Reference
Self-efficacy Clinical performance Quality of care
Vhembe, South Africa Quantitative Descriptive,cross-sectional 233 nurses - Knowledge is the key for quality care of clients - [18]
Shiraz, Iran Quantitative, cross-sectional 264 nurses General Self-Efficacy is associated with the willingness to work in the nursing unit and interest in the nursing field and beliefs affect
how people think, feel, motivate and act
- - [19]
Shiraz, Iran Qualitative,
12 students nurse - Clinical practise requires skilled personnel for quality care of clients, active involvement in practise makes a nurse more proficient, flexible and resourceful - [26]
Delhi, India Qualitative,
79 participants High self-efficacy seems to play a protective role from experiencing more emotional exhaustion when in high stress condition, - - [27]
Tennessee, USA Qualitative, descriptive State agencies, advocate and attorneys, nursing facility representatives - - Quality of care and quality of life have a long-standing concern nation-wide, in Tennessee home litigations negatively impact the quality and access of care [28]
Halifax, Nova Scotia Quantitative, 253 nursing students Nursing Competence Self-Efficacy Scale (NCSES) The influence of well-prepared registered nurses who willingly embrace a challenge will likely to exert a positive influence in the entire health care system - - [8]
Oshikati, Namibia Qualitative Descriptive design 24 nurses - Shortage of nurses for clinical performance affect quality management of clients and outcomes Nurses are vulnerable to emotional distress due to care of HIV people. Quality of for HIV client depends on the quality of care they receive from emotional nurses [29]
Shiraz, Iran Qualitative, content analysis 17 student nurses Deficient in clinical practice skill affects the quality of care for the HIV affected client [30]
Mwanza, Malawi Qualitative, descriptive 6 focus groups - Clinical performance is greatly affected by poor supervision, poor access to training, workload and extensive job description - [31]
Bonafide Benquet, State University, Philippines Qualitative, descriptive design I focus group and 9 interviewed student nurses - Exposure to clinical practice is crucial for nurses, it enriches the nurse for better performance for client care, experience, knowledge and practice, these aspects develop the nurses’ competency and confidence - [32]
Al-Quds University, Palestine quantitative descriptive, explorative 185 professional nurses Adequate number of qualified nurses according to work is essential in each shift for the quality of care for the clients Shortage of nurses due to all types of leave negatively affects the quality of care and performance of nurses [20]
Limpopo Province, South Africa Quantitative descriptive, cross-sectional 85 nurses - Evidence of poor performance of nurses was due to the absence of support, motivation and good working environment. - [21]
Hospital, United States Quantitative,
77 registered nurses - - Ongoing learning and development of nurses is essential for quality of care because of continual advances in treatment and management of diseases [22]
Australia and New Zealand Qualitative, secondary analysis of interview 11 professional nurses Nurses with high levels of self-efficacy demonstrate responsibility for their acts and omissions Experienced professional nurses apply their skills to both novel and familiar situations. When they are competent, they are capable to adapt and flexible in response to any challenge [33]
Quantitative, Descriptive design 900 student nurses Mastery of clinical skills is the key to clinical performance and confidence. High level of stress, anxiety, shortage of equipment and staff may result in poor quality of care for clients [23]
Namibia Quantitative descriptive survey 180 professional nurses Building knowledge and expertise will improve clinical performance, quality performance improves efficiency and confidence. lack of recognition and support of the employee will affect the quality of care rendered [24]
Nine European countries, Cyprus, Belgium, Finland, England, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden Quantitative design 1903 participants Nursing requires both significant time spent with clients and supportive supervising relationship for the quality of care. [3]
Iran Qualitative 28 semi structured interview Self-efficacy in clinical practice improves performance of health workers and quality of care for clients, [34]
Zimbabwe Qualitative 25 nurses and 40 guardians Adherence is mostly to succeed if there quality of care for clients and compassionate nurses [35]
South Africa 7 provinces, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Gauteng, North west, Free state, Kwazulu Natal, Northern Cape Telephonic interviews 126 nimart trained nurses Nurse management of ART had good accomplishment and retained more clients and had improved self-esteem of the nurses in initiation of ART. [25]
Hiroshima, Japan Cross sectional 322 nurses Level of competency directly affects care provided to patients, therefore, nurses need to be competent [6]
South Africa University of KwaZulu-Natal Quantitative approach 1 369 nurse trainees Despite the observed increase in knowledge, however, participants were not confident to initiate ART which suggests a need for an ‘on-the job’ mentorship programme for positive health outcomes [17]
South Africa Qualitative Phase scale up design for doctors, nurses and clerks Quality improvement technique can be used to assist to address system failure and quality care for clients [36]

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