The Open Public Health Journal




ISSN: 1874-9445 ― Volume 13, 2020
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Systematic Literature Review on strengthening Eye Care Follow-Up Among Glaucoma Patients in Limpopo Province



Shonisani Tshivhase1, *
1 Department of Public Health, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa

Abstract

Background:

Adherence to prescribed glaucoma medications is often poor and proper adherence can be challenging for most patients

Objective:

The purpose of this systematic literature review is to identify and evaluate studies that have tested the impact of each intervention on glaucoma adherence based on their quality outcome measure.

Methods:

A comprehensive search of database was conducted from January 2009 to January 2019. We systematically reviewed the literature and identified sixteen studies that used educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Eleven out of 16 eligible studies were subjected to Randomized Controlled Trial (RCTs) and the remaining four were reviewed as observational studies. One study was reviewed through both observational plus randomized control trial method.

Results:

Out of the eleven (68.75%) RCTs interventions done, five (31.25%) showed improvement in medication adherence and persistence with eye drop instillation, whereas (n=6) did not show any significant improvement on their medication adherence. The quality of each study was evaluated using the Jadad score calculation and the Ottawa-Newcastle.

Conclusion:

Using information from this systematic review and Health Behavior Model, we created a theoretical framework to illustrate how counseling and education can improve medication adherence amongst glaucoma patients in the country.

Keywords: Eye Care, Counseling, Glaucoma patients, Glaucoma medications, Education, Randomized control.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 13
First Page: 134
Last Page: 143
Publisher Id: TOPHJ-13-134
DOI: 10.2174/1874944502013010134

Article History:

Received Date: 17/12/2019
Revision Received Date: 03/03/2020
Acceptance Date: 08/03/2020
Electronic publication date: 24/04/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Shonisani Tshivhase.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Public Health, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa; E-mail: shonisani.tshivhase@ univen.ac.za





1. INTRODUCTION AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

The most contributing factor for progressive vision loss that leads to blindness is poor medication adherence. Adherence rate for patients receiving chronic glaucoma treatment is between 43% and 78% worldwide, while other studies reported that 10 - 30% of glaucoma patients often omit their prescribed doses [1Olthoff CM, Hoevenaars JG, van den Borne BW, Webers CA, Schouten JS. Prevalence and determinants of non-adherence to topical hypotensive treatment in Dutch glaucoma patients. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2009; 247(2): 235-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-008-0944-y] [PMID: 18802720]
]. The early manifestation glaucoma trial and Ocular Hypertension Treatment studies found that the use of medications to reduce IOP resulted in (54%) over five years and a 50% reduction in the risk of glaucomatous progression over six years among patients treated with trabeculoplasty and topical therapy as compared to their untreated control group [2Newman-Casey PA, Dayno M, Robin AL. Systematic review of educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence: an update in 2015. Expert Rev Ophthalmol 2016; 11(1): 5-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17469899.2016.1134318] [PMID: 27134639]
]. Further, the United Kingdom Glaucoma Treatment Study has reduced the risk of glaucomatous progression by 44% in two weeks.

Appropriate glaucoma medication and follow up care are vital in preventing vision loss and can prevent blindness. The World Health Organization states that improving adherence may have a “far greater impact on the health of the population than any improvement in specific medical treatment” [2Newman-Casey PA, Dayno M, Robin AL. Systematic review of educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence: an update in 2015. Expert Rev Ophthalmol 2016; 11(1): 5-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17469899.2016.1134318] [PMID: 27134639]
]. In addition, studies on glaucoma medication compliance also emphasize this need [2Newman-Casey PA, Dayno M, Robin AL. Systematic review of educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence: an update in 2015. Expert Rev Ophthalmol 2016; 11(1): 5-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17469899.2016.1134318] [PMID: 27134639]
]. WHO further states that adherence to long term therapies among patients with chronic diseases in the general population is around 50%, and the percentage is much lower in developing countries. Notably, non-adherence among glaucoma patients has been reported to be as high as 80% [2Newman-Casey PA, Dayno M, Robin AL. Systematic review of educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence: an update in 2015. Expert Rev Ophthalmol 2016; 11(1): 5-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17469899.2016.1134318] [PMID: 27134639]
, 3Tamrat L, Gessesse GW, Gelaw Y. Adherence to topical glaucoma medications in Ethiopian patients. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2015; 22(1): 59-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-9233.148350] [PMID: 25624675]
]. However, inconsistent adherence to recommend follow up hinders the ability of the physician to track disease progression. Patients who did not have a consistent follow up were more likely to have the mild disease than those who had consistent follow up [4Murakami Y, Lee BW, Duncan M, et al. Racial and ethnic disparities in adherence to glaucoma follow-up visits in a county hospital population. Arch Ophthalmol 2011; 129(7): 872-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.163] [PMID: 21746977]
].

There are no standard criteria to determine adherence and methodologies. However, various techniques have been used to detect nonadherence in glaucoma follow up [4Murakami Y, Lee BW, Duncan M, et al. Racial and ethnic disparities in adherence to glaucoma follow-up visits in a county hospital population. Arch Ophthalmol 2011; 129(7): 872-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.163] [PMID: 21746977]
-6Hark L, Waisbourd M, Myers JS, et al. Improving access to eye care among persons at high-risk of glaucoma in Philadelphia—design and methodology: the Philadelphia glaucoma detection and treatment project. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016; 23(2): 122-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09286586.2015.1099683] [PMID: 26950056]
]. Efforts have been made to design and evaluate various interventions to improve glaucoma adherence with mixed achievement. In addition, various intervention strategies comprised of: (1) patient education sessions; (2) written information; (3) medication reminders; (4) eye drop instillation training and (5) individualized adherence plans. Furthermore, adherence and persistence were mostly measured in different techniques such as electronic monitoring devices, pharmacy refill data and self-report [7Djafari F, Lesk MR, Giguère CÉ, Siam G, Freeman EE. Impact of a brief educational intervention on glaucoma persistence: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2015; 22(6): 380-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09286586.2015.1083036] [PMID: 26653260]
].

Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some studies have identified and grouped risk factors for non-adherence with topical glaucoma medications into four major categories: patient-related factors, provider-factors, medication regimen and environmental factors [5Cakiner-Egilmez T. Glaucoma Medications Update: How to Improve Compliance and Adherence. Insight 2015; 40(3): 5-10.
[PMID: 26364497]
, 8Moore DB, Walton C, Moeller KL, Slabaugh MA, Mudumbai RC, Chen PP. Prevalence of self-reported early glaucoma eye drop bottle exhaustion and associated risk factors: a patient survey. BMC Ophthalmol 2014; 14(1): 79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2415-14-79] [PMID: 24927769]
, 9Leung VC, Jin YP, Hatch W, et al. The relationship between sociodemographic factors and persistence with topical glaucoma medications. J Glaucoma 2015; 24(1): 69-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0000000000000081] [PMID: 25055210]
]. It was against this background that this systematic literature review was carried out.

2. PURPOSE

The purpose of this systematic literature review is to identify and evaluate studies that have tested the impact of each intervention on glaucoma adherence based on their quality outcome measure used to assess adherence.

3. METHODOLOGY

A systematic literature review is a scientific investigation that focuses on a specific question and uses clear, pre-specified scientific methods to assess, critically assess and synthesize all the literature on a particular topic. Also, the systematic review provides a starting point for clinical practice guideline developers [10Savović J, Weeks L, Sterne JA, et al. Evaluation of the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized trials: focus groups, online survey, proposed recommendations and their implementation. Syst Rev 2014; 3(1): 37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-3-37] [PMID: 24731537]
]. For this study, through a systematic review method, we could identify and evaluate the scientific evidence of both qualitative and quantitative research. The search was limited to journal articles to exclude other types of publications such as book chapters, newspaper articles and conference proceedings. The following systematic steps as outlined by Cronin et al. [11Dwan K, Altman DG, Arnaiz JA, et al. Systematic review of the empirical evidence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias. PLoS One 2008; 3(8)e3081
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003081] [PMID: 18769481]
] and Ramdhani et al. [12Ramadhani HO, Bartlett JA, Thielman NM, et al. Association of first-line and second-line antiretroviral therapy adherence. Open forum infectious diseases 2014; Vol. 1: ofu079.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofu079]
] were applied to reduce literature-review errors and bias and to produce a transparent, structured and comprehensive overview of the available literature as shown in Fig. (1).

Step 1. Defining the Research Question.

According to Demonceau et al. [13Demonceau J, Ruppar T, Kristanto P, et al. ABC project team. Identification and assessment of adherence-enhancing interventions in studies assessing medication adherence through electronically compiled drug dosing histories: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Drugs 2013; 73(6): 545-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40265-013-0041-3] [PMID: 23588595]
], it is important to define the questions to be addressed in strengthening glaucoma follow up systematic review and to identify the purpose and scope of the review. Additionally, defining the questions will direct the reader on the kind of information reviewed and determine the scope of the review. The research question was defined through the discussion with the supervisor and co-supervisor. Consultation with the eye care health workers and colleagues was also done to ensure that the review is relevant to real-world challenges. The research questions were: 1) What is the current state of compliance amongst glaucoma patients in Africa? 2. What strategies can be used to ensure that glaucoma patients remain in care within the health care facilities?

Fig. (1)
Systematic review steps adapted from Ramdhani et al. [12Ramadhani HO, Bartlett JA, Thielman NM, et al. Association of first-line and second-line antiretroviral therapy adherence. Open forum infectious diseases 2014; Vol. 1: ofu079.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofu079]
].


Step 2. Setting for Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

Shamseer, Moher, Clarke et al. [14Moher D, Shamseer L, Clarke M, et al. PRISMA-P Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Syst Rev 2015; 4(1): 1.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-4-1] [PMID: 25554246]
] outlined that setting for inclusion and exclusion criteria ensures that the review is conducted in an organized way. Additionally, it provides for transparency on how the strengths and limitations were assessed. Primary research studies were included in this systematic review. No restriction was made on the study location. Studies were included if they were published in English language and had a sample size of more than 50 participants. Studies were restricted to those that used Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and observational studies. Included were also studies that used educational interventions with comparison groups and those that targeted patients diagnosed with glaucoma with age 18 years and above. Included also were all the studies that have been conducted and evaluated or assessed. All studies that focused on glaucoma surgery, children or juvenile glaucoma were excluded. If the sampled population of the study was very specific, for instance, males or females, or recruited patients from one specific class (homeless, prisoners, workers from one employer, etc.) were also eliminated because results from the study might not be generally applicable to the general population. To avoid including duplicate data, the newest and most informative articles were selected as multiple studies were conducted by the same authors.

Step 3. Conducting a Literature Search

The online database literature search was conducted by searching several for all relevant articles. The search was limited to journal articles to exclude other types of publications such as book chapters, newspaper articles and conference proceedings. The search strategy was used in collaboration with the School of Health Sciences librarian. Health and medical databases including SABINET, EBSCOHOST, SCIENCE DIRECT, MEDLINE and GOOGLE SCHOLAR were used. Key concepts and search terms were developed to capture literature related to strengthening eye care follow up among glaucoma patients. The search methodology followed a PICO (population or patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) format. The search strategy combined sets of keywords, using AND/OR terms. The terms from the following five categories of medical subject headings (MeSH) were used to search the articles and grey literature (Compliance, glaucoma, education, intervention and adherence).

Step 4. Assessing the Quality of Literature Included in the Review

This review included all the articles and reports obtained after databases were merged. Duplicate articles were removed and additional articles provided by content experts were identified. Secondary sources, which included textbooks and review articles, description or summary by somebody other than the original researcher, were removed. Only studies that were published between 2009 to 2019 in the English language peer-reviewed journals, reports or websites were reviewed to identify gaps in the adherence to glaucoma medications and the intervention strategies used to improve adherence. Furthermore, if a study consisting of only abstracts was not included. The studies included were those that explored intervention strategies to improve glaucoma adherence. Titles and abstracts were searched against the inclusion criteria and full texts that met the criteria were retrieved.

Step 5. Analyze, Synthesize and Disseminate the Findings

The initial search yielded a total of 459 research articles and 135 were further assessed for their relevance to the study. After screening the titles and abstracts, an additional 63 articles were excluded from the search as they did not contain adequate evidence that can effectively assess the intervention. After the full text review, two researchers agreed on sixteen articles out of twenty articles that met the inclusion criteria. Finally, sixteen articles were included in the analysis as shown in Fig. (2).

The studies which were included were clustered and organized by the concepts which emerged from themes. To provide sufficient substance to a theme, concepts from a minimum of three articles were required. Two thematic domains emerged from the literature:(i) Theme 1: The effectiveness of electronic interventions to assess treatment and procedures for glaucoma conducted. (ii) Description of observational studies measuring baseline adherence to glaucoma medication.

Most countries identified the importance of conducting educational interventions strategies in systematic literature reviews. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria in this literature review after doing verification using hand search. Out of sixteen articles that met the inclusion criteria, 11 of the studies were analyzed through a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCTs) process and the remaining four were put through an observational process. Only one study was subjected to a mixed method process. All the eligible intervention studies were conducted outside sub-Saharan Africa.

The quality of each study was evaluated using the Jadad score calculation for all RTCs studies, while for observational studies, Ottawa-Newcastle score was used. Jadad score is a five -point scale used in the meta-analysis literature to judge the quality of RTCs. Jadad score rewards one point based on the following criteria: (i) was the study randomized; (ii) was the method of randomization appropriate; (iii) was the study described as double-blind; (iv) was the method of double-blinding appropriate;(v) was there a description of withdrawals and dropouts [15Newman-Casey PA, Weizer JS, Heisler M, Lee PP, Stein JD. Systematic review of educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence.Seminars in ophthalmology 2013; 28(3): 191-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08820538.2013.771198]
]. One point was assigned if the study was described as single blinded and another one point was given if the study outcomes were blinded specifically for the participant who received the intervention and lastly two points were awarded if the adherence was measured by pharmacy claims data as opposed to self-report as displayed in (Table 1).

Fig. (2)
Adapted Flow chart of the literature search for the included and excluded studies(Wu & Lin) Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group (2009)


Table 1
Educational Interventions to Improve Glaucoma Medication Adherence according to titles and years.


Theme 1: Effectiveness of Electronic Intervention Studies to Assess Treatment and Procedures for Glaucoma Studies Conducted

3.1. Electronic Interventions Studies Using Randomized Controlled Trial

Electronic interventions are electronic reminders (automatically sent reminders without personal contact between the healthcare provider and patient) that are now increasingly used in an effort to improve adherence. Furthermore, electronic intervention strategies include short message service (SMS), telephone, Facebook, internet, electronic reminder devices (ERD) and voice message [16Brandes K, Mullan B. Can the common-sense model predict adherence in chronically ill patients? A meta-analysis. Health Psychol Rev 2014; 8(2): 129-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2013.820986] [PMID: 25053132]
]. Most of the reviewed studies were subjected to a randomized control trial (RCT) process, a trial in which subjects are randomly assigned to one of the two groups. For instance, one (the experimental group) receiving the intervention that is being tested, and the other (the comparison group or control) receiving an alternative (conventional) treatment. The two groups are then followed up to see if there are any differences between them in the outcome. The results and subsequent analysis of the trial were used to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. RCTs are the strictest way of determining whether a cause-effect relation exists between the intervention and the outcome [17Skalicky SE, Goldberg I, McCluskey P. Ocular surface disease and quality of life in patients with glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 2012; 153(1): 1-9.e2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2011.05.033] [PMID: 21872203]
]. Results from this systemic literature review have shown that, out of the eleven randomized control trial (RCT) studies, five used electronic monitoring as an adherence measurement, while five RCT used pharmacy refill, self-report and data chart. The eleventh study used both RCT and observational processes. All five RCT studies that used electronic monitoring were conducted either at glaucoma clinic or hospital clinic. None of the studies were conducted in a community setting.

3.2. Motivational Interviewing Based Glaucoma Education as Opposed to Standard Care

Motivational interviewing was used to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Patients were put in the following three groups: (1) The control group, (2) the comparison group and the (3) motivational interviewing group. Reminder call, Motivational interview (MI) and Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) were used. The medication event monitoring system (MEMS) is a cap that fits on standard medicine bottles and records the time and date each time the bottle is opened and closed [18Wachman JS, Rose DL. inventors; Vitality Inc, assignee. Medicine Bottle Cap With Electronic Embedded Curved Display United States patent application US 12/770,436, 2010 Oct; 28]. All three groups received allocated intervention, but group 1 and 2 did not receive extra in-person visits while group 3 received three in -person visits with an ophthalmic technician (OT) trained in MI (at weeks 1, 4, and 8 after randomization) plus three phone calls from the same OT (week 2, 6 and 12). Other studies used automated reminders and educational sessions. Group 2 and 3 received three reminder phone calls from the clinic staff member asking about their level of adherence, reasons for any missed doses and their use of MEMS [19Cook PF, Bremer RW, Ayala AJ, Kahook MY. Feasibility of motivational interviewing delivered by a glaucoma educator to improve medication adherence. Clin Ophthalmol 2010; 4: 1091-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S12765] [PMID: 20957054]
].

3.3. Automated Reminders and Educational Sessions

In this electronic intervention, automated reminders and educational sessions were used to measure medication adherence. Educational sessions were conducted by the facility caregiver. The intervention group undertook a 20-30-minutes scripted education session with a research assistant for three months, and their adherence was measured for two more months. The adherence level of the control group and the intervention group did not show any improvements. Instead, there was a decline after the intervention as reported by Lim, Watnik, Imson, Porter and Granier [20Lim MC, Watnik MR, Imson KR, Porter SM, Granier AM. Adherence to glaucoma medication: the effect of interventions and association with personality type. J Glaucoma 2013; 22(6): 439-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0b013e31824cd0ae] [PMID: 22411021]
] in their study. Furthermore, some participants on the intervention group received daily messages through text or voice messages reminding them to take their medication while participants in the control group only received the usual care. Both groups were further instructed to use the MEMSCap to monitor their medication use and the study coordinator conducted a follow-up after three months on the intervention group regarding the monitoring device, their drop use and their reminders [21Boland MV, Chang DS, Frazier T, Plyler R, Jefferys JL, Friedman DS. Automated telecommunication-based reminders and adherence with once-daily glaucoma medication dosing: the automated dosing reminder study. JAMA Ophthalmol 2014; 132(7): 845-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.857] [PMID: 24831037]
].

3.4. Health Literacy Modified Glaucoma Education against Standard Care

The impact of an educational intervention was modified to health literacy on glaucoma medication adherence. Participants in the intervention group used informational video about glaucoma at 4th, 7th, or 10th grade level, depending on the participants. Additionally, the intervention group members were further taught on the instillation of eye drops and they had to demonstrate to the study coordinator the proper technique on eye drop instillation. The control group only received standard care. Participants whose health literacy level was less than 10th grade were shown eye diagrams while the coordinator reviewed the educational information. Participants in the intervention group received a phone call once per month to check if they were experiencing any problems with glaucoma medication. After evaluating the intervention, the study showed that patients with low level of health literacy skills might benefit from educational efforts tailored to address their health literacy level [22Beckers HJ, Webers CA, Busch MJ, Brink HM, Colen TP, Schouten JS. Dutch Adherence Study Group. Adherence improvement in Dutch glaucoma patients: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Ophthalmol 2013; 91(7): 610-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.2012.02571.x] [PMID: 23025424]
].

3.5. Behavioral-counseling Interventions

Behavioral-counseling interventions empower patients to participate in their care while positively changing their skill levels or normal routines. For example, skill building by a health care professional and problem solving are helpful [23Viswanathan M, Golin CE, Jones CD, et al. Interventions to improve adherence to self-administered medications for chronic diseases in the United States: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157(11): 785-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-157-11-201212040-00538] [PMID: 22964778]
]. The counseling comprise of glaucoma education and motivational support from trained para-professional staff called glaucoma support assistants (GSAs). Throughout the intervention, the GSA met three times for eight months with the patients while the control group received standard care with their physician. Each brief-MI counseling technique done by the GSA was assessed for fidelity using standard measures [24Cate H, Bhattacharya D, Clark A, Fordham R, Holland R, Broadway DC. Improving adherence to glaucoma medication: a randomised controlled trial of a patient-centred intervention (The Norwich Adherence Glaucoma Study). BMC Ophthalmol 2014; 14(1): 32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2415-14-32] [PMID: 24655814]
].

3.6. Interventions Based on Technical Reminder Systems

The participants whose baseline level of medication adherence was less than 75% were either put in an intervention group or control group (usual care). The intervention group watched a ten-minute educational video, reviewed prevailing barriers and possible solutions to eye drop taking with the study coordinator. The participants further received regular phone call reminders and had audible and visible reminders activated on their Dosing Aid (DA) devices. Furthermore, coordinators taught participants on their medication record keeping. In addition, study coordinators reminded patients to take their weekly and biweekly medication over a period of three months while the control group was told to take their eye drops as prescribed and received no additional intervention [22Beckers HJ, Webers CA, Busch MJ, Brink HM, Colen TP, Schouten JS. Dutch Adherence Study Group. Adherence improvement in Dutch glaucoma patients: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Ophthalmol 2013; 91(7): 610-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.2012.02571.x] [PMID: 23025424]
, 25Okeke CO, Quigley HA, Jampel HD, et al. Interventions improve poor adherence with once daily glaucoma medications in electronically monitored patients. Ophthalmology 2009; 116(12): 2286-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.05.026] [PMID: 19815286]
].

3.7. RCT using Customized Letter and Personal Telephone Outreach

The groups were divided into two groups, that is the usual care that served as the control group and the intervention group. The control group did not receive any reminder letters or phone calls. The intervention groups were sent customized letters two weeks preceding their appointment and telephone calls 2-3 days before the appointment. If the subject failed to attend the scheduled appointment, the researcher made two additional personal telephone calls. In the event where the subject responded positively and agreed to the scheduled appointment, a telephone reminder was made 2-3 days prior to the scheduled appointment. In cases where the subject was not reached after two phone calls, the subject was not contacted again [26Pizzi LT, Tran J, Shafa A, et al. Effectiveness and cost of a personalized reminder intervention to improve adherence to glaucoma care. Appl Health Econ Health Policy 2016; 14(2): 229-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40258-016-0231-8] [PMID: 26924099]
].

3.8. Impact of Brief Educational Intervention on Glaucoma Medication Adherence

Patients were randomized to either an immediate intervention or normal care. The two 60-90 minute educational sessions on glaucoma and its management were led by a trained non-practicing ophthalmologist. The two sessions were conducted within two weeks apart. Sessions were given in small formats. Persistence to glaucoma medication was examined for a period of one year using hospital and pharmacy claims records. Questionnaires were administered and medication possession ratio was calculated (that is taking eye drops as prescribed) in all the patients at the end of the study [7Djafari F, Lesk MR, Giguère CÉ, Siam G, Freeman EE. Impact of a brief educational intervention on glaucoma persistence: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2015; 22(6): 380-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09286586.2015.1083036] [PMID: 26653260]
].

3.9. RCT using Self-report, Pharmacy Refill and Chart Review

This is a randomized controlled trial using self-report, pharmacy refill data and chart review as a means of adherence measurement. The participants should all be non-adherents. The study described a patient to be glaucoma nonadherent if the patient failed to report for clinic appointment or failed to collect glaucoma medication in the past year. While adherence was measured using patient self-report, chart review of refill adherence, physician assessment of medication adherence and appointment adherence. The treatment group received an automated, interactive voice recognition, tailored telephone intervention and tailored printed materials. The control group received the usual care of recommendations of medical appointments and prescription refill on each visit [27Glanz K, Beck AD, Bundy L, et al. Impact of a health communication intervention to improve glaucoma treatment adherence. Results of the interactive study to increase glaucoma adherence to treatment trial. Arch Ophthalmol 2012; 130(10): 1252-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.1607] [PMID: 22688429]
].

3.10. Impact of Individualized Patient Care as an Aide to Standard Care

Randomization was generated using a computer to get the intervention group and the control group (standard care). The trained glaucoma nurse implemented standard care and individualized care plan. The intervention began with a 45-minute counseling session of healthcare needs and beliefs, followed by a 20-minute educational session and then a 10-minute training session on eye drop instillation and proper technique.

Nurses collaborated with the patients to form a tangible plan of how to integrate eye drop regimen into the patients daily routine. Individualized follow up care according to each person’s need was done. The same nurse met with the patients for approximately 15 minutes either in person or telephonically to discuss glaucoma information, give feedback on adherence and to address other concerns. Patients could call the nurse in-between visits for additional support. The intervention group showed a significantly stronger belief in the importance of eye drops and had more personal control over their condition. Therefore, an intervention had a positive effect on adherence behavior to glaucoma therapy. Thus, adherence was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to the control group after 12 months [28Gray TA, Fenerty C, Harper R, et al. Individualised patient care as an adjunct to standard care for promoting adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy: an exploratory randomised controlled trial. Eye (Lond) 2012; 26(3): 407-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/eye.2011.269] [PMID: 22094303]
].

Theme 2 Description of Observational Studies Measuring Baseline Adherence to Glaucoma Medication

3.11. Assessing the Feasibility and Preliminary Effectiveness of a Health Promotion Program

Studies had a pre-post design in which the baseline adherence was measured prior to the implementation of an educational intervention and again after an intervention. The program wanted to improve adherence using three approaches: (1) patient education, (2) motivational interviewing, and (3) problem solving training (PST). The program focused on African-Americans (AAs) due to their higher risks of developing glaucoma. Furthermore, AAs are also at risk for poor medication adherence as compared to Caucasians [29Sleath B, Blalock SJ, Stone JL, et al. Validation of a short version of the glaucoma medication self-efficacy questionnaire. Br J Ophthalmol 2012; 96(2): 258-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.2010.199851] [PMID: 21610264]
]. The health educator (who is a licensed clinical psychologist) carried out the intervention. The health educator met separately with patients at glaucoma clinics. Each patient participated in a four-weekly session tailored to the overcome patient barriers and glaucoma medication adherence. The first session of face-to-face was conducted at the clinic, and the additional sessions took place over the phone [30Dreer LE, Owsley C, Campbell L, Gao L, Wood A, Girkin CA. Feasibility, Patient Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Culturally Informed, Health Promotion Program to Improve Glaucoma Medication Adherence Among African Americans: “Glaucoma Management Optimism for African Americans Living with Glaucoma” (GOAL). Curr Eye Res 2016; 41(1): 50-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02713683.2014.1002045] [PMID: 25625187]
].

3.12. Assessing the Efficacy of the Eye Drops Chart in Improving Patients’ Glaucoma Medication Adherence

The study used Eye Drop Chart (EDC) type of intervention which was an audio-visual reminder system for glaucoma medications. An EDC consists of a chart signifying medication, instillation times, and the eye that needs treatment. The medication schedule was followed by eye instillation instruction, then each medication was placed underneath the chart. Therefore, the study did not show any significant difference in self-reported adherence before and after using EDC as an intervention [31McVeigh KA, Vakros G. The eye drop chart: a pilot study for improving administration of and compliance with topical treatments in glaucoma patients. Clin Ophthalmol 2015; 9: 813-9.
[PMID: 26005325]
].

3.13. Group Based Educational Program using Observational and Randomised Control Trial

It was a quasi-experimental pre-post analysis of a two sequential groups-based education program. The group used educational intervention and practical medical events monitoring system (MEMS) data. Baseline assessment of the outcome questionnaires was taken one month before the group-based educational program and again three months after the delivery of the program. Continuous observation on eye drops adherence was made from one month before to three months after the intervention. A glaucoma trained nurse supported by other health professionals led the educational programme which lasted less than two and a half hours. The session allowed time for the participants to describe their experiences with glaucoma and had time to ask questions [32Richardson C, Brunton L, Olleveant N, et al. A study to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomized controlled trial of adherence with eye drops in glaucoma patients. Patient Prefer Adherence 2013; 7: 1025-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S47785] [PMID: 24124353]
]

3.14. Two-hour Nurse-led Educational Session Observational study

Researchers measured the persistence with glaucoma medication for two years before and one year after a group of educational sessions. The glaucoma nurse used a PowerPoint presentation for patients and their invited family members. The sessions were limited to fifteen people (including patients and family members). Patients demonstrate back on how to instil eye drops and glaucoma handouts were distributed after the session. Participants were each contacted three times over a period of ten months to address any questions, encourage adherence and plan follow up visits [33Blondeau P, Carbonneau M, Esper P, Turcotte PC. A 2-hour information session and patient recall has minimal impact on glaucoma-treatment persistence in a mature practice. J Glaucoma 2012; 21(6): 379-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0b013e3182127a9b] [PMID: 21430550]
]

3.15. An Observational Case-control Study on Web-based Glaucoma Education

The intervention group received an email with two kinds of web sites links with glaucoma information and its management. The other link was based on the personal information of the patient. Participants in the control group filled out their surveys regarding their adherence behaviour and were then given standard care by their ophthalmologist [34Lunnela J, Kääriäinen M, Kyngäs H. Web‐based intervention for improving adherence of people with glaucoma. J Nurs Healthc Chronic Illn 2011; 3(2): 119-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-9824.2011.01097.x]
].

4. DISCUSSION

Regular follow up is critical in glaucoma care to monitor the disease and adjust treatment when necessary. Systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine the effectiveness of educational intervention strategies in strengthening glaucoma eye care follow up. The primary outcomes measured were glaucoma medication adherence. Various literature databases and grey literature were searched, resulting in the inclusion of sixteen studies after three level of screening. Results suggest that there is significant improvement with medication adherence after an educational intervention. Most (8/11) of the RCT studies reviewed showed some improvement in glaucoma medication adherence. However, three (3/11) studies showed that a trend towards an improvement in medication adherence was not statistically significant. Types of educational interventions that were used differ from one study to another. Therefore, it is not easy to determine which specific characteristics of the educational intervention had the most effect on medication adherence.

Overall, eleven studies focused on improving knowledge to improve Medication compliance. Patients who received automated text messages and voice calls treminding them to take their medication improved their adherence. Furthermore, patients who were shown educational videos on the instillation of eye drops using Dosing Aid devices had their medications improved as compared to the control group. All studies that used electronic monitoring only as their adherence measures showed significant improvement in glaucoma medication as shown in Table 1. Such studies used educational sessions, videos, automated reminder calls, counselling in form of motivational interviewing, text messaging using personal health record and eye drop guide.

Furthermore, patients who received short text messages (SMS) were more likely to attend their glaucoma appointments as compared to those who had not received an SMS [21Boland MV, Chang DS, Frazier T, Plyler R, Jefferys JL, Friedman DS. Automated telecommunication-based reminders and adherence with once-daily glaucoma medication dosing: the automated dosing reminder study. JAMA Ophthalmol 2014; 132(7): 845-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.857] [PMID: 24831037]
]. A study that used MI as an educational intervention showed slight effect on the intervention group. Motivational interventions had smaller effect than reminder calls. But MI needs more training and practice because most ophthalmologists do not have ophthalmic technicians who are trained in MI. Therefore, reminder calls led to better adherence than usual care even though most studies support MI [19Cook PF, Bremer RW, Ayala AJ, Kahook MY. Feasibility of motivational interviewing delivered by a glaucoma educator to improve medication adherence. Clin Ophthalmol 2010; 4: 1091-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S12765] [PMID: 20957054]
]. Cook et al., 2016 [19Cook PF, Bremer RW, Ayala AJ, Kahook MY. Feasibility of motivational interviewing delivered by a glaucoma educator to improve medication adherence. Clin Ophthalmol 2010; 4: 1091-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S12765] [PMID: 20957054]
] focused on using motivational interviewing to improve self-efficacy to improve glaucoma medication adherence. The effects of multiple interventions such as reminder devices, patient education and eye drop guide on glaucoma medications adherence failed to improve adherence over a period of six months. Patients who received dropper guide were significantly more nonadherent than those without the dropper guide. Instead, it made it harder and led to reduced medication adherence [22Beckers HJ, Webers CA, Busch MJ, Brink HM, Colen TP, Schouten JS. Dutch Adherence Study Group. Adherence improvement in Dutch glaucoma patients: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Ophthalmol 2013; 91(7): 610-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.2012.02571.x] [PMID: 23025424]
]. Muir et al. [36Muir KW, Ventura A, Stinnett SS, Enfiedjian A, Allingham RR, Lee PP. The influence of health literacy level on an educational intervention to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Patient Educ Couns 2012; 87(2): 160-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2011.09.009] [PMID: 22000272]
] tailored their intervention to patients’ level of health literacy. They were concerned with patients with low and marginal health literacy as compared to patients with 10th grade health literacy level. Patients with low level of health literacy skills may benefit more from education efforts tailored to address their health literacy level.

There were four observational studies that took place from 2011 to 2016 that met our inclusion criteria for this systematic review. All the studies that were reviewed had a pre-post design in which the adherence was measured prior to the implementation of an educational intervention, and the adherence was measured again after the educational intervention. Most observational studies used pharmacy refill.

An observational study of glaucoma knowledge and persistence conducted by Blondeau et al. [33Blondeau P, Carbonneau M, Esper P, Turcotte PC. A 2-hour information session and patient recall has minimal impact on glaucoma-treatment persistence in a mature practice. J Glaucoma 2012; 21(6): 379-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0b013e3182127a9b] [PMID: 21430550]
] did not show any improvement in persistence within one year. This was a nurse-led educational session where glaucoma medication was measured after a two-hour educational session by means of pharmacy refill. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in self-reported adherence before and after by the patients who were using eye drop chart as an intervention. Also, participants that received web sites link with glaucoma information and its management via email for the intervention group did not show any adherence improvement [32Richardson C, Brunton L, Olleveant N, et al. A study to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomized controlled trial of adherence with eye drops in glaucoma patients. Patient Prefer Adherence 2013; 7: 1025-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S47785] [PMID: 24124353]
, 34Lunnela J, Kääriäinen M, Kyngäs H. Web‐based intervention for improving adherence of people with glaucoma. J Nurs Healthc Chronic Illn 2011; 3(2): 119-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-9824.2011.01097.x]
]. The only observational study that showed improvement in medication adherence after intervention was that it assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of health promotion. Overall patient satisfaction and suitability were high for the program, interactions with the health educator, program materials and the length of sessions. The limitation of this study was that the time spent when counselling the patients was not described [30Dreer LE, Owsley C, Campbell L, Gao L, Wood A, Girkin CA. Feasibility, Patient Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Culturally Informed, Health Promotion Program to Improve Glaucoma Medication Adherence Among African Americans: “Glaucoma Management Optimism for African Americans Living with Glaucoma” (GOAL). Curr Eye Res 2016; 41(1): 50-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02713683.2014.1002045] [PMID: 25625187]
]. However, the group based glaucoma educational program did not improve adherence at either one month or three months after the intervention, but 58% of the participants showed improvement in adherence after electronic medication monitoring as this was the only study that used RCT and observations in this systematic literature review [32Richardson C, Brunton L, Olleveant N, et al. A study to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomized controlled trial of adherence with eye drops in glaucoma patients. Patient Prefer Adherence 2013; 7: 1025-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S47785] [PMID: 24124353]
].

5. ASSESSMENT OF OUTCOMES

The most used measurement assessment of medication adherence was an electronic medication monitoring. Out of the six randomised control trials, five used electronic medication monitoring in their studies [19Cook PF, Bremer RW, Ayala AJ, Kahook MY. Feasibility of motivational interviewing delivered by a glaucoma educator to improve medication adherence. Clin Ophthalmol 2010; 4: 1091-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S12765] [PMID: 20957054]
, 22Beckers HJ, Webers CA, Busch MJ, Brink HM, Colen TP, Schouten JS. Dutch Adherence Study Group. Adherence improvement in Dutch glaucoma patients: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Ophthalmol 2013; 91(7): 610-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.2012.02571.x] [PMID: 23025424]
, 24Cate H, Bhattacharya D, Clark A, Fordham R, Holland R, Broadway DC. Improving adherence to glaucoma medication: a randomised controlled trial of a patient-centred intervention (The Norwich Adherence Glaucoma Study). BMC Ophthalmol 2014; 14(1): 32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2415-14-32] [PMID: 24655814]
, 25Okeke CO, Quigley HA, Jampel HD, et al. Interventions improve poor adherence with once daily glaucoma medications in electronically monitored patients. Ophthalmology 2009; 116(12): 2286-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.05.026] [PMID: 19815286]
]. Electronic medication monitoring is also called the gold standard for assessment of medication adherence because of its accuracy [15Newman-Casey PA, Weizer JS, Heisler M, Lee PP, Stein JD. Systematic review of educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence.Seminars in ophthalmology 2013; 28(3): 191-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08820538.2013.771198]
]. Another utmost commonly accepted measure of medication adherence was the use of medication pharmacy refill data as reported by Muir et al. [36Muir KW, Ventura A, Stinnett SS, Enfiedjian A, Allingham RR, Lee PP. The influence of health literacy level on an educational intervention to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Patient Educ Couns 2012; 87(2): 160-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2011.09.009] [PMID: 22000272]
].

From the five observational studies that were reviewed in this systematic review, two studies conducted by McVeigh and Vakros [31McVeigh KA, Vakros G. The eye drop chart: a pilot study for improving administration of and compliance with topical treatments in glaucoma patients. Clin Ophthalmol 2015; 9: 813-9.
[PMID: 26005325]
] and Lunnela et al. [34Lunnela J, Kääriäinen M, Kyngäs H. Web‐based intervention for improving adherence of people with glaucoma. J Nurs Healthc Chronic Illn 2011; 3(2): 119-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-9824.2011.01097.x]
] used self-report and one used electronic medication monitoring (Dreer et al [30Dreer LE, Owsley C, Campbell L, Gao L, Wood A, Girkin CA. Feasibility, Patient Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Culturally Informed, Health Promotion Program to Improve Glaucoma Medication Adherence Among African Americans: “Glaucoma Management Optimism for African Americans Living with Glaucoma” (GOAL). Curr Eye Res 2016; 41(1): 50-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02713683.2014.1002045] [PMID: 25625187]
]) as an assessment measure for adherence while Blondeau et al’s [33Blondeau P, Carbonneau M, Esper P, Turcotte PC. A 2-hour information session and patient recall has minimal impact on glaucoma-treatment persistence in a mature practice. J Glaucoma 2012; 21(6): 379-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0b013e3182127a9b] [PMID: 21430550]
] assessment of nurse-led group education session used prescription refill data. Only one observational study used a combination of both electronic medication monitoring and self-report [32Richardson C, Brunton L, Olleveant N, et al. A study to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomized controlled trial of adherence with eye drops in glaucoma patients. Patient Prefer Adherence 2013; 7: 1025-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S47785] [PMID: 24124353]
]. However, the challenge that came with self-report as a measure of adherence was that it was often inaccurate although it can identify those who are nonadherent. It is most likely that those reporting nonadherence are being truthful.

CONCLUSION

Most of the systematic reviewed studies used electronic interventions and were hospital/pharmacy based. Few studies used motivational interviews and others used a combination of both electronic and pharmacy refill data. None of the studies were conducted in the community or family setting. Most of the studies that used self-report showed no significant improvement in medication adherence between the control group and the treatment group. However, with the electronic intervention, most showed an increase in glaucoma medication adherence between the two groups. During this study, a gap was identified that no publications or sources addressing detailed strategies used in glaucoma adherence in South Africa / Africa were found. Some of the studies that were found were not evaluated to find out the outcome, such as the study protocol that was conducted in Nigeria on motivational interviewing to improve treatment uptake for glaucoma patients. All studies that have outcomes were conducted in developed countries. This necessitated consultation of unpublished dissertations and theses. Significantly, a lot of material is available on the knowledge attitude and self-care practices regarding glaucoma disease. This suggests that there are no known studies conducted on the intervention strategies to strengthen eye care follow up among glaucoma patients in Limpopo Province of South Africa.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

STANDARDS FOR REPORTING

PRISMA guideline and methodology were followed.

FUNDING

None.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

REFERENCES

[1] Olthoff CM, Hoevenaars JG, van den Borne BW, Webers CA, Schouten JS. Prevalence and determinants of non-adherence to topical hypotensive treatment in Dutch glaucoma patients. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2009; 247(2): 235-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-008-0944-y] [PMID: 18802720]
[2] Newman-Casey PA, Dayno M, Robin AL. Systematic review of educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence: an update in 2015. Expert Rev Ophthalmol 2016; 11(1): 5-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/17469899.2016.1134318] [PMID: 27134639]
[3] Tamrat L, Gessesse GW, Gelaw Y. Adherence to topical glaucoma medications in Ethiopian patients. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2015; 22(1): 59-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-9233.148350] [PMID: 25624675]
[4] Murakami Y, Lee BW, Duncan M, et al. Racial and ethnic disparities in adherence to glaucoma follow-up visits in a county hospital population. Arch Ophthalmol 2011; 129(7): 872-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.163] [PMID: 21746977]
[5] Cakiner-Egilmez T. Glaucoma Medications Update: How to Improve Compliance and Adherence. Insight 2015; 40(3): 5-10.
[PMID: 26364497]
[6] Hark L, Waisbourd M, Myers JS, et al. Improving access to eye care among persons at high-risk of glaucoma in Philadelphia—design and methodology: the Philadelphia glaucoma detection and treatment project. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016; 23(2): 122-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09286586.2015.1099683] [PMID: 26950056]
[7] Djafari F, Lesk MR, Giguère CÉ, Siam G, Freeman EE. Impact of a brief educational intervention on glaucoma persistence: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2015; 22(6): 380-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09286586.2015.1083036] [PMID: 26653260]
[8] Moore DB, Walton C, Moeller KL, Slabaugh MA, Mudumbai RC, Chen PP. Prevalence of self-reported early glaucoma eye drop bottle exhaustion and associated risk factors: a patient survey. BMC Ophthalmol 2014; 14(1): 79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2415-14-79] [PMID: 24927769]
[9] Leung VC, Jin YP, Hatch W, et al. The relationship between sociodemographic factors and persistence with topical glaucoma medications. J Glaucoma 2015; 24(1): 69-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0000000000000081] [PMID: 25055210]
[10] Savović J, Weeks L, Sterne JA, et al. Evaluation of the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized trials: focus groups, online survey, proposed recommendations and their implementation. Syst Rev 2014; 3(1): 37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-3-37] [PMID: 24731537]
[11] Dwan K, Altman DG, Arnaiz JA, et al. Systematic review of the empirical evidence of study publication bias and outcome reporting bias. PLoS One 2008; 3(8)e3081
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003081] [PMID: 18769481]
[12] Ramadhani HO, Bartlett JA, Thielman NM, et al. Association of first-line and second-line antiretroviral therapy adherence. Open forum infectious diseases 2014; Vol. 1: ofu079.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofu079]
[13] Demonceau J, Ruppar T, Kristanto P, et al. ABC project team. Identification and assessment of adherence-enhancing interventions in studies assessing medication adherence through electronically compiled drug dosing histories: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Drugs 2013; 73(6): 545-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40265-013-0041-3] [PMID: 23588595]
[14] Moher D, Shamseer L, Clarke M, et al. PRISMA-P Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Syst Rev 2015; 4(1): 1.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-4-1] [PMID: 25554246]
[15] Newman-Casey PA, Weizer JS, Heisler M, Lee PP, Stein JD. Systematic review of educational interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence.Seminars in ophthalmology 2013; 28(3): 191-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08820538.2013.771198]
[16] Brandes K, Mullan B. Can the common-sense model predict adherence in chronically ill patients? A meta-analysis. Health Psychol Rev 2014; 8(2): 129-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2013.820986] [PMID: 25053132]
[17] Skalicky SE, Goldberg I, McCluskey P. Ocular surface disease and quality of life in patients with glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 2012; 153(1): 1-9.e2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2011.05.033] [PMID: 21872203]
[18] Wachman JS, Rose DL. inventors; Vitality Inc, assignee. Medicine Bottle Cap With Electronic Embedded Curved Display United States patent application US 12/770,436, 2010 Oct; 28
[19] Cook PF, Bremer RW, Ayala AJ, Kahook MY. Feasibility of motivational interviewing delivered by a glaucoma educator to improve medication adherence. Clin Ophthalmol 2010; 4: 1091-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S12765] [PMID: 20957054]
[20] Lim MC, Watnik MR, Imson KR, Porter SM, Granier AM. Adherence to glaucoma medication: the effect of interventions and association with personality type. J Glaucoma 2013; 22(6): 439-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0b013e31824cd0ae] [PMID: 22411021]
[21] Boland MV, Chang DS, Frazier T, Plyler R, Jefferys JL, Friedman DS. Automated telecommunication-based reminders and adherence with once-daily glaucoma medication dosing: the automated dosing reminder study. JAMA Ophthalmol 2014; 132(7): 845-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.857] [PMID: 24831037]
[22] Beckers HJ, Webers CA, Busch MJ, Brink HM, Colen TP, Schouten JS. Dutch Adherence Study Group. Adherence improvement in Dutch glaucoma patients: a randomized controlled trial. Acta Ophthalmol 2013; 91(7): 610-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.2012.02571.x] [PMID: 23025424]
[23] Viswanathan M, Golin CE, Jones CD, et al. Interventions to improve adherence to self-administered medications for chronic diseases in the United States: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157(11): 785-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-157-11-201212040-00538] [PMID: 22964778]
[24] Cate H, Bhattacharya D, Clark A, Fordham R, Holland R, Broadway DC. Improving adherence to glaucoma medication: a randomised controlled trial of a patient-centred intervention (The Norwich Adherence Glaucoma Study). BMC Ophthalmol 2014; 14(1): 32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2415-14-32] [PMID: 24655814]
[25] Okeke CO, Quigley HA, Jampel HD, et al. Interventions improve poor adherence with once daily glaucoma medications in electronically monitored patients. Ophthalmology 2009; 116(12): 2286-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2009.05.026] [PMID: 19815286]
[26] Pizzi LT, Tran J, Shafa A, et al. Effectiveness and cost of a personalized reminder intervention to improve adherence to glaucoma care. Appl Health Econ Health Policy 2016; 14(2): 229-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40258-016-0231-8] [PMID: 26924099]
[27] Glanz K, Beck AD, Bundy L, et al. Impact of a health communication intervention to improve glaucoma treatment adherence. Results of the interactive study to increase glaucoma adherence to treatment trial. Arch Ophthalmol 2012; 130(10): 1252-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2012.1607] [PMID: 22688429]
[28] Gray TA, Fenerty C, Harper R, et al. Individualised patient care as an adjunct to standard care for promoting adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy: an exploratory randomised controlled trial. Eye (Lond) 2012; 26(3): 407-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/eye.2011.269] [PMID: 22094303]
[29] Sleath B, Blalock SJ, Stone JL, et al. Validation of a short version of the glaucoma medication self-efficacy questionnaire. Br J Ophthalmol 2012; 96(2): 258-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.2010.199851] [PMID: 21610264]
[30] Dreer LE, Owsley C, Campbell L, Gao L, Wood A, Girkin CA. Feasibility, Patient Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Culturally Informed, Health Promotion Program to Improve Glaucoma Medication Adherence Among African Americans: “Glaucoma Management Optimism for African Americans Living with Glaucoma” (GOAL). Curr Eye Res 2016; 41(1): 50-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02713683.2014.1002045] [PMID: 25625187]
[31] McVeigh KA, Vakros G. The eye drop chart: a pilot study for improving administration of and compliance with topical treatments in glaucoma patients. Clin Ophthalmol 2015; 9: 813-9.
[PMID: 26005325]
[32] Richardson C, Brunton L, Olleveant N, et al. A study to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomized controlled trial of adherence with eye drops in glaucoma patients. Patient Prefer Adherence 2013; 7: 1025-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S47785] [PMID: 24124353]
[33] Blondeau P, Carbonneau M, Esper P, Turcotte PC. A 2-hour information session and patient recall has minimal impact on glaucoma-treatment persistence in a mature practice. J Glaucoma 2012; 21(6): 379-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IJG.0b013e3182127a9b] [PMID: 21430550]
[34] Lunnela J, Kääriäinen M, Kyngäs H. Web‐based intervention for improving adherence of people with glaucoma. J Nurs Healthc Chronic Illn 2011; 3(2): 119-29.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-9824.2011.01097.x]
[35] Koshy E, Car J, Majeed A. Effectiveness of mobile-phone short message service (SMS) reminders for ophthalmology outpatient appointments: observational study. BMC Ophthalmol 2008; 8(1): 9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2415-8-9] [PMID: 18513438]
[36] Muir KW, Ventura A, Stinnett SS, Enfiedjian A, Allingham RR, Lee PP. The influence of health literacy level on an educational intervention to improve glaucoma medication adherence. Patient Educ Couns 2012; 87(2): 160-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2011.09.009] [PMID: 22000272]
Track Your Manuscript:


Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents




Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open