The Open Plant Science Journal




(Discontinued)

ISSN: 1874-2947 ― Volume 11, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Managing Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Lettuce and Green Peach Aphid and Cabbage Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Broccoli with Chemical Insecticides and the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae)



Surendra K. Dara*
University of California Cooperative Extension, 2156 Sierra Way, Ste. C, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401

Abstract

Aims:

Lettuce and broccoli are high value vegetable crops in California. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis on lettuce, and the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on broccoli are important insect pests that are frequently managed with chemical insecticides.

Observation:

Efficacy of various chemical insecticides and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was evaluated against these pests in field studies in the Santa Maria area of California. Some insecticides varied in their efficacy against F. occidentalis from year to year and against different aphid species.

Conclusion:

A new insecticide sulfoxaflor provided good control of aphids on broccoli. Beauveria bassiana demonstrated a potential for broccoli and lettuce integrated pest management.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, Cabbage aphid, Green peach aphid, Western flower thrips.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 10
First Page: 21
Last Page: 28
Publisher Id: TOPSJ-10-21
DOI: 10.2174/1874294701710010021

Article History:

Received Date: 27/10/2016
Revision Received Date: 23/12/2016
Acceptance Date: 04/01/2017
Electronic publication date: 29/05/2017
Collection year: 2017

© 2017 Surendra K. Dara.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this authors at the University of California Cooperative Extension, 2156 Sierra Way, Ste. C, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401, Tel: 805-720-1700, Fax: 805-781-4316; E-mail: skdara@ucdavis.edu




1. INTRODUCTION

Lettuce and broccoli are important agricultural crops in California [1USDA-NASS (United States Department of Agriculture-National Agricultural Statistics Service). Caifornia agricultural statistics: 2012 crop year. Available from: http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/California/Publications/California_Ag_Statistics/Reports/2012cas-all.pdf 2013.]. Lettuce is grown in 200,000 acres and is the 8th most important agricultural commodity with a crop value of $1.4 billion while broccoli, grown in 119,000, acres is ranked 17 with a value of $645 million. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on lettuce and the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus) on broccoli are important insect pests which require regular insecticidal treatments [2Natwick ET, Chaney WE, Toscano NC. Insects and arthropods UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Lettuce. Oakland:: UC ANR Publication 2009. [3450. October]; University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program.]. The role of F. occidentalis as a vector of tomato spotted wilt virus is more important than the scarring caused by its feeding. In broccoli, B. brassicae can stunt plant growth and even cause plant death at high infestation levels [3Natwick ET, Bentley WJ, Chaney WE, Toscano NC. Insects and mites. University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. September, 2009. In: UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Cole crops. Oakland:: UC ANR Publication 3442. 2009.]. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is also a frequent pest of broccoli, but is less important because it feeds mostly on older leaves. However, it requires insecticidal treatments as the presence of aphids on harvested broccoli reduces crop value.

Among hundreds of thousands of pounds of insecticide active ingredients applied on lettuce and broccoli in 2012, entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana accounts for a negligible 40 lb (pounds) [4CDPR (California Department of Pesticide Regulations). Summary of pesticide use report data 2012. Available from: http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/ docs/pur/pur12rep/comrpt12.pdf 2014; pp.709.]. Repeated use of chemical insecticides can lead to the development of resistance and undermines integrated pest management (IPM) efforts. Different species of aphids and F. occidentalis are known to develop resistance to various insecticides around the world and the risk is especially higher for the latter [5Cameron PJ, Walker GP. Insecticide resistance in green peach aphid from potatoes in South Auckland. Proceedings of the 41st New Zealand Weed & Pest Control Conference. 85-9.-9Zhao G, Liu W, Brown JM, Knowles CO. Insecticide resistance in field and laboratory strains of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). J Econ Entomol 1995; 88(5): 1164-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/88.5.1164]
]. Successful IPM involves rotation of insecticides with different modes of action and alternating chemicals with non-chemical options to reduce the risk of pesticide resistance. Considering entomopathogenic fungi such as B. bassiana can help IPM practices. Beauveria bassiana is pathogenic to several pests and its efficacy against F. occidentalis was demonstrated under greenhouse conditions in different parts of the world [10Jacobson RJ, Chandler D, Fenlon J, Russell KM. Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin with Amblyseius cucumeris Oudemans (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) to control Franklieniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on cucumber plants. Biocon Sci Tech 2010; 11(3): 391-400.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09583150120055808]
-13Shipp JL, Zhand Y, Hunt DW, Ferguson G. Influence of humidity and greenhouse microclimate on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) for control of greenhouse arthropod pests. Environ Entomol 2003; 32(5): 1154-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-32.5.1154]
]. Pathogenicity of B. bassiana against different species of aphids including M. persicae and B. brassicae has also been studied under laboratory conditions [14Akmal M, Freed S, Malik MN, Gul HT. Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes against different aphid species under laboratory conditions. Pak J Zool 2013; 45(1): 71-8.-16Xu S, Feng M, Ying S. [Time-specific infection rate of Beauveria bassiana on Myzus persicae after topical inoculation of conidial suspension]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2002; 13(6): 701-4.
[PMID: 12216397]
], but information on its field efficacy against vegetable pest management especially in California is lacking.

Field studies were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in the Santa Maria area to evaluate the efficacy of existing, newly registered, and experimental insecticides. In the 2012 studies, a commercial formulation of B. bassiana was also evaluated. Results of these studies are important for vegetable IPM in California.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. F. occidentalis on Lettuce

Studies were conducted in commercial lettuce fields in the Santa Maria area. Each plot included a 10’ long and 64” wide bed with 5 rows of lettuce and arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Insecticides were applied using a CO2-pressurized backpack sprayer equipped with three flat fan nozzles that covered the entire bed. A spray volume of 50 gallons/ac was used for all treatments except for B. bassiana where 100 gallons/ac were used. A non-ionic surfactant was included at 0.1% (v/v) concentration for acetamiprid, 0.125% for B. bassiana, and 0.25% for the rest of the treatments. The number of F. occidentalis was monitored before treatment and two to three times after each spray application. On each sampling date, four plants in 2011 and five plants in 2012 were randomly collected from each plot and gently beaten on a wire mesh over a plastic container with a 9X5” yellow sticky card placed inside according to the method described by Palumbo [17Palumbo JC. Comparison of sampling methods for estimating western flower thrips abundance on lettuce. Vegetable Report, available from: http://arizona.openrepository.com/arizona/bitstream/10150/214962/1/az1323_1b-2003.pdf 2003.]. The number of F. occidentalis dislodged from the plants and stuck to the card were counted under a dissecting microscope. Data were summarized by the analysis of variance and significant means were separated using Tukey’s HSD test.

2.1.1. 2011 Study

A lettuce field was planted in cultivar Durango on June 8. Treatments included an untreated control, acetamiprid (Assail 70 WP, 1.7 oz/ac), spinetoram (Radiant SC, 7 fl oz/ac), methomyl (Lannate SP, 0.75 lb/ac), tolfenpyrad (Torac, 21 fl oz/ac), and a combination of tolfenpyrad (Torac, 21 fl oz/ac) and methomyl (Lannate SP, 0.75 lb/ac). Treatments were administered on July 16, July 22, and August 3.

2.1.2. 2012 Study

A field was planted in cultivar Vandenberg on April 6. Treatments included an untreated control, acetamiprid (Assail 30 SD, 4 oz/ac), spinetoram (Radiant SC, 8 fl oz/ac), B. bassiana strain GHA (BotaniGard 22 WP, 2 lb/ac), methomyl (Lannate SP, 0.75 lb/ac), a combination of tolfenpyrad (Torac, 21 fl oz/ac) and methomyl (Lannate SP, 0.75 lb/ac), and an experimental insecticide referred to as NNI-1171 (21 fl oz/ac). Treatments were administered on May 16, May 24, and June 6.

2.2. M. persicae and B. brassicae on Broccoli

Study was conducted in a commercial broccoli field in Santa Maria in 2012. The field was planted in cultivar Beneforté on July 31. Each plot was 20’ long and 64” wide with 5 rows of broccoli replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included an untreated control, acetamiprid (Assail 30 SG, 4 oz/ac), B. bassiana (BotaniGard 22 WP, 2 lb/ac), tolfenpyrad (Torac, 21 fl oz/ac), an experimental insecticide, pyrifluquinazon (3.2 fl oz/ac), NNI-1171 (21 fl oz/ac), and sulfoxaflor (Sequoia), at two rates (1.5 and 2 fl oz/ac). All treatments were applied using a CO2-pressurized backpack sprayer with three flat fan nozzles. A spray volume of 50 gal/acre was used for all, but B. bassiana which used 100 gal/ac as per the label recommendations. A non-ionic surfactant was added at 0.1% (v/v) concentration for acetamiprid, 0.125% for B. bassiana, and 0.25% for the remaining treatments. Treatments were initiated on September 5 and repeated on September 25. The number of M. persicae and B. brassicae were monitored on five randomly selected plants per plot prior to the first application and 3, 7, and 12 or 13 days after each spray application. On each observation date, sample plants were pulled out and the number of aphids on each leaf was counted. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means were separated using Tukey’s HSD test.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. F. occidentalis On Lettuce

3.1.1. 2011 Study

Average number of F. occidentalis gradually increased towards the middle of the observation period and declined thereafter Table 1. Significant differences (P < 0.05) among treatments appeared starting from 3 days after the second spray application. When the average for seven post-treatment sampling dates was considered, spinetoram, methomyl, tolfenpyrad, and the combination of tolfenpyrad and methomyl caused a significant reduction (P = 0.0001) in F. occidentalis Fig. (1). Acetamiprid could not limit population build up.

Table 1
Mean number of F. occidentalis per plot in 2011 before and 3, 7, and 11 days after treatment (DAT).


Fig. (1)
Number of F. occidentalis per plot before and after (average of seven sampling dates) treatment in 2011. Bars with no or same letters are not significantly different using Tukey’s HSD (P ≥ 0.05).


3.1.2. 2012 Study

The number of F. occidentalis was similar before the initiation of the experiment with a general decline after the second spray application and an increase thereafter Table (2). Significant differences (P < 0.05) among treatments were observed 7 and 12 days after the second spray application and 3 days after the third spray application. Post-treatment average during the seven sampling dates showed that tolfenpyrad alone and in combination with methomyl significantly reduced (P < 0.00001) F. occidentalis numbers compared to untreated control, acetamiprid, and B. bassiana Fig. (2). Plots treated with spinetoram, B. bassiana, and NNI-1171 had moderate levels of F. occidentalis during the post-treatment observation period.

Tabel 2
Mean number of F. occidentalis per plot in 2012 before and 3, 7, and 12 days after treatment (DAT).


There were minor variations in the efficacy of various insecticides from 2011 to 2012, but acetamiprid could not control F. occidentalis in both years. Acetamiprid, which was used as a grower standard in the current studies, effectively controlled F. occidentalis in laboratory and greenhouse studies on lettuce, pepper, and tomato in an earlier study by Broughton and Herron [18Broughton S, Herron GA. Potential new insecticides for the control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on sweet pepper, tomato, and lettuce. J Econ Entomol 2009; 102(2): 646-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/029.102.0224] [PMID: 19449645]
]. Results indicate possible resistance to acetamiprid and suggest a need for rotating insecticides from different modes of action groups both as a means of resistance management and to achieve effective control. Efficacy of B. bassiana was similar to spinetoram and NNI-1171 among the remaining treatments. Significant reduction in the numbers of F. occidentalis larvae, adult or soil-dwelling stages was seen in different laboratory or greenhouse studies using commercial or local isolates of B. bassiana [13Shipp JL, Zhand Y, Hunt DW, Ferguson G. Influence of humidity and greenhouse microclimate on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) for control of greenhouse arthropod pests. Environ Entomol 2003; 32(5): 1154-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X-32.5.1154]
, 19Ansari MA, Brownbridge M, Shah FA, Butt TM. Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi against soil-dwelling life stages of western flower thrips, Frnakliniella occidentalis, in plant-growing media. Entomol Exp Appl 2008; 127(2): 80-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2008.00674.x]
, 10Jacobson RJ, Chandler D, Fenlon J, Russell KM. Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin with Amblyseius cucumeris Oudemans (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) to control Franklieniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on cucumber plants. Biocon Sci Tech 2010; 11(3): 391-400.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09583150120055808]
, 20Gao Y, Reitz SR, Wang J, Xu X, Lei Z. Potential of a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) as a biological control agent against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Biocon Sci Tech 2012; 22(4): 491-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09583157.2012.662478]
, 21Wu S, Gao Y, Zhang Y, Wang E, Xu X, Lei Z. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: Evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation. PLoS One 2014; 9(1): e84732.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084732] [PMID: 24454744]
]. However, data on the field efficacy of B. bassiana in lettuce, especially in California is lacking and the current studies provide useful insights into the understanding of field efficacy of a commonly available entomopathogenic fungus.

3.2. Aphids on Broccoli

M. persicae - All treatments reduced the number of M. persicae by the end of the observation period except for acetamiprid Table (3). Significant differences among treatments were seen only on 3 (P = 0.01) and 12 (P = 0.02) days after treatment. When the average for six post-treatment sampling dates was considered, sulfoxaflor at the low rate was the only treatment that had significantly (P = 0.03) lower number of M. persicae than untreated control Fig. (3). When the pre- and post-treatment averages were compared, there was a slight increase in M. persicae in acetamiprid and pyrifluquinazon treatments whereas sulfoxaflor high rate caused a 73% reduction followed by sulfoxaflor low rate (47%), NNI-1171 (44%) and B. bassiana (40%).

Table 3
Mean number of M. persicae per plot in 2012 before and 3, 7, 12 or 13 days after treatment (DAT).


Fig. (2)
Number of F. occidentalis per plot before and after (average of seven sampling dates) treatment in 2012. Bars with no or same letters are not significantly different using Tukey’s HSD (P ≥ 0.05).


B. brassicae - There was a general reduction in B. brassicae numbers in all plots Table (4). Significant differences among treatments were seen only on 3 and 7 days after the first spray application (P = 0.01). When the post-treatment average was considered, sulfoxaflor and acetamiprid had significantly lower (P = 0.003) numbers of B. brassicae compared to untreated control Fig. (4). When the pre- and post-treatment averages were compared, acetamiprid and sulfoxaflor treatments caused about 90% reduction in B. brassicae followed by pyrifluquinazon, which caused about 80% reduction.

Table 4
Mean number of B. brassicae per plot in 2012 before and 3, 7, 12 or 13 days after treatment (DAT).


Efficacy of some insecticides varied between species of aphids. In general, sulfoxaflor provided a good control of both species. Acetamiprid and pyrifluquinazon could not limit the increase in M. persicae, but caused a significant reduction in B. brassicae. On the other hand, NNI-1171 reduced M. persicae numbers, but could not control B. brassicae. Both B. bassiana and tolfenpyrad reduced both species of aphids, but B. bassiana was more effective against M. persicae with a 40% reduction post-treatment compared to B. brassicae with only 19% reduction. Efficacy of B. bassiana could vary depending on the isolate and insect species [14Akmal M, Freed S, Malik MN, Gul HT. Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes against different aphid species under laboratory conditions. Pak J Zool 2013; 45(1): 71-8.]. For example, Ying, Feng, Xu, and Ma [22Ying S, Feng M, Xu S, Ma Z. [Field efficacy of emulsifiable suspensions of Beauveria bassiana conidia for control of Myzus persicae population on cabbage]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2003; 14(4): 545-8.
[PMID: 12920898]
] reported effective control of M. persicae in field cabbage with a Chinese isolate, while Butt, Ibrahim, Ball, and Clark [23Butt TM, Ibrahim L, Ball BV, Clark SJ. Pathogenicity of the entomogenous fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana against crucifer pests and the honey bee. Biocon Sci Tech 1994; 4(2): 207-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09583159409355328]
] found that European isolates of B. bassiana were less effective against M. persicae and other pests of Chinese cabbage compared to the Brazilian or European isolates of another entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Laboratory assays also showed that B. bassiana isolates varied in their pathogenicity to M. persicae [24Todorova SI, Coderre D, Côté J-C. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolates toward Leptinotarsa decemlineata [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae], Myzus persicae [Homoptera: Aphididae] and their predator Coleomegilla maculate lengi. Phytoprotection 2000; 81(1): 15-22. [Coleoptera: Coccinellidae].
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7202/706196ar]
] and B. brassicae [25Liu S. Selecting BD061-3 strain of Beauveria bassiana to Brevicoryne brassicae L. J Anhui Agric Sci 2009; 16(1): 7523-4.].

Fig. (3)
Number of M. persicae per plot before and after (average of six sampling dates) treatment in 2012. Bars with no or same letters are not significantly different using Tukey’s HSD (P ≥ 0.05).


Fig. (4)
Number of B. brassicae per plot before and after (average of six sampling dates) treatment in 2012. Bars with no or same letters are not significantly different using Tukey’s HSD (P ≥ 0.05).


Since entomopathogenic fungi take time for the infection process, combining B. bassiana with other insecticides might improve its efficacy against vegetable pests. Such a positive impact was seen against F. occidentalis and other pests in California strawberries when B. bassiana was combined with chemical pesticides or azadirachtin [26Dara SK. Integrating chemical and non-chemical solutions for managing lygus bug in California strawberries. CAPCA Adviser 2015; 18(1): 40-4.]. Similarly, root aphids in organic celery were effectively controlled when B. bassiana was used in combination with azadirachtin [27Dara SK. Reporting the occurrence of rice rroot aphi and honeysuckle aphid and their management in organic celery. UCANR eJournal Strawberries and Vegetables 2015. Available from: http://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/ postdetail.cfm?postnum=18740].

These studies demonstrate the efficacy of various chemical insecticides and B. bassiana against some of the lettuce and broccoli pests and provide useful information for growers. While chemical pesticides are more readily used by growers due to various reasons including low cost and generally perceived higher efficacy, microbial pesticides such as those based on B. bassiana are also important for reducing the risk of pesticide resistance and maintaining environmental sustainability. However, limited information is available on microbial control of vegetable pests especially in California. Current studies evaluated the potential of B. bassiana in vegetable IPM. In circumstances where microbial pesticides alone are not very effective, combining or rotating them with chemical pesticides or other control options can be effective [28Dara SK. Managing strawberry pests with chemical pesticides and non-chemical alternatives. Int J Fruit Sci 2016. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/ doi/full/10.1080/15538362.2016.119531
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2016.1195311]
]. Using insecticides with different modes of action along with non-chemical alternatives is critical for sustainable pest management practices.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks to Frank Costa, Oceanview Flowers, Lompoc and San Ysidro Farms, Nipomo for allowing to conduct research on their farms, pesticide industry partners for the financial support, and Thomas Crottogini and Pedro Villela for the technical assistance.

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[14] Akmal M, Freed S, Malik MN, Gul HT. Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes against different aphid species under laboratory conditions. Pak J Zool 2013; 45(1): 71-8.
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[PMID: 12216397]
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[18] Broughton S, Herron GA. Potential new insecticides for the control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on sweet pepper, tomato, and lettuce. J Econ Entomol 2009; 102(2): 646-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/029.102.0224] [PMID: 19449645]
[19] Ansari MA, Brownbridge M, Shah FA, Butt TM. Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi against soil-dwelling life stages of western flower thrips, Frnakliniella occidentalis, in plant-growing media. Entomol Exp Appl 2008; 127(2): 80-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2008.00674.x]
[20] Gao Y, Reitz SR, Wang J, Xu X, Lei Z. Potential of a strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) as a biological control agent against western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Biocon Sci Tech 2012; 22(4): 491-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09583157.2012.662478]
[21] Wu S, Gao Y, Zhang Y, Wang E, Xu X, Lei Z. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: Evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation. PLoS One 2014; 9(1): e84732.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084732] [PMID: 24454744]
[22] Ying S, Feng M, Xu S, Ma Z. [Field efficacy of emulsifiable suspensions of Beauveria bassiana conidia for control of Myzus persicae population on cabbage]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2003; 14(4): 545-8.
[PMID: 12920898]
[23] Butt TM, Ibrahim L, Ball BV, Clark SJ. Pathogenicity of the entomogenous fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana against crucifer pests and the honey bee. Biocon Sci Tech 1994; 4(2): 207-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09583159409355328]
[24] Todorova SI, Coderre D, Côté J-C. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolates toward Leptinotarsa decemlineata [Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae], Myzus persicae [Homoptera: Aphididae] and their predator Coleomegilla maculate lengi. Phytoprotection 2000; 81(1): 15-22. [Coleoptera: Coccinellidae].
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7202/706196ar]
[25] Liu S. Selecting BD061-3 strain of Beauveria bassiana to Brevicoryne brassicae L. J Anhui Agric Sci 2009; 16(1): 7523-4.
[26] Dara SK. Integrating chemical and non-chemical solutions for managing lygus bug in California strawberries. CAPCA Adviser 2015; 18(1): 40-4.
[27] Dara SK. Reporting the occurrence of rice rroot aphi and honeysuckle aphid and their management in organic celery. UCANR eJournal Strawberries and Vegetables 2015. Available from: http://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/ postdetail.cfm?postnum=18740
[28] Dara SK. Managing strawberry pests with chemical pesticides and non-chemical alternatives. Int J Fruit Sci 2016. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/ doi/full/10.1080/15538362.2016.119531
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2016.1195311]

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


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