Table 1: Experimental works evaluating Chlorella vulgaris as a potential dietary resource.

Study Purpose Results Conclusion Model
Janczyk et al., 2007 To investigate the nutritional value of three C. vulgaris products. All products showed similar protein efficiency ratio and N-balance, with changes in protein digestibility and biological value. Protein digestibility and biological value of C. vulgaris may be enhanced by ultrasonic treatment and reduced by electroporation. Wistar rats
Queiroz et al., 2016 To evaluate the effect of C. vulgaris on the peripheral and central responses to forced swimming stress in rats. C. vulgaris reduced stress-related
HPA1 activation and stress-associated hyperglycemia.
C. vulgaris treatment diminished the impact of central and peripheral stressors. Sprague–Dawley rats
Bae et al., 2013 To observe the suppressive effect of a hot water extract of C. vulgaris on histamine-mediated allergic responses. Chlorella prevented histamine release from mast cells and inhibited serum IgE overproduction by ovalbumin-immunized BALB/c mice. C. vulgaris hot water extract may act as an antiallergic dietary agent. Balb/c mice
Panahi et al., 2013 To evaluate the effect of C. vulgaris on the burden of oxidative stress in Iranian smokers. Six-week Chlorella treatment increased serum antioxidant and reduced malondialdehyde levels. C. vulgaris extract significantly improves antioxidant status and attenuates lipid peroxidation in chronic cigarette smokers. Human
Grammes et al., 2013 To investigate the potential of different microbial ingredients (including C. vulgaris) to alleviate SBMIE2 in Atlantic salmon. Chlorella-treated fish showed healthy intestine at histopathological examination and similar to control in metabolism-associated gene expression. C. vulgaris was highly effective to counteract SBMIE2 in Atlantic salmon model. Atlantic Salmon
Kwak et al., 2012 To observe the effect of C. vulgaris supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. Eight-week supplementation with Chlorella increased serum concentrations of interferon-γ and interleukin-1β. NK cell activity was also augmented. Data suggest a beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term C. vulgaris supplementation in healthy subjects. Human
Sibi, 2015 To study the response of Chlorella against Propionibacterium acnes through microdilution and in vitro with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chlorella species (including C. vulgaris) inhibited lipase activity, influenced ROS and TNF-α production. C. vulgaris showed a MIC3 value of 10 µg/ml. Chlorella species has significant inhibitory activity on P. acnes, and modulate the inflammatory response to the pathogen. Propionibacterium acnes
Ebrahimi-Mameghani et al., 2014 To investigate the effect of C. vulgaris supplementation on liver enzymes, serum glucose and lipid profile in patients with NAFLD4. C. vulgaris improved weight, liver enzymes (i.e. ALP) and fasting blood sugar status. C. vulgaris seems to improve fasting blood sugar and lipid profile in human subjects. Human
Vecina et al., 2014 To evaluate the prophylactic effect of C. vulgaris on body weight, lipid profile, blood glucose and insulin signaling in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. C. vulgaris treatment increases the phosphorylation of IR, IRS-1 and Akt and prevents diet-induced high triglyceride, cholesterol and free fatty acid levels. Chlorella modulates the deleterious effects of an experimental high-fat diet in mice. Balb/c mice

1Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal. 2Soybean meal-induced enteropathy. 3Minimum inhibitory concentration. 4Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.