The Open Psychology Journal




ISSN: 1874-3501 ― Volume 12, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Attitude of Medical Sciences Students toward Older Adults in Iran, 2017



Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz1, 2, Fatemeh Mousavi-Shirazi3, *, Parisa Mollaei3, Ahmad Delbari4
1 Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing (MyAgeing), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing (MyAgeing), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3 School of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background:

Studies show as people age, demand for health care services rises. One of the most important factors that significantly affect the quality of elderly care is the attitude towards older adults.

Objective:

The current study aimed to assess the attitude of medical sciences students towards older adults in Iran.

Methods:

A cross-sectional design study using a multistage proportional random sampling method was employed to obtain a sample of 583 Iranian medical sciences students in 2017. The data were measured using the Kogan's Attitudes Towards Older People Scale (KAOPS). The SPSS 23.0 for Windows (IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0) was used to analyze the data.

Results:

Out of the 583 respondents, around 44% were female and a little more than one-fourth was medical students. The mean age was 21.98 (SD=3.63) years. The mean score of the attitude towards the elderly was found to be 56.90 (SD=8.04). Aging health students scored a more positive attitude towards elderly people than other medical sciences students. Results of the bivariate analyses revealed that field of study (F (7, 575) = 2.66, P<0.01), participating in gerontology and geriatrics research (t (581) =2.80, p<0.01), and attending in gerontology and geriatrics congress (t (581) =1.96, p<0.05) significantly associated with attitude toward older adults.

Conclusions:

The findings from the current study show that Iranian medical sciences students have moderate positive attitudes towards older adults and vary by students’ field of study and their research activity in gerontology and geriatrics field. Therefore, effective interventions for enhancing the attitudes of medical sciences students towards older adults should be developed and implemented.

Keywords: Attitude toward older adults, Geriatrics, Gerontology, Medical sciences students, KAOPS, Health care.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 12
First Page: 40
Last Page: 45
Publisher Id: TOPSYJ-12-40
DOI: 10.2174/1874350101912010040

Article History:

Received Date: 12/09/2018
Revision Received Date: 13/12/2018
Acceptance Date: 20/01/2019
Electronic publication date: 28/02/2019
Collection year: 2019

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© 2019 Momtaz et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department School of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
Tel: +982122180154; E-mail: mousavishirazi.f@gmail.com





1. INTRODUCTION

The world's population is aging rapidly owing to declining fertility and rising life expectancy. Iran like other countries around the world is experiencing an aging population. According to the latest Iranian census held in 2016, aging population (60 years and older) increased from 8.2% in 2011 to 9.3% in 2016 [1Momtaz YA, Fallahi B, Delbari A. Residential satisfaction among iranian senior citizens. Open Psychol J 2018; 11(1): 89-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874350101811010089]
]. Although increasing aging population can be considered as a successful experience, it also causes a series of new problems for healthcare systems in all developed and developing countries [2Singh S, Misra I. Alternative interventions for fortifying health of the indian elderly. Psychosocial Interventions for Health and Well-Being 2018; 175-89.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-3782-2_12]
, 3Ibrahim R, Abolfathi Momtaz Y, Hamid TA. Social isolation in older Malaysians: prevalence and risk factors. Psychogeriatrics 2013; 13(2): 71-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12000] [PMID: 23909963]
].

Studies show as people age, the probability of a variety of physical, psychological and social problems increases and demands for health care services rises [4Momtaz YA, Hamid TA, Ibrahim R. Unmet needs among disabled elderly Malaysians. Soc Sci Med 2012; 75(5): 859-63. [Online First: Epub Date].
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.03.047] [PMID: 226328 47]
]. In order to meet the health care needs of older adults is to increase the number of health professionals in aged care [5Meiboom AA, de Vries H, Hertogh CM, Scheele F. Why medical students do not choose a career in geriatrics: A systematic review. BMC Med Educ 2015; 15(1): 101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-015-0384-4] [PMID: 26043772]
].

One of the most important factors that significantly influence the quality of provided health care services to the elderly is the attitude towards older adults [6Cozort RW. Student nurses’ attitudes regarding older adults: Strategies for fostering improvement through academia. Teach Learn Nurs 2008; 3(1): 21-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2007.07.013]
]. Results of several studies show a significant association between healthcare workers’ attitude towards aging and provided quality of care [7Deasey D, Kable A, Jeong S. Influence of nurses’ knowledge of ageing and attitudes towards older people on therapeutic interactions in emergency care: A literature review. Australas J Ageing 2014; 33(4): 229-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajag.12169] [PMID: 25471745]
, 8Harsini SB, Momtaz YA, Delbari A, Sahaf R. The attitudes of rural community health workers towards older adults in kermanshah, Iran. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2017; 12(2): 139-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574887112666170127113209] [PMID: 281372 11]
]. It is found that negative attitudes of health care workers towards older adults can contribute to inequitable services for older patients through discrimination and elderly mistreatment [9Samra R, Griffiths A, Cox T, Conroy S, Gordon A, Gladman JR. Medical students’ and doctors’ attitudes towards older patients and their care in hospital settings: A conceptualisation. Age Ageing 2015; 44(5): 776-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afv082] [PMID: 26185282]
-11Hanson RM. ‘Is elderly care affected by nurse attitudes?’ A systematic review. Br J Nurs 2014; 23(4): 225-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2014.23.4.225] [PMID: 24809152]
].

Since attitude towards older adults is one the most important predictors of the quality of care of older people [8Harsini SB, Momtaz YA, Delbari A, Sahaf R. The attitudes of rural community health workers towards older adults in kermanshah, Iran. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2017; 12(2): 139-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574887112666170127113209] [PMID: 281372 11]
, 10De Biasio JC, Parkas V, Soriano RP. Longitudinal assessment of medical student attitudes toward older people. Med Teach 2016; 38(8): 823-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2015.1112891] [PMID: 266193 39]
], the current study aimed to assess the attitude of medical sciences students towards older adults in Iran.

2. METHODS

The current cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 583 Iranian medical sciences students in Tehran. A detailed description of the method has previously been published elsewhere [12Momtaz YA, Fadayevatan R, Mollaei P, et al. Development and validation of the willingness to work with elderly people scale (WEPS) among medical sciences students. J Clin Gerontol Geriatrics 2018; 9(3) https:// www.e-jcgg.com/ ?p=6288 # tab-02]. Briefly, a cross-sectional design study using a multistage proportional random sampling technique was employed to obtain a sample of 583 Iranian medical sciences students in 2017 with a response rate of 97.2%. The sample included medical, nursing, aging health, health, pharmacology, rehabilitation, dentistry, and paramedical students.

A validated version of the Kogan's Attitudes Toward Older People Scale (KAOPS) [8Harsini SB, Momtaz YA, Delbari A, Sahaf R. The attitudes of rural community health workers towards older adults in kermanshah, Iran. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2017; 12(2): 139-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574887112666170127113209] [PMID: 281372 11]
] was used to assess the attitude towards older adults. The KAOPS was first developed in 1961 to evaluate the attitude towards the elderly. The questionnaire has been used in several studies [13Erdemir F, Kav S, Citak EA, Hanoglu Z, Karahan A. A Turkish version of Kogan’s attitude toward older people (KAOP) scale: Reliability and validity assessment. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2011; 52(3): e162-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2010.10.019] [PMID: 21075461]
-15Rejeh N, Heravi-Karimooi M, Montazeri A, Foroughan M, Vaismoradi M. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Kogan’s attitudes toward older people scale. Jpn J Nurs Sci 2012; 9(2): 216-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7924.2012.00204.x] [PMID: 231818 90]
]. The Persian version of the scale has been found to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring attitude towards older adults among medical sciences students and health care workers with a Cronbach's alpha of greater than 0.80 for the total scale [8Harsini SB, Momtaz YA, Delbari A, Sahaf R. The attitudes of rural community health workers towards older adults in kermanshah, Iran. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2017; 12(2): 139-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574887112666170127113209] [PMID: 281372 11]
, 15Rejeh N, Heravi-Karimooi M, Montazeri A, Foroughan M, Vaismoradi M. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Kogan’s attitudes toward older people scale. Jpn J Nurs Sci 2012; 9(2): 216-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7924.2012.00204.x] [PMID: 231818 90]
]. The scale consists of 17 items expressing negative statements such as “The elderly are unable to change” and 17 items expressing positive statements such as “The elderly should live integrated with the young”.

Responses to each item are scored on a six-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). In this study, the scores were summed and converted to a 0-100 metric to make the total scores more informative. Higher scores mean a positive attitude towards the elderly. The reliability of the KAOPS in the current study using Cronbach’s alpha was 0.73, showing an acceptable internal consistency.

According to the previous studies showing attitude towards older adults can be influenced by a variety of individual, cultural, and situational variables [16Kite ME, Stockdale GD, Whitley BE, et al. Attitudes toward younger and older adults: An updated meta-analytic review. J Soc Issues 2005; 61(2): 241-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00404.x]
-19Liu YE, Norman IJ, While AE. Nurses’ attitudes towards older people: A systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud 2013; 50(9): 1271-82.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.11.021] [PMID: 23265870]
], the following socio-demographic characteristics and academic background of the respondents were assessed and considered as independent variables. These variables included age, sex, marital status, field of study, education degree, father's age, mother's age, living with grandparents, cared by grandparents, visiting rehabilitation center and nursing home, paid and voluntary work experiences with older adults, taking any course in geriatrics or gerontology, participating in research, congress, and workshop in geriatrics and gerontology field.

The questionnaires were administered by the students. The data were collected in classroom and lecture hall settings. The questionnaires were anonymous and informed consent was obtained from all the respondents during data collection.

2.1. Ethical Considerations

The study was conducted in compliance with the guidelines in the Declaration of Helsinki, World Medical Association (WMA) and approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee of the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran (IR.USWR.REC.1396.157).

2.2. Data Analysis

The collected data were managed and analyzed using SPSS 23.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). The descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to achieve study purposes. After handling missing values and outliers, the descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean, and standard deviation were used to describe the profile of the respondents. Bivariate analyses including a series of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t-test were conducted in inferential statistics. The dependent variable was an attitude towards older adults and socio-demographic characteristics and academic background were considered as independent variables. The P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.

3. RESULTS

The study sample consisted of 583 medical sciences students with a mean age of 21.98 (SD=3.63) years. Table 1 presents the distribution of study sample by each academic and demographic characteristic. The sex distribution of the respondents as shown in Table 1 indicated that slightly more than half of the participants (56.4%) were males. About 27% of the respondents were medical students and 10.8 percent of the students had participated in geriatrics and gerontology congress. In terms of living arrangements, the research outcome showed that 10.5% of the students were living with their grandparents. About one-fifth of the students reported their father's age as 60 years and older.

The mean score of the attitude towards the elderly was found to be 56.90 (SD=8.04). Aging health students scored a more positive attitude towards elderly people than other medical sciences students.

A series of independent sample t-tests were conducted to examine the effects of students’ sociodemographic characteristics on the dependent variable (Table 2). Results of independent sample t-tests revealed that participating in gerontology and geriatrics research (t (581) =2.80, p <0.01) and attending in gerontology and geriatrics congress (t (581) =1.96, p ≤0.05) significantly associated with attitude towards older adults.

Table 1
Profile of the students.


Table 2
Results of independent sample t-tests.


Table 3
Results of one-way ANOVAs.


Additionally, a series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to understand the impact of marital status, field of study, and education degree on students’ attitude towards elderly people (Table 3).

The findings from one-way ANOVA showed that the score of students’ attitude towards elderly differed significantly across the field of study (F (7, 575) = 2.66, P<0.01). Tukey post-hoc comparisons indicated that aging health students scored a more positive attitude towards elderly people (M=63.79, SD=8.75) than other medical sciences students at the .05 level of significance.

However, the results of two separate one-way ANOVAs revealed no statistically significant difference in students’ attitude toward elderly in terms of marital status (F (2, 580) = 1.12, P=0.328) and educational degree (F (4, 578) = 1.12, P=0.097).

4. DISCUSSION

The current cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 583 Iranian medical sciences students to assess their attitude towards older adults. The descriptive results showed that the mean score of attitude towards elderly people among students was slightly more than 50 (M=56.90, SD=8.04). This finding indicates that Iranian medical sciences students do not have a strong positive attitude about older adults.

This finding is in accordance with previous studies showing no strong positive attitude towards older among students [9Samra R, Griffiths A, Cox T, Conroy S, Gordon A, Gladman JR. Medical students’ and doctors’ attitudes towards older patients and their care in hospital settings: A conceptualisation. Age Ageing 2015; 44(5): 776-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afv082] [PMID: 26185282]
, 20Aud MA, Bostick JE, Marek KD, McDaniel RW. Introducing baccalaureate student nurses to gerontological nursing. J Prof Nurs 2006; 22(2): 73-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2006.01.005] [PMID: 16564470]
-22Happell B, Brooker J. Who will look after my grandmother? Attitudes of student nurses toward the care of older adults. J Gerontol Nurs 2001; 27(12): 12-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/0098-9134-20011201-07] [PMID: 118205 29]
]. For example, the results of a study to explore attitudes towards older patients in UK hospital showed that medical students and doctors had negative emotions about caring for older patients [9Samra R, Griffiths A, Cox T, Conroy S, Gordon A, Gladman JR. Medical students’ and doctors’ attitudes towards older patients and their care in hospital settings: A conceptualisation. Age Ageing 2015; 44(5): 776-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afv082] [PMID: 26185282]
]. Similarly, findings from a study conducted on rural community health workers showed that about 15% of the respondents had a negative attitude towards older adults [8Harsini SB, Momtaz YA, Delbari A, Sahaf R. The attitudes of rural community health workers towards older adults in kermanshah, Iran. Rev Recent Clin Trials 2017; 12(2): 139-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574887112666170127113209] [PMID: 281372 11]
]. The negative attitude towards older adults as an obstacle to provide high-quality care reduces students’ willingness to work with geriatrics patients [12Momtaz YA, Fadayevatan R, Mollaei P, et al. Development and validation of the willingness to work with elderly people scale (WEPS) among medical sciences students. J Clin Gerontol Geriatrics 2018; 9(3) https:// www.e-jcgg.com/ ?p=6288 # tab-02, 23Celik SS, Kapucu S, Tuna Z, et al. Views and attitudes of nursing students towards ageing and older patients. Aust J Adv Nurs 2010; 27(4): 24.].

The results showed that aging health students reported more positive attitudes towards older adults. However, students in the fields of medicine, pharmacology, rehabilitation, and dentistry reported lower positive attitudes than the overall average. This finding may provide information that relationship between knowledge about the elderly and positive attitude towards the elderly. Strengthening the curriculum in syllabuses attributed to the elderly may result in positive attitudes towards the elderly [24Funderburk B, Damron-Rodriguez J, Storms LL, et al. Endurance of undergraduate attitudes toward older adults. Educ Gerontol 2006; 32(6): 447-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601270600685651]
].

In addition to the field of study, participating in geriatrics and gerontology research and passing the course units focusing on aging were significantly associated with positive attitude towards older adults. It seems exposure to aging filed by means such as participating and involving in gerontological research and education can improve positive attitude toward elderly people [5Meiboom AA, de Vries H, Hertogh CM, Scheele F. Why medical students do not choose a career in geriatrics: A systematic review. BMC Med Educ 2015; 15(1): 101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-015-0384-4] [PMID: 26043772]
, 6Cozort RW. Student nurses’ attitudes regarding older adults: Strategies for fostering improvement through academia. Teach Learn Nurs 2008; 3(1): 21-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2007.07.013]
].

In our study, no significant difference was observed between students who were living with grandparents and their counterparts in terms of attitudes towards older adults. The finding is consistent with the results of a study conducted among health care students in Spain, which found living with grandparents have not influenced the students’ attitudes towards older people [25Bernardini Zambrini DA, Moraru M, Hanna M, Kalache A, Nuñez JF. Attitudes toward the elderly among students of health care related studies at the University of Salamanca, Spain. J Contin Educ Health Prof 2008; 28(2): 86-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chp.162] [PMID: 18521885]
].

CONCLUSION

With regards to the growth in the number and proportion of older adults, preparing students to meet the healthcare requirements of the elderly is of great importance. Findings of the current study showed that the attitude of students from different medical fields towards older adults was not at the desired level. Therefore, enhancing the attitudes of medical sciences students towards older adults and preparing them to provide high-quality care to aging population is needed. This may be done through effective interventions [26Varkey P, Chutka DS, Lesnick TG. The aging game: Improving medical students’ attitudes toward caring for the elderly. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2006; 7(4): 224-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2005.07.009] [PMID: 16698508]
-28Adelman RD, Fields SD, Jutagir R. Geriatric education. Part II: The effect of a well elderly program on medical student attitudes toward geriatric patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1992; 40(9): 970-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1992.tb01998.x] [PMID: 15123 96]
].

Although the study employed a large sample size of students from different fields of study, its cross-sectional nature precludes conclusions about causal relationships. Another limitation that should be acknowledged is the self-report nature of data collection that can be influenced by the effects of social desirability bias. The last limitation that the authors want to point out, concerns the generalizability of the results to other settings.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

Not applicable.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No animals/humans were used for studies that are the basis of this research.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This study was supported by grant No 1473 in University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences.

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Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


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