The Open Psychology Journal




ISSN: 1874-3501 ― Volume 14, 2021
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Theoretical Foundations of Adolescent Development through Tagiuri’s Taxonomy: Analysis of Educational Setting as an Organizational Climate



Mehmet Aslan1, *, Suzana Kosir1, Marine Levidze1
1 Department of General Education, Liberal Arts, American University of the Middle East, Dasman, Kuwait

Abstract

Background:

Research on student attachment and adolescent development indicates that negligence or lack of support during development processes such as social, emotional, and psychological processes could cause severe harm to their future lives in adulthood. Thus, delinquent behaviors may occur as less severe in peer pressure, academic challenges, family problems and as more severe in truancy, drop-out, academic failure, substance usage, juvenile crimes, suicidal tendencies, etc.

Aims:

In this regard, the present study aims at providing theoretical foundations of adolescent development through Tagiuri’s four scaled taxonomy in order to analyze the school environment as an organizational climate: ecology, milieu, social system, and culture.

Methods:

Based on the presented literature review, content analysis was used to present different theoretical foundations of adolescents based on Taqiuri’s four scaled taxonomy on school attachment. The content analysis helped us to analyze the presence, meaning and relationship of certain themes or concept.

Results:

The study shows that one of the significant challenges that appear for educational settings is to find ways and strategies to address students` developmental and academic needs in a fashion of preventing delinquent behaviors and fostering adaptive behaviors. One of the major findings of the study suggests that educational performance and enhancement should be measured together with the four scaled taxonomy to reach a complete framework of a bonding model in education.

Conclusion:

The study also aims at providing an overview of the research on Attachment Theory and its relation with Tagiuri’s four scaled taxonomy by analysis of a comprehensive research table in the field.

Keywords: Student development , Adolescence , School attachment , Adaptive and delinquent behavior , Tagiuri’s taxonomy , Scaled taxonomy .


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 13
First Page: 160
Last Page: 168
Publisher Id: TOPSYJ-13-160
DOI: 10.2174/1874350102013010160

Article History:

Received Date: 30/01/2020
Revision Received Date: 29/05/2020
Acceptance Date: 03/06/2020
Electronic publication date: 21/07/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Aslan et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of General Education, Liberal Arts, American University of the Middle East, P.O.Box: 220 Dasman, 15453, Dasman, Kuwait; Tel: +965 2225 1400; Ext: 2088; E-mail: Mehmet.Aslan@aum.edu.kw





1. INTRODUCTION

Adolescence, as a transitional and developmental period that occurs between childhood and adulthood, coexists together with diverse challenges of development resulting in either adaptive or delinquent behavior dependent on the type, degree, and circumferences of the challenge. Puberty, with its concrete, visible and biological changes, is considered as the initiation of adolescence. Nevertheless, other changes occur through less concrete processes like social, emotional, and psychological modifications. Academic achievement or school performance is very much related to students` relations with school. If adolescents have good relations with their schools, they would stay longer for their extracurricular activities and attend classes with contentment. The focus of research and psychologists that are working together with schools and educational institutions has traditionally been on assessment, avoidance, and measurement with numerous key factors that have an impact on academic performance. On the other hand, performance enhancement variables require some solid information about developmental designs that can be perceived both with adaptive and delinquent aspects. In this regard, the current study suggests that to reach an efficient practice of school psychology, Tagiuri`s four scaled taxonomy can be used to assess adaptive and delinquent behaviours as enhancement variables of schools as organizational settings.

School Attachment (hereafter SA) as a recently developed concept is similarly used as School Connectedness, School Engagement, School Climate, School Involvement, Students` Satisfaction, School Bonding, etc [1Libbey HP. Measuring student relationships to school: attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement. J Sch Health 2004; 74(7): 274-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08284.x] [PMID: 15493704]
]. In particular, attachment, bonding, and connectedness have been used to define students` attachment to schools by researchers [2Catalano RF, Haggerty KP, Oesterle S, Fleming CB, Hawkins JD. The importance of bonding to school for healthy development: Findings from the social development research group. J Sch Health 2004; 74(7): 252-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08281.x] [PMID: 15493702]
]. Thus, attachment is one of the basic needs of students attending schools, which should be met by fully prepared schools in order to make deviant behaviour a reason for failing the school or classes. The fact that attachment should be seen as a student’s basic need is one of the significant points of SA and school psychology studies that should be empirically tested. By such studies, it can be explained if students` individual negative senses of belonging to school are also the sources of their delinquencies and if these feelings have an impact on avoiding positive feelings for school or whether the low levels of SA are due to students` school life as a common environment. In this regard, the present study also aims to investigate the role of Tagiuri`s four scaled taxonomy in the analysis of organizational climate by creating a comprehensive table together with attachment and organizational studies.

Since schools are organizations, SA has been widely studied under organizational attachment studies, which helped with comprehending the school environment and its particular characteristics. As a result, theories on organizations with a focus on the human aspect are crucial in the comprehension of SA.

Tagiuri, Litwin, and Barnes [3Tagiuri R, Litwin GH, Barnes LB. Organizational climate: explorations of a concept 1968.] studied the theories of environment and organizations, and proposed organizational environment with a three-level model and defined interior environment of the organization as: (a) experiences of members, (b) organization`s influences on their behaviour, and (c) values of a specific set of traits [3Tagiuri R, Litwin GH, Barnes LB. Organizational climate: explorations of a concept 1968.]. Later on, he developed his three levelled model to a four-level model, same as a specific composition of individual traits build the personality, he presented his model as follows; 1) ecology, the physical side of the environment; 2) milieu, people within the environment; 3) social system - the interrelations between people within the environment; and 4) culture as the beliefs, norms, and values shared within the environment [3Tagiuri R, Litwin GH, Barnes LB. Organizational climate: explorations of a concept 1968.].

There have been several theoretical approaches to SA. Three developmental theories were suggested by Catalano, Haggerty, Oesterle, Fleming, and Hawkins [2Catalano RF, Haggerty KP, Oesterle S, Fleming CB, Hawkins JD. The importance of bonding to school for healthy development: Findings from the social development research group. J Sch Health 2004; 74(7): 252-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08281.x] [PMID: 15493702]
], including Attachment Theory [4Ainsworth MD. Infant--mother attachment. Am Psychol 1979; 34(10): 932-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.932] [PMID: 517843]
, 5Bowlby J. Attachment and Loss: Attachment 1969.], Social Control Theory [6Hirschi T. Causes of Delinquency 2002.], and the Social Development Model [7Hawkins JD, Weis JG. The social development model: An integrated approach to delinquency prevention. J Prim Prev 1985; 6(2): 73-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01325432] [PMID: 24271382]
]. However, diversity in terminology and analysis of variables together with other structures has been an obstacle to studies due to inconsistency of which inconvenient analysis and results caused confusion on previous and present studies [8O’Farrell SL, Morrison GM. A factor analysis exploring school bonding and related constructs among upper elementary students. Contemp Sch Psychol 2003; 8(1): 53-72.]. In this regard, the current study focused on the organizational model of Tagiuri’s four scaled taxonomy as it seemed to be neglected by research. Thus, the main purpose of the present study was to analyze Tagiuri’s four scaled taxonomy: Ecology, Milieu, Social System and Culture that provide a structural approach to school climate in the enhancement of SA among students by not only buffering the delinquent behaviors but also helping researchers define attachment as part of organizational climate for educational settings.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Research on attachment indicates that only 50% of students experience some kind of attachment to schools [9Blum R. School connectedness: Improving the lives of students 2005.], considering attachment is opposite to isolation, the other 50% might be feeling alienated from communal activities or school life [10Schulz LL, Rubel DJ. A Phenomenology of Alienation in High School: The Experiences of Five Male Non-completers. Professional School Counseling 2011; 1;14(5) 2156759X1101400501]. School attachment is also related to well-being, sociological, pedagogical, and psychological development of youth, as it is one of the essential elements that help students gain skills for facing challenges and achieving success [9Blum R. School connectedness: Improving the lives of students 2005., 11Aslan M, Rosinaite V, Khojanashvili L. Social control theory variables in conceptualizing bonding models of attachment theory and adolescent development. Acad J Interdisciplinary Stud 2019; 8(2): 199.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/ajis-2019-0031]
-13Scales PC. Developmental Assets and the Middle School Counselor 2005; 1;9(2) 2156759X0500900205]. Studies conducted on youth resiliency described developmental elements like attachment as positive predictors on resiliency enhancement for the future of youth [9Blum R. School connectedness: Improving the lives of students 2005., 11Aslan M, Rosinaite V, Khojanashvili L. Social control theory variables in conceptualizing bonding models of attachment theory and adolescent development. Acad J Interdisciplinary Stud 2019; 8(2): 199.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/ajis-2019-0031]
-14Bryan J, Day-Vines N, Griffin D, Moore-Thomas C. The disproportionality dilemma: Patterns of teacher referrals to school counselors for disruptive behavior. J Couns Dev 2012; 90(2): 177-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-6676.2012.00023.x]
]. School attachment was also considered as a negative predictor for misconduct and risk factors like truancy, dropout, failure, delinquency, etc [1Libbey HP. Measuring student relationships to school: attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement. J Sch Health 2004; 74(7): 274-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08284.x] [PMID: 15493704]
, 11Aslan M, Rosinaite V, Khojanashvili L. Social control theory variables in conceptualizing bonding models of attachment theory and adolescent development. Acad J Interdisciplinary Stud 2019; 8(2): 199.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/ajis-2019-0031]
, 14Bryan J, Day-Vines N, Griffin D, Moore-Thomas C. The disproportionality dilemma: Patterns of teacher referrals to school counselors for disruptive behavior. J Couns Dev 2012; 90(2): 177-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-6676.2012.00023.x]
, 15Gottfredson GD. Using the Effective School Battery in School Improvement and Effective Schools Programs [Internet] 1986. Available from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED273041]. as the attachment was mentioned to be a strong and significant motivational factor for both adolescents and adults, in particular impacting academic achievement outcomes.

Apart from the above-mentioned attachment studies that were focused on students feelings for school, there were many other studies conducted on the school environment other than Tagiuri`s four levelled model in an attempt to systemize, conceptualize, classify and determine the variables that make environmental factors, as well as their impacts on SA. Murphy, Weil, Hallinger, and Mitman [16Murphy JF, Weil M, Hallinger P, Mitman A. Academic press: Translating high expectations into school policies and classroom practices. Educ Leadersh 1982; 40(3): 22-6.] proposed a structure for the academic climate that urges students for achievement with an emphasis on a standardized climate which would stimulate people within the organization to act with expected behaviours and explain academic pressure as the key for achievement that can be reached through both students and staff: “Degree to which school forces press for student achievement on a school-wide basis” [16Murphy JF, Weil M, Hallinger P, Mitman A. Academic press: Translating high expectations into school policies and classroom practices. Educ Leadersh 1982; 40(3): 22-6.]. They also emphasized the significance of school regulations and class activities that foster academic press.

McDill, Rigsby, and Meyers Jr [17McDill EL, Rigsby LC, Meyers Edmund D. Educational climates of high schools: Their effects and sources. Am J Sociol 1969; 74(6): 567-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/224711]
]. studied some high schools` instructional and social climates and reached six elements of the school environment: 1) student perception of intellectualism-aestheticism - the relations between school staff and students through SPS (students` perceptions of school), particularly, the stressors for academic achievement; 2) academic emulation - a medium for academic success; 3) scientism with a focus on science; 4) cohesive and egalitarian aestheticism, highlighting intellect as the criteria for status and students` social unification within school`s communal system; 5) academically oriented student status system, a medium of academic success between peer associations; and 6) humanistic excellence - a factor of drive in increasing students` attraction and maintenance for social sciences.

Moos [18Moos RH. Conceptualizations of human environments. Am Psychol 1973; 28(8): 652-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035722]
] suggested another six-level theoretical standpoint to determine variables of the environment and to study their relations with behaviour in an analytical way: 1) behaviour settings; behavioural and environmental features with a purpose of defining student`s experiences and behaviours; 2) organizational structure - systematic relations between an organization`s divisions and their standpoints; 3) ecological dimensions - factual ergonomics of an organization as in architecture, location, internal design, etc.; 4) psycho-social characteristics and organizational climate; development of the individual, relationships, maintenance of the infrastructural and divisional aspects of the organization; 5) functional or reinforcement properties of environments; mechanisms of control on motivational aspects of specific behaviours, and 6) personal and behavioural characteristics of the inhabitants; personal traits of people living in the organization. He asserted that “categories of dimensions are nonexclusive, overlapping, and mutually interrelated” [18Moos RH. Conceptualizations of human environments. Am Psychol 1973; 28(8): 652-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035722]
]. Moos, Clayton, and Max [19Moos RH, Clayton J, Max W. The social climate scales: An annotated bibliography 1979.] further suggested a four divisional system including 1) physical setting, 2) organizational factors 3) human aggregate, and 4) social climate. After a considerable revision, they suggested a further-developed nine social environment ratio [20Moos RH, Moos BS. Family environment scale manual 1994.].

To enhance and formulate a healthy school concept, Hoy and Fedman [21Hoy WK, Fedman JA. Organizational Health: The Concept and Its Measure. J Res Dev Educ 1987; 20(4): 30-7.] suggested a seven-dimensional and three levelled structure in order to reach, maintain, and test the well-being of communal relationships in a school. They stressed the concept of health in the following way: “healthy school is one in which the teachers, administrators, and the board are in harmony, and the school meets both its organizational and people needs as it pursues its missions” [22Hoy WK, Tarter CJ. Measuring the Health of The School Climate: A Conceptual Framework. NASSP Bull 1992; 76(547): 74-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019263659207654709]
]. The three levelled structure is: (1) school board level; institutional integrity was mentioned as a school`s ability of preserving its scholar dignity from outer factors. (2) administrational level; initiating structure, was the leader`s rules of behaviour aiming at success; consideration, targeting equilibrium of communal relations with expected leader behaviour; resource support, indicated administrative behaviour in provision of needed materials for school; and principal influence was redirecting the principle`s skills to having influence over superiors. (3) teacher level; morale, stated the communal feelings between teachers, and academic emphasis, referred to the extension of pressure over students for achievement. Later, together with Kottkamp in 1991, Hoy and Tarter advanced Organizational Health Inventory (OHI) by making it specific for teachers basing on the above-mentioned theoretical approach.

Bryk and Driscoll [23Bryk AS, Driscoll ME. The high school as community: contextual influences and consequences for students and teachers 1988. Available from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED302539] proposed three essential elements that constitute organizational settings of a school aiming to examine the structural and interpersonal characteristics of the school as an organization, consisting of 1) a common agenda of activities and schedules that were shared by students and teachers that connect them to each other as well as to the customs and norms of the school; 2) formal organizational characteristics, organizational characteristics among adults in regard to their formal responsibilities and collegiate interactions; and 3) shared value system, as in norms, values, and beliefs among people that construct the culture of the school system as a community.

Gottfredson [15Gottfredson GD. Using the Effective School Battery in School Improvement and Effective Schools Programs [Internet] 1986. Available from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED273041] proposed the Effective School Battery (ESB) for the subordinate school environment assessment. The earliest ESB on student outcome related elements was covering 12 bodies: 1) Positive Peer Formations, 2) Education of Parents, 3) Anticipated Educational Outcomes, 4) Communal Competency, 5) Societal Unification, 6) SA, 7) Avoiding Punishment, 8) Obtaining Reward, 9) Integration, 10) Self-Knowledge, 11) School Performance, and 12) Reliance on Regulations. The ESB on teacher outcome elements involved seven bodies: 1) Occupational Fulfilment, 2) Interaction with Pupils, 3) Class Management, 4) Professional Competency, 5) Security, 6) Friendly Attitude, and 7) Perspective of Integration.

S. Brand, Felner, Shim, Seitsinger, and Dumas [24Brand S, Felner R, Shim M, Seitsinger A, Dumas T. Middle school improvement and reform: Development and validation of a school-level assessment of climate, cultural pluralism, and school safety. J Educ Psychol 2003; 95(3): 570-88.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.95.3.570]
] presented the Inventory of School Climate-Student (ISC-S) with an emphasis on Students` perception of School (SPS) and its environment. ISC-S was proposed after a couple of factors and the item analysis, and it consisted of 11 sub-measures, including 1) Supporting Teacher, 2) Consistent and Clear Expectations and Regulations, 3) Pupil Achievement \Commitment Guidance, 4) Positive Peer Relations, 5) Negative Peer Relations, 6) Rigidity of Disciplines, 7) Decision-Making Process and 8) Student Involvement as well as 9) Educational Compatibility\Innovation, 10) Assistance of Cultural Diversity, and 11) Issues of Safety.

3. METHODOLOGY

The research sample was obtained from 42 research and review papers written in the English language only, using A-Z Publications Finder (EBSCO) and Eric for education research content reaching from AUM Library; at the beginning, the papers were randomly selected using inclusion criteria of decade period time from 1908 to 2015.

The methodology used in the present study was of a qualitative research type to describe, decode, and to discover meaning or to translate phenomenon in theories [25Easterby-Smith M, Thorpe R, Lowe A. Management Research: An Introduction Koper: Fakulteta za management 2005.]. Based on the presented literature review, content analysis was used to present different theoretical foundations of adolescence based on Taqiuri’s four scaled taxonomy on school attachment. Content analysis helped us to analyze the presence, meaning, and relationship of certain themes or concepts [26Charmaz K. Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis 2006.]. The main goal in the content analysis [27Krippendorf K. Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology 1980.] was to choose a concept that was based on Tagiuri’s four scaled taxonomy: ecology, milieu, social system, and culture, which were the codes of four thematic concepts. The Code of existence of a concept [28Elo S, Kääriäinen M, Kanste O, Pölkki T, Utriainen K, Kyngäs H. Qualitative Content Analysis: A Focus on Trustworthiness. SAGE Open 2014; 4(1)2158244014522633
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2158244014522633]
] was used in the analysis of the literature where a particular concept appeared al least once in a text. Based on coding, different theoretical foundations of school attachment were analyzed and presented in the “results” part in Table 1.

Authors and an associate implemented categorization of 164 research and review papers based on content analysis that were conducted on the SA and Tagiuri`s taxonomy, categorization was done independently first, and then inconsistencies were diagnosed thoroughly using the codes of four thematic concepts by authors to achieve a final categorization of research papers conducted only on Tagiuri`s taxonomy in relation with organizational climate.

Moreover, an in-depth analysis of Tagiuri’s taxonomy and attachment theory was used in relation to comprehension of social networks of schools that were obtained through secondary data as well as the table that was created for this study.

Table 1
Theoretical foundations of school attachment based on tagiuri’s four scaled taxonomy on school attachment as an organization.


4. RESULTS

Tagiuri et al. [3Tagiuri R, Litwin GH, Barnes LB. Organizational climate: explorations of a concept 1968.] developed a four-scaled classification for School Environment: ecology, milieu, social system, and culture. Although Tagiuri’s classification of School Climate intrigued a structural approach to organizations, it was later perceived as taxonomies that were based on aspects of valence: “Studies of social networks in the organizational arena have taken varying approaches over time…” as they “…focused on whether ties between nodes existed or not with a relational content approach” [29Labianca G (Joe). Negative Ties in Organizational Networks. In: Contemporary Perspectives on Organizational Social Networks [Internet]. Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2014; 40: 239-59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S0733-558X(2014)0000040012]
].

4.1. Ecology

Ecology, in regard to school, addresses physical aspects rather than people within the school, which covers the instruments, facilities, some services, constructs, supplies, and materials [30Anderson CS. The search for school climate: A review of the research: review of educational research [Internet] 2016.https://journals.sagepub.com
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543052003368]
]. The impact of school`s ergonomics and tangible environment on learning was measured by Mendell and Heath [31Mendell M, Heath G. A summary of scientific findings on adverse effects of indoor environments on students’ health, academic performance and attendance 2004.]. They presented findings on the effect of moistened buildings, which caused more absences and low academic achievements on students. In another study, Shendell, Barnett, and Boese [32Shendell DG, Barnett C, Boese S. Science-based recommendations to prevent or reduce potential exposure to biological, chemical, and physical agents in schools. J Sch Health 2004; 74(10): 390-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb06603.x] [PMID: 15724565]
] presented a higher correlation between school climate and health of students, particularly the noise in the classes was found to be intervening with learning; however, the enlightenment of the classes was found to be increasing the academic achievement.

The advancement of technology was also mentioned by Perera [33Perera PG. How computer -related technology is incorporated into instructional methods and objectives in the secondary school classroom [Internet] 2008. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/openview/d8deef003fd1b5900be506b403d1be04/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y] as the increase in computerized schools influenced many aspects of schooling: data analysis, curriculum development, assessment, equipment, etc. K-12 schools were investigated by Hohlfeld, Ritzhaupt, Barron, and Kemker [34Hohlfeld TN, Ritzhaupt AD, Barron AE, Kemker K. Examining the digital divide in K-12 public schools: Four-year trends for supporting ICT literacy in Florida. Comput Educ 2008; 51(4): 1648-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.04.002]
] proposing that schools with a better economy in regard to SES were more prone to technological development according to the results they presented on the differences between accessibility and support. Leithwood and Jantzi [35Leithwood K, Jantzi D. A Review of Empirical Evidence About School Size Effects: A Policy Perspective: Review of Educational Research [Internet] 2009. Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com10.3102/0034654308326158] presented a study on school size and its impact on students; they suggested that students with low SES background indicated higher performances in small-sized schools. Jayaratne [36Jayaratne K. Ergonomic considerations in school environments - the need for widening the scope. Work 2012; 41(Suppl. 1): 5543-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2012-0877-5543] [PMID: 22317609]
] suggested that ergonomics should be considered under catering services due to the increasing demand.

4.2. Milieu

It is about the characteristics of the people within the school system [3Tagiuri R, Litwin GH, Barnes LB. Organizational climate: explorations of a concept 1968.], also considered with two aspects of human factor: (a) students` characteristics in regard to family, ethnicity, performance, etc. and (b) teachers` characteristics with their experiences, academic and credential backgrounds. Studies conducted on School Milieu indicate a significant correlation between SES and academic achievement as students from low SES scored low averages [37Konstantopoulos S, Borman G. Family Background and School Effects on Student Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis of the Coleman Data. Teach Coll Rec 2011; 113(1): 97-132., 38Lee VE, Bryk AS. A multilevel model of the social distribution of high school achievement. Sociol Educ 1989; 62(3): 172-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2112866]
]. The influence of SES was analyzed in accordance with performance: School performance, Academic achievement, in other words, was effected by the socio-economic status as those who belonged to high socioeconomic status showed higher performances [39Tok BR, Dupak S. A study on academic achievement in relation with socio economic status of secondary school students with reference to east siang district of arunachal pradesh. Int J Multidisciplinary App & Stud 2015; 2(5)]. Many other studies highlighted the significance of counseling activities in regard to school psychology that studied academic matters as well, through which the presented findings indicated that counseling activities at a school significantly increased the ratio of passing from high-stake tests [40Aslan M. Analysis of school attachment among students of a boarding high school in albania. J Educ Soc Res 2014; 4(2): 287.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5901/jesr.2014.v4n2p287]
-45Wyatt S. The brotherhood: Empowering adolescent African-American males toward excellence. Prof Sch Couns 2009; 12(6): 463-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5330/PSC.n.2010-12.463]
].

4.3. Social System

Social System refers to established and non-established operational designs and the interrelations among populations and their divisions within the organization of a school [3Tagiuri R, Litwin GH, Barnes LB. Organizational climate: explorations of a concept 1968.]. The positive impacts of decision-making through encouraging participation of students in teacher discourses and values are mentioned by Leech and Fulton [46Leech D, Fulton CR. Faculty perceptions of shared decision making and the principal’s leadership behaviors in secondary schools in a large urban district. Education 2008; 128(4): 630-44.] in regard to schools` social system. Although Feuer and Mayer [47Feuer A, Mayer A. Student Board Members Make a Difference. Educ Dig 2009; 74(9): 17-9.] emphasized the importance of student`s priority in the decision-making process of the school, they could not provide any precise data indicating its concrete influence.

As mentioned earlier on the milieu of school that counseling activities have a positive impact on students` achievements, in the same study conducted by Benner, Allor, and Mooney [48Benner GJ, Allor JH, Mooney P. An investigation of the academic processing speed of students with emotional and behavioral disorders served in public school settings. Educ Treat Child 2008; 31(3): 307-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/etc.0.0006]
], the authors suggested that the social system of a school is positively influenced by the interaction of pupil learning results and social elements. The supportive approach in regard to academic achievement from teachers, counselors, and admin staff has many advantages for pupils` success [48Benner GJ, Allor JH, Mooney P. An investigation of the academic processing speed of students with emotional and behavioral disorders served in public school settings. Educ Treat Child 2008; 31(3): 307-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/etc.0.0006]
, 49Košir S. Study support as students’ motivation for study. Int J Manag Educ 2010; 4(1) [IJMIE].]. According to several other studies, social well-being factors and well-ordered school systems have a positive impact on students` performances; likewise, safety at school had a positive impact on reducing disruptive attitudes of the students [50Brand PLP, Baraldi E, Bisgaard H, et al. Definition, assessment and treatment of wheezing disorders in preschool children: an evidence-based approach. Eur Respir J 2008; 32(4): 1096-110.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00002108] [PMID: 18827155]
-52Stone S, Han M. Perceived school environments, perceived discrimination, and school performance among children of Mexican immigrants. Child Youth Serv Rev 2005; 27(1): 51-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.08.011]
]. Other recent studies mentioned the significance of social competence and its impact on academic achievement: the findings presented indicated that competence in social skills and the systems of schools (as in private vs. public) were given as important predictors of school (academic) achievement. In this regard, there were significant differences between the achievements of high scoring and low scoring students’ in their overall competencies [53Malik F, Shujja S. Social competence and school systems as predictor of academic achievement in high and low achieving pakistani school children. J Behav Sci 2013; 23(1): 77-92.]. The design of a school system and features of SES context was also mentioned to influence dropout and truancy risks [54Lavrijsen J, Nicaise I. Social inequalities in early school leaving: The role of educational institutions and the socioeconomic context. Eur Educ 2015; 47(4): 295-310.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10564934.2015.1098265]
].

4.4. Culture

According to Tagiuri et al. [3Tagiuri R, Litwin GH, Barnes LB. Organizational climate: explorations of a concept 1968.], the culture of a school system features the same characteristics with a community or society as people and their interrelations with each other determine the same beliefs, norms, and values. Studies conducted on school culture emphasize the importance of the strategic plan that should be implemented at the very beginning in regard to ecology, milieu and social system: “Organizations, including schools, should make building culture part of a planned strategic effort” [54Lavrijsen J, Nicaise I. Social inequalities in early school leaving: The role of educational institutions and the socioeconomic context. Eur Educ 2015; 47(4): 295-310.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10564934.2015.1098265]
]. The academic performances of students are also considered and related to the institutional culture of a school as it helps the administrative staff to achieve targeted goals [56Murphy J, Smylie M, Mayrowetz D, Louis KS. The role of the principal in fostering the development of distributed leadership. Sch Leadersh Manage 2009; 29(2): 181-214.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632430902775699]
, 57Robbins SP. Organizational Behavior [Internet] 2011. content/one-dot-com/one-dot-com/us/en/higher-education/product.html].

Identification of the kind of culture within a school is also considered significant and studies indicate that culture is one of the major indicators to initiate and maintain an organization [58Fox JR. Analyzing the organizational culture of Yolo county using two assessment models [Internet] 2013. Available from: paper/Analyzing-the-organizational-culture-of-Yolo-county-Fox/f635af1cfd2ce39288dafd1755bcc1894fd65c7b]. Variables based on several different cultures practiced at different schools can be used to conceptualize school culture profiles; moreover, they can be used to enhance school practices by all means, including academic achievement, instructional quality, achieving targeted goals, etc. as Daud, Raman, Don, Sofian, and Hussin [59Daud Y, Raman A, Don Y. O. F. MS, Hussin F. The type of culture at a high performance schools and low performance school in the state of kedah. Int Educ Stud 2015; 8(2): 21-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n2p21]
] reached results on a study conducted on the types of school cultures: “An organizational culture which is both strong and appropriate with the aspirations of the members in the organization can help preserve excellence in the organization and help in achieving aims and objectives” [58Fox JR. Analyzing the organizational culture of Yolo county using two assessment models [Internet] 2013. Available from: paper/Analyzing-the-organizational-culture-of-Yolo-county-Fox/f635af1cfd2ce39288dafd1755bcc1894fd65c7b].

Together with technological developments and other prerequisites, high performances expected from students, as well as the need for communal success and integrity, are increased proportionally. Adolescents that are lacking in one or more of these aspects have less chance of furthering their studies and\or maintaining their socio-psychological well beings. Accordingly, the analysis of organizational climate overall suggests that attachment with all its aspects is one of the vital requirements in providing support for adolescent development. SA in particular with its physical aspects about the environment, staff, culture, ecology, etc.; academic aspects of learning, interest, achievement, performance, instruction, etc.; and psychological aspects of development, general well-being, integrity, satisfaction, etc. are all essential components that have an impact on students, teachers, administrative staff, school, and governmental outcomes.

5. DISCUSSION

Studies conducted on school climate, overall indicate that styles of attachment have an impact on personality traits and the professional life of an individual. Thus, environmental factors are also as important as an individual`s attachment patterns, because both have an influence on development as in: “Developmental Theorists are now looking at much more diverse populations and attachment theorists need to follow their lead” [65Loukas A, Suzuki R, Horton KD. Examining school connectedness as a mediator of school climate effects. J Res Adolesc 2006; 16(3): 491-502.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2006.00504.x]
, 66Austrian SG, Ed. Developmental Theories Through the Life Cycle 2nd ed. 2008.].

Together with the rising interest of the researchers and the conceptualized significance of attachment studies implemented on adolescents, psychologists, practitioners, counselors, pedagogues, curriculum designers, governmental, and non-governmental policy-making agents are getting more and more devoted to the full comprehension of attachment variables and establishment of the safe havens that can cultivate adolescents` attachments to their schools [1Libbey HP. Measuring student relationships to school: attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement. J Sch Health 2004; 74(7): 274-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08284.x] [PMID: 15493704]
, 2Catalano RF, Haggerty KP, Oesterle S, Fleming CB, Hawkins JD. The importance of bonding to school for healthy development: Findings from the social development research group. J Sch Health 2004; 74(7): 252-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08281.x] [PMID: 15493702]
, 14Bryan J, Day-Vines N, Griffin D, Moore-Thomas C. The disproportionality dilemma: Patterns of teacher referrals to school counselors for disruptive behavior. J Couns Dev 2012; 90(2): 177-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-6676.2012.00023.x]
, 67Eccles JS, Roeser RW. Schools, academic motivation, and stage-environment fit.Individual bases of adolescent development 3rd ed. Handbook of adolescent psychology12009; : 404-34., 68Smith DC, Sandhu DS. Toward a positive perspective on violence prevention in schools: Building connections. J Couns Dev 2004; 82(3): 287-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00312.x]
]. On the other hand, the current paper, together with the literature on the theme as well as Table 1, indicates that although research on SA related performance enhancement with organizational settings, the scales assessing climate enhancement are significantly neglected. As the data on Table 1 shows only 3 studies (7.14%) of the research from 1908 to 2015 focused on all four scales of the taxonomy; 9 studies (21.4%) of the research used three of them; 19 studies (45.2%) used two of the scales and 11 studies (26.1%) of the research used only one of the scales. However, one of the other aspects of schools which should be considered by school psychologists is that they are organizational places where students can socialize with others. According to Barber & Muenz [69Barber JP, Muenz LR. The role of avoidance and obsessiveness in matching patients to cognitive and interpersonal psychotherapy: empirical findings from the treatment for depression collaborative research program. J Consult Clin Psychol 1996; 64(5): 951-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.5.951] [PMID: 8916624]
], adolescents socialize with others through different aspects, such as having close relations with others, displaying regulated behaviors, and initiating autonomy for psychological development. The approach of seeing schools as social settings indicates that schools provide the first aspect by helping students socialize, especially when they are well-organized to be cultures or environments of caring [40Aslan M. Analysis of school attachment among students of a boarding high school in albania. J Educ Soc Res 2014; 4(2): 287.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5901/jesr.2014.v4n2p287]
, 70Battistich V, Hom A. The relationship between students’ sense of their school as a community and their involvement in problem behaviors. Am J Public Health 1997; 87(12): 1997-2001.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.12.1997] [PMID: 9431290]
].

CONCLUSION

Although there have been different viewpoints on the approach of schools` functions as social environments, the scholars majorly agreed on the facts that schools help students, experience emotional bonding to each other as they develop attachment feelings [1Libbey HP. Measuring student relationships to school: attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement. J Sch Health 2004; 74(7): 274-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08284.x] [PMID: 15493704]
], they experience senses like being respected, helped and cared by peers and teachers, in such schools students are felt like being at home [1Libbey HP. Measuring student relationships to school: attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement. J Sch Health 2004; 74(7): 274-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08284.x] [PMID: 15493704]
]. One of the benefits provided by such caring schools is that students experience senses such as being part of a bigger group where they have their roles and contributions; such school climates give students a chance to have a word in decision-making processes in the school activities as well. The impact of such schools on the student development is widely appreciated by scholars as such schools bring up systems with value, higher satisfaction, enhanced school performance, lower delinquency behavior, and overall healthy school attachment [40Aslan M. Analysis of school attachment among students of a boarding high school in albania. J Educ Soc Res 2014; 4(2): 287.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5901/jesr.2014.v4n2p287]
, 70Battistich V, Hom A. The relationship between students’ sense of their school as a community and their involvement in problem behaviors. Am J Public Health 1997; 87(12): 1997-2001.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.12.1997] [PMID: 9431290]
]. The role of school attachment in preventing delinquency and fostering healthy development is one of the majorly and pervasively agreed influences of SA on students.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

Not applicable.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No human/animals were used that are basis of this study.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS

Not applicable.

FUNDING

None.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author declares no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

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