Table 1: Descriptive statistics and gender differences for all investigated variables

- Full sample (N = 488) - - Males (n = 258) Females (n = 230) t(486) d 95% CI
- M (SD) Observed range Possible range M (SD) M (SD)
Age 16.35 (1.59) 13-19 12-19 16.14 (1.65) 16.59 (1.49) -3.13** 0.29 [-0.73, -0.17]
Hour per day spent on mobile phone use 5.36 (2.85) 1-10 0-24 5.34 (2.96) 5.36 (2.73) 0.06 0.01 [-0.49, 0.56]
Hour per day spent on mobile social networking 3.22 (2.53) 1-10 0-24 2.56 (2.09) 1.14 (1.24) 8.99*** 0.82 [0.34, 1.25]
Hour per day spent on mobile video game playing 1.89 (1.88) 0-8 0-24 2.86 (2.41) 3.64 (2.60) -3.43** 0.31 [-1.73, -1.14]
PMPUQ dependence 11.22 (3.07) 5-20 5-20 11.00 (3.07) 11.47 (3.05) -1.68 0.15 [-0.09, 0.98]
RF 2.24 (6.96) -18–18 -18–18 2.65 (7.24) 1.77(6.62) -1.40 0.13 [-2.06, 0.30]
CTQ-total score 38.28 (13.65) 27-101 25-125 39.39 (15.08) 37.04 (11.76) 1.90 0.17 [-4.63, 0.13]

Note: PMPUQ dependence: mobile phone use addiction; RF: Reflective Functioning; CTQ-total score: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.
*p< .05; **p< .01; *** p< .001