The Open Psychology Journal




ISSN: 1874-3501 ― Volume 14, 2021
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Psychometric Properties of Binge Eating Scale Indonesian Version



Dyah Kusbiantari1, 2, *, Efi Fitriana1, Zahrotur Rusyda Hinduan1, Wilis Srisayekti1
1 Department of Psychology, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM.21, Hegarmanah, Kec. Jatinangor, Sumedang Regency, West Java 45363, Indonesia
2 Department of Education Science, Ivet University Jl. Pawiyatan Luhur IV/17 Bendan Dhuwur Semarang City, Central Java 50235, Indonesia

Abstract

This research aims to examine the psychometric properties of the Indonesian version of the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and to describe characteristics of binge eating among emerging adults aged 19 – 25 years old in 3 private universities in Indonesia. The Indonesian version of BES was translated forward and backwards, according to the second edition of the ITC guidelines to confirm conceptual and linguistic equivalence. The result provided factor structure evidence and showed good reliability of the BES Indonesian version. No significant difference between man and woman and Body Mass Index was observed.

Keywords: Binge eating scale, Factor analysis, Psychometric, Body mass index, Emotional symptoms, Cognitive symptoms.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 13
First Page: 310
Last Page: 314
Publisher Id: TOPSYJ-13-310
DOI: 10.2174/1874350102013010310

Article History:

Received Date: 12/6/2020
Revision Received Date: 3/8/2020
Acceptance Date: 5/8/2020
Electronic publication date: 13/11/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Kusbiantari et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Psychology, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM.21, Hegarmanah, Kec. Jatinangor, Sumedang Regency, West Java 45363, Indonesia; Tel: 62-81325742229; E-mail: dyahkusbiantari@gmail.com





1. INTRODUCTION

Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is a behavior characterized by eating large amounts, accompanied by feelings of loss of control in this episode, followed by repeatedly occurring sadness, without any anticipation of weight gain as in bulimia nervosa [1American psychiatric association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 2013.].

Binge eating disorder is associated with severe implications in both clinical and non-clinical populations [2Escrivá-Martínez T, Galiana L, Rodríguez-Arias M, Baños RM. The binge eating scale: Structural equation competitive models, invariance measurement between sexes, and relationships with food addiction, impulsivity, binge drinking, and body mass index. Front Psychol 2019; 10: 530.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00530] [PMID: 30967808]
, 3Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Chiu WT, Deitz AC, Hudson JI, Shahly V, et al. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Biol Psychiatry 2013; 73: 904-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.11.020] [PMID: 23290497]
]. Binge eating disorder is also associated with increased BMI, anxiety, depression, decreased quality of life, increased risk of death as well as the risk of suicide [2Escrivá-Martínez T, Galiana L, Rodríguez-Arias M, Baños RM. The binge eating scale: Structural equation competitive models, invariance measurement between sexes, and relationships with food addiction, impulsivity, binge drinking, and body mass index. Front Psychol 2019; 10: 530.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00530] [PMID: 30967808]
-9Ostrovsky NW, Swencionis C, Wylie-Rosett J, Isasi CR. Social anxiety and disordered overeating: An association among overweight and obese individuals. Eat Behav 2013; 14(2): 145-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.01.009] [PMID: 23557810]
].

Its prevalence in various countries seems to be increasing, especially in adolescence and emerging adults [10Stice E, Presnell K, Spangler D. Risk factors for binge eating onset in adolescent girls: A 2-year prospective investigation. Health Psychol 2002; 21(2): 131-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.21.2.131] [PMID: 11950103]
]. There are two peaks of binge eating onset, after puberty, on average at 14 years and 19-25 years [11Gan WY, Mohamad N, Law LS. Factors associated with binge eating behavior among malaysian adolescents. Nutrients 2018; 10(1)E66
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10010066] [PMID: 29320461]
, 12Timmerman GM. Binge eating scale : Further assessment of validity and reliability ’. J Appl Biobehav Res 1999; 4: 1-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9861.1999.tb00051.x]
]. Various studies show binge can occur in both men and women [12Timmerman GM. Binge eating scale : Further assessment of validity and reliability ’. J Appl Biobehav Res 1999; 4: 1-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9861.1999.tb00051.x]
, 13Freitas SR, Lopes CS, Appolinario JC, Coutinho W. The assessment of binge eating disorder in obese women: A comparison of the binge eating scale with the structured clinical interview for the DSM-IV. Eat Behav 2006; 7(3): 282-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2005.09.002] [PMID: 16843232]
].

Binge eating was increasingly found in various parts of the world, Indonesia, as a country that has an increasing economy, and the rise of social media use, which tends to increase the external influence on the prevalence of binge eating.

The prevalence of binge eating withvarious problems had to be anticipated. So far in Indonesia, no research has found the prevalence of binge eating, therefore, valid and reliable measurements are undoubtedly needed. For this reason, it was important to have a valid measurement tool to measure binge eating in the Indonesian population.

Binge Eating Scale (BES) is a very well-known measurement for binge eating severity as well as a screening tool [3Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Chiu WT, Deitz AC, Hudson JI, Shahly V, et al. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Biol Psychiatry 2013; 73: 904-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.11.020] [PMID: 23290497]
, 14Striegel RH, Perrin N, DeBar L, Wilson GT, Rosselli F. Screening for binge eating disorders using the patient health questionnaire in a community. Int J Eat Disord 2011., 15Goldschmidt AB, Wall MM, Zhang J, Loth KA, Neumark-Sztainer D. Overeating and binge eating in emerging adulthood: 10-year stability and risk factors. Dev Psychol 2016; 52(3): 475-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000086] [PMID: 26689758]
]. The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure and reliability of the BES Indonesian version and relationships between BES with BMI and sex.

2. METHODS

2.1. Participants

Participants were 553 undergraduate, Indonesian students from 3 private universities in Semarang city. Female (n = 373; 67%;), average age 19 years (Mean = 19.37, SD = 1), BMI (Mean = 21.64, SD = 4.73), Javanese ethnic = 382 people and non javanese = 171 people. Marital status = 551 unmarried, 1 person refused to answer, and 1 person was married. Participation in this study was voluntary, informed consent was obtained by participants before filling out the questionnaire.

2.2. Measure

A self-report instrument, BES measures cognitive/ emotional symptoms and behaviors related to binge eating, consisting of 16 items, out of which 8 items describe behavioral manifestations and 8 items describe cognition/ feelings, each item consists of 3-4 choice statements/responses that indicate the severity of each binge eating characteristic being measured. Weighted scores range from 0-3 (0 indicate no Binge problems, 3 indicates a severe binge eating problem). The total score has a range of 0-46. Cut off score: non / mild ≤ 17, moderate 18–26, severe ≥ 27.

The Indonesian version of BES was carried out through a process of translational adaptation, namely forward and back translation, according to guidelines issued by the second edition of the ITC. The translation was carried out separately by three people, who were fluent in English and professionals and then reviewed by a bilingual research expert who knows the purpose of the research to get the translation appropriate. The panel results were then translated back into English by 3 professionals and one of them was a native speaker. The results of the translation were reviewed once again by bilingual researchers, who understood the purpose of the study. The Indonesian version of BES carried out trials on 40 students, then reviewed by a bilingual researcher who understood the purpose of the study to obtain a simple and easy-to-read measurement tool.

2.3. Statistical Analysis

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to examine the factor structure of the BES Indonesian version. Some fit was used to test the CFA model with a fit or fit number as used by Escrivá-martínez (2019), chi-square has p < .05, CFI shows good fit if the value is more than .09, and root-mean-squared. The error of approximation (RMSEA) was declared fit if the value was less than .08, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI), the Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) and the Relative Fit Index (RFI) were declared fit if the value was greater or equal to 0.90. The analysis of BES was performed using SPSS and Lisrel Student 8.8 (Jöreskog & Sörbom). The reliability coefficient was calculated by Cronbach Alpha.

3. RESULTS

3.1. Factor Structure and Reliability of the BES Indonesian version.

The results of the translation of each item of BES are shown in Table 1. Summarized results of the analysis and loading factors of each item of BES are shown in Table 2. Each item showed a loading factor greater than 0.05 so that all items are significant. Match / fit is seen from X2 = 169.49 (N = 553; p = .000); df = 86; RMSEA = 0.042; CFI = 1.00; CGI =, RFI = 0.99; GFI = .96. The results indicate that RMSEA, CFI, CGI, RFI, and GFI all show a good fit. Unidimension of BES Cronbach’s alpha = 0.831, emotional/cognitive factors Cronbach’s alfa = .754 and behavior factor Cronbach’s alpha = 0.612.

Table 1
BES Indonesian version.


Table 2
Summary of analysis results of CFA BES version indonesia.


3.2. Sex Difference in BES scores

Analysis of the differences in BES scores based on sex grouping, obtained in men (M = 7.756; SD = 7.271) and women (M = 8.836; SD = .348); obtained t (330) = -1.679, p > .05. It was found that there were no differences in BES scores in men and women.

3.3. The Relationship between BES Scores Based on BMI

The relationship between the Indonesian version of BES scores with BMI using Pearson's Moment coefficient analysis obtained r = 0.304; (p <0.05). There is no relationship between BMI and BES scores. The relationship between BMI with the two factors of BES, namely behavioral and cognitive/emotional manifestations, was carried out and the results obtained showed no relationship between BMI and behavioral manifestations (r = .308; p> 0.05) and BMI with factors cognitive / emotions (r = 0.422; p > 0.05).

4. DISCUSSION

Based on the research results obtained, the Indonesian version of BES looks valid to be used to measure the prevalence and severity of binge eating in the population of Indonesia.

The results of this study also show the validity of the two factors present in BES, namely, behavioral and cognitive/emotional manifestations. The loading factor was examined by the BES factors in accordance with the original version. The results of this study show similarities with studies conducted in populations of Saudi Arabia and Spain. There was a weak correlation between BMI and BES scores, the same results were obtained in studies conducted in populations of Spain and Portugal [3Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Chiu WT, Deitz AC, Hudson JI, Shahly V, et al. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Biol Psychiatry 2013; 73: 904-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.11.020] [PMID: 23290497]
, 14Striegel RH, Perrin N, DeBar L, Wilson GT, Rosselli F. Screening for binge eating disorders using the patient health questionnaire in a community. Int J Eat Disord 2011.]. Another study also found there was no BMI difference [15Goldschmidt AB, Wall MM, Zhang J, Loth KA, Neumark-Sztainer D. Overeating and binge eating in emerging adulthood: 10-year stability and risk factors. Dev Psychol 2016; 52(3): 475-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000086] [PMID: 26689758]
].

CONCLUSION

Binge eating has high rates of persisting or worsening in early young adulthood [14Striegel RH, Perrin N, DeBar L, Wilson GT, Rosselli F. Screening for binge eating disorders using the patient health questionnaire in a community. Int J Eat Disord 2011.]. This study support the existing literature that found binge eating in emerging adulthood. The Indonesian version of BES has good validity. The 2-factor BES was revealed to be important in Indonesia, cross-culturally. There were language and cultural differences among Indonesian ethnics, which required a scale that uses standard language.

This Indonesian version of BES can be used immediately. Thus, it can help improve planning of health promotion, prevention, and treatment of binge eating.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

Not applicable.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No Animals were used in this research. All human research procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the committee responsible for human experimentation (institutional and national), and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Informed consent was taken from all the patients when they were enrolled.

AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS

Not applicable.

FUNDING

None.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author declares no conflict of interest, financial, or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

REFERENCES

[1] American psychiatric association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 2013.
[2] Escrivá-Martínez T, Galiana L, Rodríguez-Arias M, Baños RM. The binge eating scale: Structural equation competitive models, invariance measurement between sexes, and relationships with food addiction, impulsivity, binge drinking, and body mass index. Front Psychol 2019; 10: 530.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00530] [PMID: 30967808]
[3] Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Chiu WT, Deitz AC, Hudson JI, Shahly V, et al. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Biol Psychiatry 2013; 73: 904-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.11.020] [PMID: 23290497]
[4] Rieger E, Wilfley DE, Stein RI, Marino V, Crow SJ. A comparison of quality of life in obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord 2005; 37(3): 234-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.20101] [PMID: 15822089]
[5] Fichter MM, Quadflieg N, Hedlund S. Long-term course of binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa: Relevance for nosology and diagnostic criteria. Int J Eat Disord 2008; 41(7): 577-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.20539] [PMID: 18473335]
[6] Welch E, Jangmo A, Thornton LM, et al. Treatment-seeking patients with binge-eating disorder in the Swedish national registers: Clinical course and psychiatric comorbidity. BMC Psychiatry 2016; 16: 163.
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[7] Duncan AE, Ziobrowski HN, Nicol G. The prevalence of past 12-month and lifetime DSM-IV eating disorders by bmi category in us men and women. Eur Eat Disord Rev 2017; 25(3): 165-71.
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[8] Terenzi D, Rumiati RI, Catalan M, Antonutti L, Furlanis G, Garlasco P, et al. Reward sensitivity in Parkinson’s patients with binge eating 2018; 1-6.
[9] Ostrovsky NW, Swencionis C, Wylie-Rosett J, Isasi CR. Social anxiety and disordered overeating: An association among overweight and obese individuals. Eat Behav 2013; 14(2): 145-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.01.009] [PMID: 23557810]
[10] Stice E, Presnell K, Spangler D. Risk factors for binge eating onset in adolescent girls: A 2-year prospective investigation. Health Psychol 2002; 21(2): 131-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.21.2.131] [PMID: 11950103]
[11] Gan WY, Mohamad N, Law LS. Factors associated with binge eating behavior among malaysian adolescents. Nutrients 2018; 10(1)E66
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10010066] [PMID: 29320461]
[12] Timmerman GM. Binge eating scale : Further assessment of validity and reliability ’. J Appl Biobehav Res 1999; 4: 1-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9861.1999.tb00051.x]
[13] Freitas SR, Lopes CS, Appolinario JC, Coutinho W. The assessment of binge eating disorder in obese women: A comparison of the binge eating scale with the structured clinical interview for the DSM-IV. Eat Behav 2006; 7(3): 282-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2005.09.002] [PMID: 16843232]
[14] Striegel RH, Perrin N, DeBar L, Wilson GT, Rosselli F. Screening for binge eating disorders using the patient health questionnaire in a community. Int J Eat Disord 2011.
[15] Goldschmidt AB, Wall MM, Zhang J, Loth KA, Neumark-Sztainer D. Overeating and binge eating in emerging adulthood: 10-year stability and risk factors. Dev Psychol 2016; 52(3): 475-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000086] [PMID: 26689758]
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