1 Kuwait College of Science & Technology, Faculty of Business, Doha, Kuwait
The Gulf region is notorious for importing Asian laborers for blue-collar work due to the cheap costs associated with it. With many languages and cultural barriers present, understanding the needs of these workers and their preferred methods of communication has proven to be a challenge. Their ways are often misinterpreted, both collectively and individually. From years of observation, these mishaps are primarily due to the lack of understanding and resources available to investigate such issues, especially in masses. Team effectiveness and efficiency depend on numerous factors, such as structure, competencies of team members, commitment, collaboration, support, benchmarks of perfection, and leadership qualities. It is the most important component; the individuals can benefit from an evaluation of how each of their unique characteristics can contribute to the whole. Thus, we investigate the personality type and see if it has an association with their ethnicity, as well as correlations to their individual team roles.
The study aims to find relationships between ethnicity and personality types in order to enhance their value creation in the workplace. Also, if there are correlations between them and team roles, managers will be better equipped when making decisions regarding team building and cohesiveness.
Each participant was given the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality type and Belbin team role type computer-based questionnaires. Based on the test results, the participants were divided on the basis of their ethnicity, having one personality among 16 personalities and the team-work role played. The ethnicity, personality type, and the team-work role played were measured in terms of frequency. The hypothesis was tested to determine the relationship among the variables of the study, and cross-tabulation was done among personality and team-work roles to determine the association between them.
The test results indicated a significant relationship between ethnicity and personality type, however, personality type and ethnicity do not impact the team role. From the outcome of the research conducted and the use of several types of statistical analysis, it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between personality and ethnicity type. As observed, the findings are as follows: - Egyptians are primarily (42%) ISTPs and secondarily ENFJs (25%). - In Indians, the most frequent type is ISTJ, with an occurrence of 52%. - Lebanese are most frequently ESTPs (46%). - In Filipinos, the most frequent type is ENFP, with 31%. Although the test results indicated that there is a significant relationship between ethnicity and personality type, however, personality type and ethnicity do not impact the team role. Furthermore, it was observed that ENFP personality types were complete finishers, coordinators and monitor evaluators in a team. ESTP personality types were implementers, team-workers and specialists. ISTP played the role of plant, investigator, or specialist. ISTJ was observed to be shapers.
The combined instruments will help break cross-cultural barriers and allow for a better understanding of ethnicity and stigmas, which may subconsciously exist, both projected by the individual and perceived by the receiver.
Keywords: Ethnic groups, MBTI, Belbin team role and ethnicity, Stigma, Cross-cultural barriers, Shapers.
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Faculty of Business, Kuwait College of Science & Technology, Doha, Kuwait; Tel: +965 607 22 000; E-mail: email@example.com
The Impact of Dominant Personality Traits on Team Roles
With an ever-growing arena of competitive businesses, the continuous struggle is required to increase the bottom-line.
Unfortunately, there are no rules or formulas for absolute or guaranteed success, but there are plenty of ways to increase the odds that holds for both individuals and organizations alike. As the two go hand in hand, it is often the case that successful employees create successful companies. In order to become a successful employee, one must work on several dimensions of one’s being and must also seek to have a system of encouragement and support from their workplace as well [1Schultz SE, Schultz DP. Psychology and Work Today 2005; 116.]. Proper management and training are essential for success in any workplace.
As companies strive to save costs in every department possible, they have realized that investing in their human resources and its process is just as important as investing in any other domain in their business [2Katzenbach JR, Smith DK. The discipline of teams. Harv Bus Rev 1993; 71(2): 111-20. [PMID: 10124632] ]. Online questionnaires are not reliable data collection. Psychologists have long emphasized that determining one’s personality traits using these questionnaires can help determine how well they do in a given task [3Dlugoborskytė V, Norvilaitė V, Petraitė M. Creativity and innovation management: team performance peculiarities. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 2015; 3: 25-38. [http://dx.doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2015.3.1(2)T] , 4Myers-Briggs I, Myers PB. Gifts differing: Understanding personality type 1995.]. Based on these recommendations, many personality-type questionnaires have been developed, some with little to no credibility [5 Available at: http://psychology.about.com/od/profiles ofmajorthinkers/p/jungprofile.htmRetrieved-7Karson W, O’Dell JW. A Guide to the Clinical Use of the 16PF 1976.]. Therefore, one must be careful upon making the decision of which one to use.
The great works of psychologist Geert Hofstede, and how he was able to identify cultural groups into clusters of ‘types’,were of great interest as in Kuwait’s Food and Beverage Sector;there are many stereotypes and unexplained happenings when it comes to imported laborers [8Hofstede, Geert. "Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context". ScholarWorks@GVSU Online Readings in Psychology and Culture Retrieved 6 September 2001., 9Hofstede G. 2001.Culture’s Consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations ]. There are obvious qualities that were noticed over the years, but most remained simply stereotypes without much further explanation. Perhaps there was a scientific way of answering questions like why one type of ethnicity does better at a certain job or task than another. In this work, which aims to find a connection between ethnicity, personality type, and team roles, Hofstede’s findings will be used as a starting point to explore and investigate any connections as used in other scientific works [10Porter EH. Strength Deployment Inventory 1971.]. To build a well-balanced team, the diversity in team roles and skills has been seen as an important factor [11Belbin RM. Team roles at work 2012. [http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780080963242] , 12Van Dierendonck D, Groen R. Belbin revisited: A multitrait–multimethod investigation of a team role instrument. Eur J Work Organ Psychol 2011; 20(3): 345-66. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594321003590580] ], therefore, the present study examines the ethnicity factor and its influence on the team roles.
Furthermore, the need for flexibility and higher performance has increased with the continuously changing environment. The productivity level of an organisation is dependent upon the team performance and the role played by each member of the team [2Katzenbach JR, Smith DK. The discipline of teams. Harv Bus Rev 1993; 71(2): 111-20. [PMID: 10124632] ]. Moreover, team performance had been seen as an effective methodology to deal with the challenges [13Batenburg R, van Walbeek W. Belbin role diversity and team performance: Is there a relationship? J Manage Dev 2013; 32(8): 901-13. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JMD-08-2011-0098] , 14Field H. Science without numbers 2016. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198777915.001.0001] ]. Teams are the crucial element of the organization, which can ensure high-performance within an organization [15Larson CE, LaFasto FM. Teamwork: What Must Go Right, What Can Go Wrong 1989.]. In current scenarios, team performance and work have gained widespread recognition to accomplish the organizational goals [16Lynam DR, Widiger TA. Using the five-factor model to represent the DSM-IV personality disorders: An expert consensus approach. J Abnorm Psychol 2001; 110(3): 401-12. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.110.3.401] [PMID: 11502083] ]. In effect, the need to recognize the efforts in the team has increased over the past few decades. Team effectiveness and efficiency depend on numerous factors that can range from structure, competencies of team members, commitment, collaboration, support, benchmarks of perfection, and leadership qualities [17Aiken LR. Psychological Testing and Assessment 2002.-19Lachman R. Toward Measurement of Entrepreneurial Tendencies. Manag Int Rev 1980; 20(2): 108-16. [Published by: Springer].].
In the present paper, the central focus is Belbin's theory of teamwork. It has been seen as one of the highly relevant theories which are scientifically tested and evaluated by researchers [20Ayoubi RM, Ustwani B. The relationship between student’s MBTI, preferences and academic performance at a Syrian university. Educ Train 2014., 21Gregory RJ. Psychological Testing: History, Principles, and Applications 5th ed. 2007.].
The study will examine the correlations between ethnicity & personality types, as well as how they relate to team roles. It is significant as it will help determine the right person for the right job in terms of ethnicity, personality, and expected team role [22How to Build The Perfect Batter. As published in GQ September 2006 Issue GQ Magazine 2006.]. The correct choice of personality will ensure that the specific team role is performed by the person chosen. Furthermore, the study explores the relationship between personality traits and team roles associated with a specific ethnicity [23Krueger RF, Derringer J, Markon KE, Watson D, Skodol AE. Initial construction of a maladaptive personality trait model and inventory for DSM-5. Psychol Med 2012; 42(9): 1879-90. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291711002674] [PMID: 22153017] , 24McPeek RW, Breiner J. Convergent validity of the MBTI® and MMTIC® assessments. J Psychol Type 2013.]. The paper proposes that personality traits and ethnicity have an impact on bringing out the team role, and therefore suggests a new technique through which organisations can plan to construct an effective team [25Saccuzzo DP, Kaplan RM. Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues 7th ed. 2009.]. The study will add to the existing literature pertaining to personality, team role and ethnicity from an unexplored angle in past literature.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Personality Tests
A personality test is generally a questionnaire, or a similarly consistent device, with the intended purpose of exposing the characteristics or psychological temperament of a person [26Spenser Scott. The history of the process communication model in astronaut selection. Cornell University 2000. Retrieved 19 June 2013]. The 1920s saw the initial introduction of personality tests during the staff selection process for certain organizations, predominantly in the armed forces [27Coelho F, Augusto M, Lages LF. Contextual factors and the creativity of frontline employees: The mediating effects of role stress and intrinsic motivation. J Retailing 2011; 87(1): 31-45. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2010.11.004] , 28McCrae RR, John OP. An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. J Pers 1992; 60(2): 175-215. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.x] [PMID: 1635039] ]. From these initial efforts, a large number of alternatives have been created, such as the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the MMPI, as well as those developed from the Five-Factor Model of personality, for example, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory [29Carlson [et al.], Neil, R. Psychology: The science of behaviour United States of America: Person Education 2010; 464., 30Gregory Gale H. Teacher teams that get results: 61 strategies for sustaining and renewing professional learning communities 2007.]. Table 1 indicates the summarised form of MBTI elements.
Several personality surveys are now available either for free or for purchase on the internet.
The Myer-Briggs test draws on the typological approach to personality taken by Carl Jung and Isabel Briggs Myers. It consists of a 64 forced-answer, 5-degree of Linkert style yes/no questions [37 Available at: http://www.dec.co.th/mbti_explanation.htmRetrieved]. This type of subjective approach enables psychology researchers to examine a variety of psychological characteristics and to group them into different cultural clusters. When an individual has completed the survey, the researcher can: 1) determine the individual’s four-letter formula as per Carl Jung’s and Isabel Briggs Myers’ typology, including preferences and personality type description [38 Available at: http://www.economist.com/news/business/21575817-can -leaders-be-identified-psychometrics-emotional-breakdownPersonality, 39Schwartz SH. Beyond Individualism and Collectivism: New Cultural Dimensions of Values. In: Kim U, Triandis HC, Kagitcibasi C, Yoon G, Eds. Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, Method and application 1994; 85-119.]; 2) determine the careers the individual’s personality type is most suited to, including suggestions of appropriate education facilities and degrees/training; 3) identify which well-known people also have the individual’s personality type; 4) input the assessment results into the Jung Marriage Test and related demo in order to determine the individual’s compatibility with a romantic partner [40Burisch M. Approaches to personality inventory construction: A comparison of merits. Am Psychol 1984; 39(3): 214. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.39.3.214] , 41Jackson DN. The dynamics of structured personality tests: 1971. Psychol Rev 1971; 78(3): 229. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0030852] ].
In direct contrast to standardization and other similar tests that measure intelligence traits, the indicator is concerned with categorizing the preferred types of respondents. The Myers-Briggs Theory argues that personality traits and types are innate. Yet, traits can be enhanced (in the same way as skills), and personality types naturally evolve as time passes, assuming that the individual is operating within a positive environment [42Ashton MC, Lee K. The prediction of honesty-humility-related criteria by the hexaco and five-factor models of personality. J Res Pers 2008; 42: 1216-28. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2008.03.006] , 43Cohen Y, Ornoy H, Keren B. MBTI personality types of project managers and their success: A field survey. Proj Manage J 2013; 44(3): 78-87. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmj.21338] ]. The indicator tries to determine the way in which this evolution and development take place in individuals. Full personality descriptions are based on this information, evaluated in collaboration with interviews with others who appear to have similar preferences [44Hofstede G. Who is the fairest of them all? galitAilon’s mirror. Acad Manage Rev 2009; 34(3): 570-1. [http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amr.2009.40633746] , 45http://get2test.net/enterprise/index.htm]. Thus, the indicator can be understood as an arrow that points towards the appropriate description [46Blinkhorn S, Johnson C, Wood R. Spuriouser and spuriouser:The use of ipsative personality tests. J Occup Psychol 1988; 61: 153-62. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1988.tb00279.x] , 47Gosling SD, Rentfrow PJ, Swann WB. A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains. J Res Pers 2003; 37(6): 504-28. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00046-1] ]
In this paper, we will review the development of personality testing by exploring some of the pioneers in the field as well as how different questionnaires were established. We will then discuss the uses of some of the more popular questionnaires, which will lead to a discussion on which one was chosen for the research part of this project. Then, the questionnaire chosen will be used to assess the personality types of the volunteered subjects, which will ultimately be tested within each ethnicity for correlations.
2.2. Belbin’s Team Role Test
The Belbin team role has been constructed by Belbin and the colleagues of the industrial units. The theory was constructed after the 9 years of research conducted mainly among the staff college [50Belbin RM. Management teams: Why they succeed or fail 1981., 51Goldberg LR. The structure of phenotypic personality traits. Am Psychol 1993; 48(1): 26-34. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.1.26] [PMID: 8427480] ]. The team effectiveness was measured by the composition and manipulation of the team characteristics and observed how different personalities and personal characteristics affected the team’s success [52Belbin. Method, Reliability & Validity, Statistics & Research: A Comprehensive Review of Belbin Team Roles 2014.]. The team’s success is not limited by the hierarchical and professional roles;instead, the interpersonal also have an impact [53Birkman RW. Who is Birkman? 2013., 54LeBron, Michelle . “Negotiation styles”, Archived 13 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine 2003.]. The participants in the research were asked to fill the Cattell’s 16 PF, personal preference questionnaires and Watson-Glaser constructed appraisal forms. The results were categorized into eight major roles: shaper, coordinator, implementer, resource investigator, Plant team worker, Monitor-evaluator, and completer-finisher. The specialist role was added later in the team roles. The theory indicated that these roles are complementary, and each person has at least 2-3 roles. An ideal team would have all the nine roles of a team. The theory gained popularity after his book, which was published in 1981 [12Van Dierendonck D, Groen R. Belbin revisited: A multitrait–multimethod investigation of a team role instrument. Eur J Work Organ Psychol 2011; 20(3): 345-66. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594321003590580] ].
Cohen et al. [43Cohen Y, Ornoy H, Keren B. MBTI personality types of project managers and their success: A field survey. Proj Manage J 2013; 44(3): 78-87. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmj.21338] ] had utilised MBTI to measure the relationship between the team role played by a manager and its effect on the success of a particular project. McPeek and Breiner [55Moore MH. The Polygraph and Lie Detection 2003; 29.] analysis of the MBTI instrument contemplated that MBTI should be accomplished scholars because of the complex understanding. A study by Harrington and Loffredo [56Adèr HJ, Mellenbergh GJ. Advising on Research Methods: A consultant’s companion. Johannes van Kessel Publ 2008; 244.] used a combination of MBTI and questionnaire to analysestudents’ preference amongst online and face-to-face interaction. Another study was conducted which utilised MBTI and measured the relationship between the team role, grades and preferences [57Arendasy M. Modeling effects of faking on an objective personality test. J Individ Differ 2011; 32(4): 210-8. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1614-0001/a000053] ]. Tzeng et al. [58Tzeng GH, Huang JJ. Multiple attribute decision making: Methods and applications. CRC press 2011. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b11032] ] had investigated the validity of the MBTI instrument and the result implied that empirical evidence projects the validity instilled in the MBTI.
Table 2 provides a short description of the roles proposed by Belbin [52Belbin. Method, Reliability & Validity, Statistics & Research: A Comprehensive Review of Belbin Team Roles 2014.].
2.3. Associations Between Values
Studies have led to certain countries being linked to each other by evaluating their value scores along with other country-specific distinctions [59Schacter D, Gilbert D, Wegner D. Psychology 2nd 2009; 18. Print]. These factors include geographical location, common language, historical connections, religious/belief-based similarities, philosophical comparability, and similar political systems; all the elements that make up a country’s national culture and identity [60Costa PT Jr, McCrae RR. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual 1992.]. For instance, income impartiality and counseling political behavior are linked to low power distance, while high power distance is associated with an imbalance over income, in addition to bribery and exploitation within a country’s political system. Individualism is positively associated with progress and prosperity, for example, as a country increases its wealth, it develops a more individualistic culture [61Harrington R, Loffredo DA. MBTI personality type and other factors that relate to preference for online versus face-to-face instruction. Internet High Educ 2010; 13(1-2): 89-95. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.11.006] , 62https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DISC_assessmentRetrieved].
Table 1 –MBTI Summary.
Table 2 Belbin team role theory.
In 2003, the Sigma Two Group illustrated a further association between the cultural elements of a country and its principal religion [63Goldberg LR, Johnson JA, Eber HW, et al. The International Personality Item Pool and the future of public-domain personality measures. J Res Pers 2006; 40: 84-96. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.08.007] , 64Baron-Cohen S, Knickmeyer RC, Belmonte MK. Sex differences in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science 2005; 310(5749): 819-23. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1115455] [PMID: 16272115] ]. In general, high levels of uncertainty avoidance, fairly high power distance, average levels of masculinity, and rather low levels of individualism are seen in largely Catholic countries. In contrast, Atheist countries display low uncertainty avoidance, extremely high levels of power distance, average masculinity and low individualism. Reverse associations can be seen between particular forms of innovation within manufacturing companies and the number of large organizations in the country, in addition to the use of a certain type of strategy relating to manufacturing [27Coelho F, Augusto M, Lages LF. Contextual factors and the creativity of frontline employees: The mediating effects of role stress and intrinsic motivation. J Retailing 2011; 87(1): 31-45. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2010.11.004] ]. There is a positive correlation between the power distance, from a country’s cultural point of view, and the ratio of organizations who approach innovation from a process only stance over those who employ a wider range of innovative activities (determinant of correlation: 28%) [64Baron-Cohen S, Knickmeyer RC, Belmonte MK. Sex differences in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science 2005; 310(5749): 819-23. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1115455] [PMID: 16272115] ].In summary, countries with a high power distance are more likely to host manufacturing organizations that employ a process-based approach to innovation.
By attributing a numeric value to cultural features, it becomes possible to evaluate various areas and develop a view of the differences that exist between regions as well as individual countries [65Harkness AR, McNulty JL. The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5): Issue from the pages of a diagnostic manual instead of a dictionary.Differentiating normal and abnormal personality 1994.]. This can be seen in the cultural model of the Mediterranean countries, which shows a high level of tolerance towards unfairness, while many decisions are made based on the avoidance of uncertainty [66Adeoye B, Tomei L. Effects of information capitalism and globalisation on teaching and learning 2014. [http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-6162-2] ]. In terms of individualism and masculinity, Mediterranean countries generally display moderate levels;the same can be said for future orientation. Indulgence, however, scores much higher. “Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster” [67Petrakis PE. Culture, Growth and Economic Policy 2014; 250. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41440-4] ].
With the abundance of information technology in today’s society, the convergence phenomena, or global village culture, were predicted to lead to a lessening of cultural differences, however, this does not appear to be the case. For this reason, so as to remain considerate within cross-cultural situations, it is important to be sensitive to any differences [71Goldberg Lewis R. A broad-bandwidth, public domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models 1999.].
Geert Hofstede’s model allows an insight into these distinctions. It has the ability to provide an overall impression and allow for the development of a general appreciation for different cultures, what they are likely to deliver and how to interact with those from other countries [72Hofstede G. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values 2nd ed. 1984., 73Marston WM. Why 100,000,000 Americans Read Comics. Am Scholar 1943–44; 13(1): 43.].
Communication is a vital component within the world of business. For those who undertake business transactions on a global scale, working together with people from a variety of countries, Hofstede’s model provides an excellent understanding of the different cultures at play [74Nettle, Daniel (2009-03-07). "A test of character". The Guardian (London) 2001.]. In order for successful cross-cultural communication to take place, it is necessary to have a good grasp of the cultural influences since what is the norm in one country may be considered distasteful in another. This applies to communication at all levels: verbal (the words and language used); non-verbal (body language and gestures); and customs (clothing, gift-giving, dining, etc.).
3. AIMS & OBJECTIVES
This study sought to investigate whether there was a relationship between the demographic variables and team role. Three demographic variables were considered, and these were gender, ethnicity, as well as personality. All the variables were measured on the categorical scale, and in this respect, according to [75Garner D. 2014.Books – Her Past Unchained ‘The Secret History of Wonder Woman,’ by Jill Lepore Retrieved October 23, 2014.], the optimal statistical analysis was the Chi-square test. The study aims at exploring the association among ethnicity, personality traits, and the team-role. If the association exists, then the study examines the significance of the association discovered and the techniques through which these associations can be utilized by organizations. The following objectives have been addressed:
To find correlations between people of similar ethnicities & their personality types.
To analyze that if the personality traits within the same ethnic group are gender-biased
To assess the relationship between personality type & team role
3.1. Research Hypothesis
The first hypothesis sought to establish whether personality type was dependent on ethnicity. The hypotheses that were tested were:
H0: There is no significant relationship between ethnicity and personality type.
HA: There is a significant relationship between ethnicity and personality type
The second hypothesis sought to establish whether gender had an affect on personality type. The hypotheses that were tested were:
H0: The distribution of personality types is the same between genders
HA: The distribution of personality types is not the same between genders.
The third hypothesis sought to establish whether personality was uniform. The hypotheses that were tested were:
H0: The distribution of personality types is uniform in an ethnicity.
HA: The distribution of personality types is not uniform in an ethnicity.
The fourth hypothesis sought to establish whether the team role was dependent on personality. The hypotheses that were tested were:
Ha: Action-oriented role is dependent on personality
Hb: People-oriented role is dependent on personality
Hc: Thinking-oriented role is dependent on personality
The corresponding analyses were carried out, and the results are presented in the sections below.
4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The present study is entirely quantitative in nature as per the topic selected for the investigation. The study has an exploratory research design as the relationships amongst the personality, team role and ethnicity, are explored. Furthermore, the deductive reasoning approach was exploited as the hypothesis testing is done after the collection of data to achieve research objectives. A cross-sectional study was undertaken, and primary data was gathered from the food and beverage companies of Kuwait. However, before conducting the data, pilot testing was done to see which test is effective among the MBIT and GET2 [76 Available at: http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/ mbti-basics/Retrieved]. The selection of the test was made on the parameters of logically easy to administer, time is taken, test availability online and cost attached. The researcher felt the need for a pilot test as it was aimed to collect data from more than a hundred participants at a lower cost. “Time” component was given importance as the test had to be conducted within the working hours. English was the chosen language and jargon was removed to make the questionnaire as effective as possible. The pilot study of MBTI and GET 2 lasted a couple of days and was administered to 10 friends and family members who volunteered for the job. They gave light to some issues which would not have been brought to light otherwise.
Overall, the GET2 test had much more negative feedback from the test takers than the Jung/Briggs-Myers test, which further indicates the validity of MBTI. As a matter of fact, more people than initially planned were interested in the latter and asked to take the test as they liked the idea of the 4-letter outcome of personality type and wanted to see what their results would be. Therefore, it was decided that the Jung/Myers-Briggs questionnaire would be used for the experiment part of this paper.
For analyzing the team role, Belbin Self-perception inventory is adopted, which is a web-based survey. No pilot testing was done, as it is free of cost and does not consume a lot of time. Thus, the study had adopted two questionnaires that had utilized a nominal scale to measure the personality, ethnicity and team role of the participants. The ethnicity factor was included in the MBTI questionnaire.
Statistical tests were used to find the association between the MBTI personality, Belbin team roles and ethnicity. Chi-Square analysis was conducted with the help of SPSS to test the hypothesis of the study. The rejection and acceptance of hypotheses were based on the Chi-Square analysis results. Furthermore, to identify the similarities amongst the different personality types and team roles, cross-tabulation was conducted among the data gathered from the employees of F&B companies of Kuwait.
4.2. Sample and Sampling Technique
Before the experiment, friends in the industry were contacted in order to get as many participants as possible. From a group of eight companies contacted in the F&B world, only five of them decided to participate. Each of the companies would provide a list of available employees and their nationalities prior to an arranged meeting for them to take the test. A sample of 119 has been collected from the 5 companies of F&B.
*Some participants were given a secret number for confidentiality reasons.
A phone call for participation was sent, followed by a formal letter to several local Food & Beverage outlets.
The employees were given written notice that they would be participating in a group study, which requires them to fill out an online questionnaire. They were promised confidentiality in that no one other than myself, and my assistant will know their personal results. They would be able to see their results at the end of the session and can have them emailed to them if they so indicate on the consent form. They must sign the form as a means of consenting to participate in the experiment and have the right to refuse participation.
By obtaining permission from various food and beverage outlets, the researcher was able to conduct one-on-one computer tests using the same questionnaire for 119 randomly selected employees in five different companies. Each company would supply randomly sampled individuals for the test. They varied in backgrounds, gender, age and education level.
All of the subjects were given as much time as they needed to fill the questionnaire;most were finished within ten minutes. The researcher was sitting on the opposite side of the table while each subject took the test. One laptop with an internet connection was used to administer all the tests.
All the subjects were given the test in English. All of the subjects were comfortable talking and understanding the English language enough to be able to take the test. Prior to beginning the test, each participant was given a brief explanation of what to expect, the time it may take to finish the questionnaire, as well as that if there was anything they did not understand (i.e., a word) they are welcome to ask for the meaning.
5.1. Personality Types within Ethnic Groups
To begin with, the first hypothesis is tested:
H01: There is no significant relationship between ethnicity and personality type.
Ha1: There is a significant relationship between ethnicity and personality type
The differences are best shown incontingency Tables 3-6 below,which show the personality types observed in each ethnicity:
Table 3 Distribution of personality types within ethnicity (Egyptian).
Table 4 Distribution of personality types within ethnicity (Indians).
Table 5 Distribution of personality types within ethnicity (Lebanese).
Table 6 Distribution of personality types within ethnicity (Filipino).
Table 7 Comparison of personality types betweengenders (All Ethnicities).
5.2. Differences Between Genders
The next analysis involved the comparison between genders in the whole sample, regardless of ethnicity. Table 7 shows some differences (e.g., in ENFJ where five out of five are men; similarly in ENTJ with three out of three being men and in INTJ with two out of two women), but these are based on small counts.
For the second hypothesis, to see if there is an association of gender with personality type, we conduct a chi-square test to test the following:
H02: The distribution of personality types is the same between genders
HA2: The distribution of personality types is not the same between genders.
The results are shown in Table 8 below. There is no significant effect of gender on the personality type (X2(9) =9.9, p = .36), and we cannot reject the null hypothesis. The small differences mentioned indeed did not play a role.
5.3. Differences BetweenGenders Within Ethnicities.
Third, the procedure was repeated for the comparison between genders, but this time within each nationality(Egyptians, Indians, Lebanese, Filipinos) separately, that is, four hypotheses:
H03: The distribution of personality types is uniform in an ethnicity.
HA3: The distribution of personality types is not uniform in an ethnicity.
The results (Table 9) do not show any significant association in any ethnicity. We must conclude that there is no significant effect of gender on the personality type in either ethnicity, and we cannot reject the corresponding four null hypotheses.
Table 8 Testing for association betweenpersonality type and gender.
Table 9 Testing for association betweenpersonality type and gender within ethnicities.
5.4. Personality and Team Role
The fourth hypothesis sought to establish whether the team role was dependent on personality. The hypotheses that were tested were:
Ha4: Action-oriented role is dependent on personality
Hb4: People-oriented role is dependent on personality
Hc4: Thinking-oriented role is dependent on personality
10 below presents the cross-tabulation for an action-oriented role and personality.
To test whether the differences were significant, the Chi-square test is presented below in Table
Table 10 Cross-tabulation - action-oriented role and personality.
Table 11 Chi-square tests - action-oriented role and personality.
Table 12 Cross-tabulation - people-oriented role and personality.
Table 13 Chi-square tests - people-oriented role and personality.
The results above show that χ2(9) = 5.753; p = 0.764>0.05. Since the p-value was greater than 0.05, the null hypothesis was not rejected, and the researcher confirmed that an action-oriented role was not dependent on personality.
The cross-tabulation for people-oriented role and personality is presented in Table 12 below.
The Chi-square test results for the above comparison are presented in Table 13 below.
From the above outcome,χ2(9) = 6.825; p = 0.655>0.05. The p-value was greater than 0.05, and in this regard, the null hypothesis was not rejected. In this regard, it can be confirmed that a people-oriented role was not dependent on personality.
The cross-tabulation for thinking-oriented role and personality is presented in Table 14.
Table 15 below presents the Chi-square test results for the above comparison.
The above results show that χ2(9) = 7.131; p = 0.347>0.05 and from these findings, the p-value was greater than 0.05. In this regard, the null hypothesis was not rejected, meaning that there was no statistically significant association between thinking-oriented role and ethnicity.
5.5. Conclusion of Findings
The first question actually consisted of 4 questions, one for each ethnicity. For each one, we tested the null hypothesis (H0) that the distribution of personality types is uniform in an ethnicity. All 4 hypotheses were rejected:
o Egyptians are primarily (42%) ISTPs and secondarily ENFJs(25%).
o In Indians, the most frequent type is the ISTJ, with an occurrence of 52%.
o Lebanese are most frequently ESTPs (46%).
o In Filipinos, the most frequent type is the ENFP, with 31%.
Table 14 Cross-tabulation - thinking-oriented role and personality.
Table 15 Chi-square tests - thinking-oriented role and personality.
The second question was if there are differences between the genders. We tested the null hypothesis (H0) that the proportions of the personality types are the same among genders. This hypothesis could not be rejected as the differences observed were too small.
The third question was analogous to the second one and was actually 4 questions, one for each ethnicity. For each one, we tested the null hypothesis (H0) that the distribution of personality types is uniform in an ethnicity. All 4 hypotheses were rejected because the differences between men and women in each ethnicity were quite small.
The fourth hypothesis sought to establish whether the team role was dependent on personality. The hypotheses that were tested were by team role type. In this regard, all three null hypotheses were not rejected, meaning that there was no statistically significant association between team roles and ethnicity.
6. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
6.1. One Test Type
When it comes to having an overall idea of one’s personality traits, it is wise to collect information using three different testing methods – subjective, objective, and projective. In this case, the test used was only an objective one. It would be wise to continue this study with complementary methods like subjective and projective [46.72].
The main drawback was that I could not simply create an online survey and send it out to countless individuals. I was restricted in the fact that the website, which offered the questionnaire free of charge, was not simple to navigate and needed to be explained. As well, the score is provided immediately after the questionnaire is completed and cannot be shared with anyone directly (or have the score sent to the administrator). It was not easy to explain how to copy and paste the score and have it sent to me. Another option was to have the participant simply send me an email with their score. However, this would complicate matters even more as it would bring an unneeded element of inaccuracy and dishonesty.
Furthermore, the randomly selected people from the food and beverage companies could not supply me with a list of emails where I can simply send the link of the questionnaire with a brief explanation on how to go about administering it to one’s self.
To minimize the possibility of inaccuracies and misunderstandings, I decided to be present at each and every one of those tests. I administered them myself and recorded the results of each of the participants.
6.3. Language barriers
All test takers were non-native English speakers with varying degrees of understanding. This could have caused some confusion towards understanding the questions and could have, therefore faulted some of the results obtained.
Time was also an issue as all the questionnaires were administered during working hours, which could have caused some to hurry up and try to finish the questionnaire as soon as possible.
Though all test takers' names were promised to remain anonymous, the employees could have felt some pressure to do well in the test, perhaps thinking that their managers will see how well they did.
6.6. Outdated Questions
The MBTI questionnaire administered has been established between the 1940s and 1960s [65Harkness AR, McNulty JL. The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5): Issue from the pages of a diagnostic manual instead of a dictionary.Differentiating normal and abnormal personality 1994.] and similarly, Belbin’s team role model was developed in 1981. It could very well be outdated in terms of research and data collected back then to develop the test.
Again, due to the fact that the questionnaires were conducted during working hours, the employees could have been tired and wanted to get the test over and done with as quickly as possible. In addition, the fatigue could have led them to not really pay attention or ask questions about the meaning of words they did not understand, which could have further complicated the individual results.
The present study investigated the relationships between ethnicity, personality type and team-role by utilizing MBTI and Belbin tests. The results were gathered from 119 respondents who belonged to different ethnicities, and statistical tests were conducted to test several hypotheses. In this paper, we had a vague idea thatinspired us to explore ethnicities and personality types. Geert Hofstede confirms that there are, in fact, distinguishable similarities and differences between ethnicities when it comes to personality traits. Therefore, we proceeded to collect a literature review regarding the subject. From the outcome of the research conducted and the use of several types of statistical analysis, it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between personality and ethnicity type. As observed, the findings are as follows:
Egyptians are primarily (42%) ISTPs and secondarily ENFJs (25%).
In Indians, the most frequent type is the ISTJ, with an occurrence of 52%.
Lebanese are most frequently ESTPs (46%).
In Filipinos, the most frequent type is the ENFP, with 31%.
Although the test results indicated that there is a significant relationship between the ethnicity and personality type, however, personality type does not impact the team role. Furthermore, it was observed that ENFP personality types were complete finishers, coordinators and monitor evaluators in a team. ESTP personality types were implementers, team-workers and specialists. ISTP played the role of plant, investigator, or specialist. ISTJ was observed to be shapers.
7.2. Scientific Significance
This research adds to the wealth of applied psychology scientific research in that it gives a clear indication that there are, in fact, significant relationships and dominant characteristics amongst clusters of cultures. It is important to note these changes and take them into consideration when dealing with a multicultural environment. Since organizations are constantly looking for ways to find the right person for the right job, the insight gained from this research highlights the fact that ethnicities and personality types may be taken into consideration for the mentioned task. Research on the matter is rare and should be considered in future papers.
The sample size of the study was small, so to add more accuracy tothe findings, future researchers can conduct a study on larger sample size. Also, the questionnaires utilised in this study were approximately 60 years old, so future researchers can modify the questionnaire and undertake the study. The different sectors can be explored, as the study was limited to the food and beverage industry of Kuwait. With this, the research findings can be validated. Lastly, the factors tested against one another for correlations were a few, like ethnicity, personality traits and team role. It would be interesting to suggest further analyses with more controlling factors, for example, socio-economic status of parents, educational levels, years of professional experience, etc.
ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE
The local Ethics board, which is part of the ministry of health, was consulted prior to the study and they decided that this research did not need an ethics approval as nothing was physically administered.
HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS
No Animals were used in this research. All human research procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical
standards of the committee responsible for human experimentation (institutional and national), and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013.
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION
All patients participated on a voluntary basis and gave their informed consent.
AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS
The authors confirm that the data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.
Schultz SE, Schultz DP. Psychology and Work Today 2005; 116.
Katzenbach JR, Smith DK. The discipline of teams. Harv Bus Rev 1993; 71(2): 111-20. [PMID: 10124632]
Dlugoborskytė V, Norvilaitė V, Petraitė M. Creativity and innovation management: team performance peculiarities. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 2015; 3: 25-38. [http://dx.doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2015.3.1(2)T]
Myers-Briggs I, Myers PB. Gifts differing: Understanding personality type 1995.
Spenser Scott. The history of the process communication model in astronaut selection. Cornell University 2000. Retrieved 19 June 2013
Coelho F, Augusto M, Lages LF. Contextual factors and the creativity of frontline employees: The mediating effects of role stress and intrinsic motivation. J Retailing 2011; 87(1): 31-45. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2010.11.004]
Schwartz SH. Beyond Individualism and Collectivism: New Cultural Dimensions of Values. In: Kim U, Triandis HC, Kagitcibasi C, Yoon G, Eds. Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, Method and application 1994; 85-119.