The Open Sports Sciences Journal




ISSN: 1875-399X ― Volume 14, 2021
REVIEW ARTICLE

Goal Orientation in Lifesaving Athletes



A. Baena-Extremera1, JA. Abraldes2, A. Granero-Gallegos3, M. Gómez-López2, *
1 Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Granada, Spain
2 Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, C/ Argentina, S/N. 30720 Santiago de la Ribera, Spain
3 Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Almeria, Spain

Abstract

Background:

The aims of this papers are two: 1) To study goal orientation in Lifesaving practitioners and 2) to analyze the differences in goal orientation depending of variables? such as sex, age and sport specialty.

Method:

Participants were 136 specialists swimmers in Rescue and Lifesaving, from youth (from 15 to 16 years) to junior (from 17 to 18 years) category. The Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ) was used to ask the objective of this research; also an internal consistency analysis of the instrument and a descriptive analysis of all variables were performed. A t-test for independent samples was used to confirm differences between groups.

Result:

The significance level was set at p ≤ .05. In general, the results showed dispositional at task-orientation. Gender differences were found in pool and beach specialists but none between the age categories. The results show strong sport motivation that favours sport for pleasure minimizing demotivation and dropout.

Keywords: Motivation, Questionnaire, Sport, Age categories, Athletes, Orientation.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 11
First Page: 35
Last Page: 40
Publisher Id: TOSSJ-11-35
DOI: 10.2174/1875399X01811010035

Article History:

Received Date: 20/5/2018
Revision Received Date: 7/07/2018
Acceptance Date: 11/07/2018
Electronic publication date: 31/07/2018
Collection year: 2018

© 2018 Baena-Extremera et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, C/ Argentina, S/N. 30720 Santiago de la Ribera, Spain; Tel: +34-868-88-86-78; Email: mgomezlop@um.es





1. INTRODUCTION

Lifesaving is a very demanding sport of different modalities. Spanish Lifesaving is one of the sports with more international sporting successes, what has led to a daily increase in the number of practitioners [1Abraldes JA. Formación deportiva en salvamento acuático Investigación en el Campeonato de España de autonomías 2009.]. The rising amount of sportspeople and clubs managing its practice allow, among other, the athletes’ psychological and social progress [2Cantón E, Mayor L, Pallarés J. Factores motivacionales y afectivos en la iniciación deportiva. Rev Psicol Gen Apl 1995; 48(1): 59-75.].

It is known that sport activity from early ages helps create social and healthy habits, able to generate values and motivations in the athlete valuable for sport practice [3Moreno JA, Cerbelló E. Motivación en la actividad física y el deporte 2010., 4Sarasúa M. Hábitos saludables y su relación con el currículo de la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria 2011.]. There are several studies on this minority sport modality highlighting enjoyment as the main reason for its practice [1Abraldes JA. Formación deportiva en salvamento acuático Investigación en el Campeonato de España de autonomías 2009., 5Abraldes JA, Gómez-López M, Granero-Gallegos A, Rodríguez-Suárez N. The goal orientation of the lifesavers and the relationship with the satisfaction and the beliefs about the causes of success in sport. Cult Cienc Deporte 2013; 22(8): 59-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v8i22.230]
]. This promotes sport commitment, interest and enjoyment for the sport itself [6Castillo I, Balaguer I, Duda JL. Las orientaciones de meta y los motivos de práctica deportiva en los jóvenes deportistas valencianos escolarizados. Rev Psicol Deporte 2000; 9(1-2): 37-50.]. However, it should be noted that studies show an increase in the dropout rates in adolescence leading to lower physical activity levels [7Trost SG, Pate RR, Sallis JF, et al. Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34(2): 350-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200202000-00025] [PMID: 11828247]
, 8Vilchez MP, Ruiz-Juan F. Clima motivacional en Educación Física y actividad físico-deportiva en el tiempo libre en alumnado de España, Costa Rica y México. Retos 2016; 29: 195-200.]. At this age, young people lose their interest and motivation about the physical activities and sports [9Atkins MR, Johnson DM, Force EC, Petrie TA. Peers, parents, and coaches, oh my! The relation of the motivational climate to boysìntention to continue in sport. Psychol Sport Exerc 2015; 16: 170-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.10.008]
, 10Granero-Gallegos A, Baena-Extremera A, Pérez-Quero FJ, Ortiz-Camacho MM, Bracho-Amador C. Analysis of motivational profiles of satisfaction and importance of physical education in high school adolescents. J Sports Sci Med 2012; 11(4): 614-23.
[PMID: 24150070]
]; thus becoming a problem since during this period, habits and behaviour strengthen that are fundamental for sport’s consolidation and promotion [11Cheng KY, Cheng PG, Mak KT, Wong SH, Wong YK, Yeung EW. Relationships of perceived benefits and barriers to physical activity, physical activity participation and physical fitness in Hong Kong female adolescents. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003; 43(4): 523-9.
[PMID: 14767415]
] or, conversely, for dropout [12Cervelló EM, Escartí A, Guzmán JF. Youth sport dropout from the achievement goal theory. Psicothema 2007; 19(1): 65-71.
[PMID: 17295985]
].

Thus, motivation is presented as a key factor for the analysis of sports’ actuality. Therefore, how the athlete’s social, environmental and individual variables interact must be confirmed [13Balaguer I. Entrenamiento psicológico del deporte 1994.]. A social-cognitive approach to the study of goal perspectives [14Nicholls JG. The competitive ethos and democratic education 1989.] would help us understand the reasons behind the choice between playing a sport or giving up. This Achievement Goal theory aims to analyze the dispositional and environmental factors involved in the athlete’s achievement motivation [15Castillo I, Balaguer I, Duda JL, García ML. Factores psicosociales asociados con la participación deportiva en la adolescencia. Rev Latinoam Psicol 2004; 36(3): 505-15.], understanding sport as an achievement-demanding context where practitioners try to meet a goal, and where the demonstration of skills becomes greatly important [14Nicholls JG. The competitive ethos and democratic education 1989., 16Nicholls JG. Achievement Motivation: Conceptions of Ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychol Rev 1984; 91(3): 328-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.91.3.328]
].

According to this theory, there are two dispositional goal orientations that rise due to social influence, reflecting the criteria by which athletes judge their own mastery level and define success or defeat in sports practice. This way, the athlete becomes task-oriented when his/her goal is learning, and judges his/her own skills by means of a self-comparison process, that is, success will be conditioned by his/her personal improvement and mastery of the task, with the perception of the ability being self-referential and dependent on the personal progress. However, when the athlete is ego-oriented, the goal is competitiveness and his mastery level is judged by using others as a reference and success will depend on the subjective assessment of this comparison [17García T, Cervelló E, Jiménez R, Iglesias D, Santos-Rosa FJ. La implicación motivacional de jugadores jóvenes de fútbol y su relación con el estado de flow y la satisfacción en competición. Rev Psicol Deporte 2005; 14(1): 21-42.]. This provision relates to overcoming rivals and show greater capacity [16Nicholls JG. Achievement Motivation: Conceptions of Ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychol Rev 1984; 91(3): 328-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.91.3.328]
, 18Cervelló E, Escartí A, Balagué G. Relaciones entre la orientación de meta disposicional y la satisfacción con los resultados deportivos, las creencias sobre las causas de éxito en deporte y la diversión con la práctica deportiva. Rev Psicol Deporte 1999; 8(1): 7-19., 19Holgado F, Navas L, López-Núñez M. Goal orientations in sport: a causal model. European Journal of Education and Psychology 2010; 3(1): 19-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.30552/ejep.v3i1.50]
] even with the use of deceptive techniques to achieve a higher social status [18Cervelló E, Escartí A, Balagué G. Relaciones entre la orientación de meta disposicional y la satisfacción con los resultados deportivos, las creencias sobre las causas de éxito en deporte y la diversión con la práctica deportiva. Rev Psicol Deporte 1999; 8(1): 7-19.]. The problem in these athletes usually comes with the first personal failures, showing a decline in their motivational level towards sports [20Lochbaum M, Roberts GC. Goal orientations and perceptions of the sport experience. J Sport Exerc Psychol 1993; 15(2): 160-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.15.2.160]
].

It was initially thought that goal orientations were bipolar [21Dweck CS, Leggett EL. A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychol Rev 1988; 95: 256-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256]
], however they have been proved to be orthogonal [22Roberts GC, Treasure DC, Balagué G. Achievement goals in sport: the development and validation of the Perception of Success Questionnaire. J Sports Sci 1998; 16(4): 337-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640419808559362] [PMID: 9663958]
]. This means that an athlete may reflect orientations that are both either low or high or one low and the other one high or vice versa, meaning that one type of orientation is not acquired at the expense of the other [23Duda JL, Nicholls JG. Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. J Educ Psychol 1992; 84(3): 290-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.290]
]. Studies have shown that athletes with high levels in both types of orientation are gifted with the best combinations for the practice of sports [23Duda JL, Nicholls JG. Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. J Educ Psychol 1992; 84(3): 290-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.290]
].

Therefore, the increasing number of athletes involved in lifesaving, the successes obtained by Spain at an international level and the few specific studies about this sport encouraged us to study these athletes’ motivation from the Achievement Goal theory. It must be highlighted that the diversity of tests, the relationship with the changing environment and the specificity of the materials used during their practice can generate different motivations in athletes. Therefore, the main goals of our research were: 1) to study goal orientation in Lifesaving practitioners and 2) analyse the differences existing in goal orientations depending on the gender, category (age) and sport specialty variables.

2. METHOD

2.1. Sample

Participants were 136 swimmers specialists in Rescue and Lifesaving, from youth (from 15 to 16 years) to junior (from 17 to 18 years) category. The sample was mean age 16.57±1.14 made up of 60 men (17.09±1.13 yeas),) and 76 women (16.15±0.97 years) from all the participant clubs of Lifesaving Championships in Spain.

2.2. Instruments

Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ) [22Roberts GC, Treasure DC, Balagué G. Achievement goals in sport: the development and validation of the Perception of Success Questionnaire. J Sports Sci 1998; 16(4): 337-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640419808559362] [PMID: 9663958]
, 24Roberts GC, Balagué G. The development of a social-cognitive scale in motivation. Seventh World Congress of Sport Psychology. Singapore, Republic of Singapore 1989., 25Roberts GC, Balagué G. The development and validation of the Perception of Success Questionnaire.FEPSAC Congress Cologne, Germany. 1991.1991.]. The scale measures the dispositional orientation of achievement tasks within the sports performance context. We used the Spanish version [18Cervelló E, Escartí A, Balagué G. Relaciones entre la orientación de meta disposicional y la satisfacción con los resultados deportivos, las creencias sobre las causas de éxito en deporte y la diversión con la práctica deportiva. Rev Psicol Deporte 1999; 8(1): 7-19.], which has 12 items, six on the dispositional implication on the task and the remaining six on the ego. Participants are asked to answer questions such as: “When playing sport, I feel most successful when…”. The answers were recorded on a Likert scale and ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).

Previous studies showed the exploratory and confirmatory validity of the factorial structure in two subscales, and its reliability in the field of sport and physical activity focusing on competitive sports [18Cervelló E, Escartí A, Balagué G. Relaciones entre la orientación de meta disposicional y la satisfacción con los resultados deportivos, las creencias sobre las causas de éxito en deporte y la diversión con la práctica deportiva. Rev Psicol Deporte 1999; 8(1): 7-19., 26Cervelló E, Hutzler Y, Reina R, Sanz D, Moreno JA. Goal orientations, contextual and situational motivational climate and competition goal involvement in Spanish athletes with cerebral palsy. Psicothema 2005; 17(4): 633-8.-30Roberts GC, Treasure DC, Hall HK. Parental goal orientations and beliefs about the competitive sport experience of their child. J Appl Soc Psychol 1994; 24(7): 631-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1994.tb00604.x]
], with values α = .90 to α = .72 (task subscale) and α = .94 to α = .73 (ego subscale). In the present study, Cronbach’s alpha reliability results show high internal consistency of the subscales for both, dispositional Ego orientation (α > .75), and Task orientation (α > .73).

2.3. Statistical Analysis

An internal consistency analysis of the instrument was performed to check reliability on both subscales. We proceeded to a descriptive analysis of the study variables. To analyze the differences between groups, a t-test for independent samples was conducted. The between-subscales analysis was performed using a t-test for repeated measures. Statistically significant differences were found for 95% (p ≤, 05) reliability.

3. RESULTS

3.1. Psychometric Properties of the Instruments

The internal consistency analysis of the POSQ has resulted to be satisfactory for both the subscale Ego (α > .75) and the Task (αmale > .71 and αfemale > .76), like the Task (α > .73) (αmale > .73 and αfemale > .74). In the analysis, none of the items were eliminated since they complied with the established requirements, with an eigenvalue > 1 and a minimal correlation between variable superior to a .45 [31Pedhazur EJ. Multiple regression in behavioral research: explanation and prediction 1982.]. The homogeneity analysis suggests that there are no overlaps of items between the two theoretical dimensions. The model that has been put into practice predicts the existence of two latent variables: dispositional goal orientation towards the ego (Ego) and dispositional goal orientation towards the task (Task). This underlies the 12 items and provides an account of the covariance observed between them.

3.2. Descriptive Analysis

Table 1 shows the descriptive analysis of each of the variables in the investigation. With respect to measures, from the perception of success, higher scores can be observed on Task orientation than on Ego orientation.

Table 1
Mean (M), Standard Deviation (SD) and Coefficient Cronbanch (α) Gender in the Subscales of POSQ questionnaire.


3.3. Inferential Statistical between Subscales

Table 2 shows the inferential analysis of each of the variables in the investigation.

Table 2
Mean (M), Standard Deviation (SD) and Coefficient Cronbach (α) Gender in the Subscales of POSQ questionnaire by Different Variables. Statistical Differences from (*) Subscales and (†) Between Ego and Task by Different Subscales.


4. DISCUSSION

Regarding the first targets set by this research, the results show that Lifesaving practitioners are more task-oriented than ego-oriented, therefore their goal would be learning. Other studies [9Atkins MR, Johnson DM, Force EC, Petrie TA. Peers, parents, and coaches, oh my! The relation of the motivational climate to boysìntention to continue in sport. Psychol Sport Exerc 2015; 16: 170-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.10.008]
, 32Gómez-López M, Granero-Gallegos A, Abraldes JA, Rodríguez-Suárez N. Analysis of self-determined motivation in basketball players through goal orientations. Coll Antropol 2013; 37(3): 707-15.
[PMID: 24308207]
, 33Fox K, Goudas M, Biddle S, Duda J, Armstrong N. Children’s task and ego goal profiles in sport. Br J Educ Psychol 1994; 64(Pt 2): 253-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1994.tb01100.x] [PMID: 8075016]
] confirmed higher task orientation in young athletes; these results were encouraging for sports commitment since an athlete with a task-oriented motivational disposition judges his/her ability level through a self-comparison process, showing a self-referential perception of success [18Cervelló E, Escartí A, Balagué G. Relaciones entre la orientación de meta disposicional y la satisfacción con los resultados deportivos, las creencias sobre las causas de éxito en deporte y la diversión con la práctica deportiva. Rev Psicol Deporte 1999; 8(1): 7-19.].

Thus, our results are in line with those of Abraldes et collaborators [5Abraldes JA, Gómez-López M, Granero-Gallegos A, Rodríguez-Suárez N. The goal orientation of the lifesavers and the relationship with the satisfaction and the beliefs about the causes of success in sport. Cult Cienc Deporte 2013; 22(8): 59-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v8i22.230]
] confirming that the athletes’ sporting success can be attributed to the effort they make. Different studies [19Holgado F, Navas L, López-Núñez M. Goal orientations in sport: a causal model. European Journal of Education and Psychology 2010; 3(1): 19-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.30552/ejep.v3i1.50]
, 34Greeg MJ, Hall CR. Examining the relationship between athletes’achievement goal orientation and ability to employ imagery. Psychol Sport Exerc 2016; 24: 140-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.01.006]
-36Zarauz-Sancho A, Ruiz-Juan F, Flores-Allende G, Arufe V. Variables predictoras de la percepción del éxito: aspectos diferenciales en corredores de ruta. Rev Int Med Cienc Act Fís Deporte 2016; 16(63): 601-15.] describe these athletes as very persistent, highly committed and devoted to training, being the ones who enjoy themselves with the practice of sports.

Giving answer to the second objective, the results show significant differences in variables gender and specialty not in categories. In relation to the variable gender, the results confirm that task and ego orientations are higher in men than in women. Our results agree with other studies [36Zarauz-Sancho A, Ruiz-Juan F, Flores-Allende G, Arufe V. Variables predictoras de la percepción del éxito: aspectos diferenciales en corredores de ruta. Rev Int Med Cienc Act Fís Deporte 2016; 16(63): 601-15.-38González C, Cecchini JA, Llavona A, Vázquez A. Influencia del entorno social y el clima motivacional en el autoconcepto de las futbolistas asturianas. Aula Abierta 2010; 38(1): 25-36.] stating that both orientation levels are higher in men, a fact that according to Dunn and collaborators [39Dunn JGH, Dunn JD, Syrotuik DG. Relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and goal orientations in sport. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2002; 24: 376-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.24.4.376]
] means that they have the best of combinations for sports practice.

Regarding gender, our results show that men are more ego-oriented than women agreeing with other studies [5Abraldes JA, Gómez-López M, Granero-Gallegos A, Rodríguez-Suárez N. The goal orientation of the lifesavers and the relationship with the satisfaction and the beliefs about the causes of success in sport. Cult Cienc Deporte 2013; 22(8): 59-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v8i22.230]
, 40Hanrahan SJ, Biddle SJH. Measurement of achievement orientations: Psychometric measures, gender, and sport differences. Eur J Sport Sci 2002; 2(5): 1-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461390200072502]
, 41Kavussanu M, Roberts GC. Motivation in physical activity contexts: The relationship of perceived motivational climate to intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2001; 18: 264-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.18.3.264]
] that claim that gender is an achievement goal orientations’ predictor and moderator in the relationship between participation level and attributional style [42Hanrahan SJ, Cerin E. Gender, level of participation, and type of sport: differences in achievement goal orientation and attributional style. J Sci Med Sport 2009; 12(4): 508-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2008.01.005] [PMID: 18356105]
].

When gender was analyzed, the data confirmed task-factor prevalence for both boys and girls. In this sense, lifesaving sportsmen showed higher task orientation than women. This result makes us think that ego-oriented sportsmen more enjoy the sports practice and have a better and more frequent perception of success [43Ryan RM, Deci EL. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. Am Psychol 2000; 55(1): 68-78.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68] [PMID: 11392867]
, 44White SA, Duda JL, Keller MR. The relationship between goal orientation and perceived purposes of sport among youth sport participants. J Sport Behav 1998; 21(4): 474-83.].

Regarding the sports specialty, the results show statistically significant differences between pool and beach specialists. Pool specialists showed the highest task orientation values. In this sense, the existence of a mark (chrono) can be the determining factor to justify the results since these athletes see their commitment and dedication to training reflected in a mark, compared to the variable characteristics of beach competition environments. Pool specialists show data that are similar to those of Brodkin and Weiss’ study [45Brodkin P, Weiss MR. Developmental differences in Motivation for participating in competitive swimming. J Sport Exerc Psychol 1990; 12: 248-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.12.3.248]
] on swimmers. This paper highlights the importance of effort and results with regard to the self. However, in an open water competition, several are the factors that can condition the results (wind, waves, water courses, interaction with other athletes, etc.) here, then, are the differences found.

The analysis of the age-related category variable was not significantly different. These results do not agree with those found by Brodkin and Weiss [45Brodkin P, Weiss MR. Developmental differences in Motivation for participating in competitive swimming. J Sport Exerc Psychol 1990; 12: 248-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.12.3.248]
] and Strenberg, Grieve and Glass [46Streinberg G, Grieve FG, Glass B. Achievement goals across the lifespan. J Sport Behav 2002; 23: 298-306.], who linked social recognition factors with younger athletes, in contrast with the oldest ones leading to factors such as relation with others, health improvement and learning new abilities. Our results may be due to the reduced age difference between the categories. For this reason, the results show that between the two demographic variables analyzed, genre significantly emphasizes perception orientation of the sporting success, being stronger than age in relation to ego orientation.

Considering the results, assuming sports as an important context where social comparison processes are performed, we tested how task orientation is present in lifesaving athletes. These results favor an engaging and positive experience, avoiding demotivation and early dropout.

Finally, it is important to highlight the limitations of the analyzed sample represented in terms of generalization of the results. Athletes competing at national level were analyzed for this study; it would, therefore, be necessary to expand the sample for future research. Even though, we still believe these results are good indicators of the athletic population and a preliminary baseline study on this minority sport.

CONCLUSION

The analysis of the Achievement Goal Theory in lifesaving young athletes allowed us to conclude that dispositional task orientation is the most frequent in these athletes. Male athletes show higher values in both orientations than women. These same results were also found in relation to pool and beach specialists. No statistical differences were found in the analysis performed of categories. These results show a strong sports motivation, mainly in male and pool specialists, which favors enjoyment for sport, minimizes demotivation and therefore sports dropout.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Decleared none.

REFERENCES

[1] Abraldes JA. Formación deportiva en salvamento acuático Investigación en el Campeonato de España de autonomías 2009.
[2] Cantón E, Mayor L, Pallarés J. Factores motivacionales y afectivos en la iniciación deportiva. Rev Psicol Gen Apl 1995; 48(1): 59-75.
[3] Moreno JA, Cerbelló E. Motivación en la actividad física y el deporte 2010.
[4] Sarasúa M. Hábitos saludables y su relación con el currículo de la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria 2011.
[5] Abraldes JA, Gómez-López M, Granero-Gallegos A, Rodríguez-Suárez N. The goal orientation of the lifesavers and the relationship with the satisfaction and the beliefs about the causes of success in sport. Cult Cienc Deporte 2013; 22(8): 59-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12800/ccd.v8i22.230]
[6] Castillo I, Balaguer I, Duda JL. Las orientaciones de meta y los motivos de práctica deportiva en los jóvenes deportistas valencianos escolarizados. Rev Psicol Deporte 2000; 9(1-2): 37-50.
[7] Trost SG, Pate RR, Sallis JF, et al. Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34(2): 350-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200202000-00025] [PMID: 11828247]
[8] Vilchez MP, Ruiz-Juan F. Clima motivacional en Educación Física y actividad físico-deportiva en el tiempo libre en alumnado de España, Costa Rica y México. Retos 2016; 29: 195-200.
[9] Atkins MR, Johnson DM, Force EC, Petrie TA. Peers, parents, and coaches, oh my! The relation of the motivational climate to boysìntention to continue in sport. Psychol Sport Exerc 2015; 16: 170-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.10.008]
[10] Granero-Gallegos A, Baena-Extremera A, Pérez-Quero FJ, Ortiz-Camacho MM, Bracho-Amador C. Analysis of motivational profiles of satisfaction and importance of physical education in high school adolescents. J Sports Sci Med 2012; 11(4): 614-23.
[PMID: 24150070]
[11] Cheng KY, Cheng PG, Mak KT, Wong SH, Wong YK, Yeung EW. Relationships of perceived benefits and barriers to physical activity, physical activity participation and physical fitness in Hong Kong female adolescents. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003; 43(4): 523-9.
[PMID: 14767415]
[12] Cervelló EM, Escartí A, Guzmán JF. Youth sport dropout from the achievement goal theory. Psicothema 2007; 19(1): 65-71.
[PMID: 17295985]
[13] Balaguer I. Entrenamiento psicológico del deporte 1994.
[14] Nicholls JG. The competitive ethos and democratic education 1989.
[15] Castillo I, Balaguer I, Duda JL, García ML. Factores psicosociales asociados con la participación deportiva en la adolescencia. Rev Latinoam Psicol 2004; 36(3): 505-15.
[16] Nicholls JG. Achievement Motivation: Conceptions of Ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychol Rev 1984; 91(3): 328-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.91.3.328]
[17] García T, Cervelló E, Jiménez R, Iglesias D, Santos-Rosa FJ. La implicación motivacional de jugadores jóvenes de fútbol y su relación con el estado de flow y la satisfacción en competición. Rev Psicol Deporte 2005; 14(1): 21-42.
[18] Cervelló E, Escartí A, Balagué G. Relaciones entre la orientación de meta disposicional y la satisfacción con los resultados deportivos, las creencias sobre las causas de éxito en deporte y la diversión con la práctica deportiva. Rev Psicol Deporte 1999; 8(1): 7-19.
[19] Holgado F, Navas L, López-Núñez M. Goal orientations in sport: a causal model. European Journal of Education and Psychology 2010; 3(1): 19-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.30552/ejep.v3i1.50]
[20] Lochbaum M, Roberts GC. Goal orientations and perceptions of the sport experience. J Sport Exerc Psychol 1993; 15(2): 160-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.15.2.160]
[21] Dweck CS, Leggett EL. A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychol Rev 1988; 95: 256-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256]
[22] Roberts GC, Treasure DC, Balagué G. Achievement goals in sport: the development and validation of the Perception of Success Questionnaire. J Sports Sci 1998; 16(4): 337-47.
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