Table 1: Blood Loss and Transfusion Rates Associated with Common Urological Procedures.

Procedure Modality Median Blood Loss (mL) Peri-Operative Transfusion Rate (%)
Radical Cystectomy Open 350 - 408 [30-33] 2 - 40 [31, 33]
Laparoscopic 300 - 520 [34, 35] 0 - 30 [34, 35]
Robotic 475 - 800 [30, 31, 33, 36] 24 - 67 [31, 33, 37, 38]
Radical Prostatectomy Open 100 - 191 [39, 40] 0.5 - 1.8 [40, 41]
Robotic 450 - 745 [39-41] 2.9 - 16.5 [39-41]
Nephrectomy Open Partial 131 - 206 [42, 43] 4 [43]
Laparoscopic Partial 150 - 300 [43, 44] 3.8 - 8.6 [40, 41, 45]
Robotic Partial 367 [37] 5.1 - 12.7 [31, 37]
Open Radical 262 - 451 [45-47] 28 - 41 [48, 50]
Laparoscopic Radical 100 - 242 [33, 50, 51] 9.2 - 23 [48, 50]

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