Table 1: Small Animal Models for Henipavirus Infection

Challenge Dose Pathology Ref.
Intra-Peritoneal Subcutaneous Intranasal-Oral-Oronasal General Lung Brain
Guinea pig HeV 5,000 TCID50
50,000 TCID50
Weakness, lethargy, abortion, head tilt. Death or euthanasia 6-15 days PI. Vascular degeneration in multiple organs. Immuno-staining of blood vessels. Fibrinoid degeneration of blood vessels, syncytia of endothelium and alveolar walls microscopical lesions of encephalitis in 8/15 guineapigs subcutaneously inoculated with 30,000-50,000 TCID50 [36-38]
Guinea pig NiV 50,000 TCID50 Mild behavioral changes, ataxia. Euthanasia 7 – 10 DPI. Infection in 3/8 animals. Vasculitis, fibrinoid necrosis of vessels in multiple organs, oophoritis, endometrial necrosis. Antigen in endothelium, syncytia, blood vessel walls, myometrium and endometrium. Lung lesions not observed Encephalitis not observed [39]
Golden Hamster NiV 100 – 10,000 pfu 1000 – 1,000,000 pfu Tremors, paralysis, lethargy, breathing difficulty. Death 9 – 29 DPI. Vascular fibrinoid necrosis and inflammation in multiple organs. Antigen and genome in endothelial cells, syncytia and tunica media of blood vessels. Paranchymal inflammation, vasculitis ** Vasculitis. Mild inflammation of parenchyma and meninges. Antigen, genome and inclusion bodies in neurons ** [40]
Cat HeV 5,000 TCID50 50,000 TCID50 Death or euthanasia 6-7 DPI. Vascular lesions and paranchymal degeneration in gastrointestinal tract and lymphoid organs. Interstitial pneumonia, vascular necrosis, endothelial syncytia. ** Encephalitis not reported [36, 41]
Cat NiV 500 TCID50 50,000 TCID50 Euthanasia 7-9 DPI after short febrile illness and increase in respiratory rate; clinical resolution in one cat. Necrosis in spleen, inflammation of bladder, necrotizing lymphadenitis. Focal necrotizing alveolitis with syncytia, bronchiolitis, fibrinoid necrosis of blood vessel walls, endothelial syncytia. Antigen in affected bronchial and alveolar epithelium, syncytia and blood vessels. ** Meningitis, meningeal vasculitis with endothelial syncytia; distinct encephalitis has not been identified [42, 43]
Ferret NiV* 500-50,000 TCID50 Fever, depression and weakness. Euthanasia 6 – 10 DPI following 1 – 2 days fever. Vascular fibrinoid necrosis in multiple organs, necrotising alveolitis, syncytia of endothelium and alveolar epithelium, necrotizing lymphadenitis. Antigen in blood vessel walls and syncytia. Vascular fibrinoid necrosis, necrotising alveolitis, syncytia of alveolar epithelium. Antigen in blood vessel walls and syncytia. ** Not yet determined Unpublished (Bossart, K, Bingham, J, and Middleton, D)

* Preliminary data: pathology has not yet been completed;
** Similar to human pathology.