The Open Aerospace Engineering Journal is an Open Access online journal which publishes research, reviews, letter articles and guest edited single topic issues in all areas of aerospace engineering, aiming at providing the most complete and reliable source of information on current developments in the field.
Each peer-reviewed article that is published in a Bentham OPEN Journal is universally and freely accessible via the Internet in an easily readable and printable PDF format.
Authors should ONLY submit their articles directly through our online system as we do not accept articles through intermediary companies or agents.
Manuscripts must be submitted by one of the authors of the manuscript, and should not be submitted by anyone on their behalf. The principal/corresponding author will be required to submit a Covering Letter along with the manuscript, on behalf of all the co-authors (if any). The author(s) will confirm that the manuscript (or any part of it) has not been published previously or is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Furthermore, any illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained.
For all online submissions, please provide soft copies of all the materials (main text in MS Word or Tex/LaTeX), figures / illustrations in TIFF, PDF or JPEG, and chemical structures drawn in ChemDraw (CDX) / ISISDraw (TGF) as separate files, while a PDF version of the entire manuscript must also be included, embedded with all the figures / illustrations / tables / chemical structures etc. It is advisable that the document files related to a manuscript submission should always have the name of the corresponding author as part of the file name, i.e., "Cilli MS text.doc" , "Cilli MS Figure 1".
It is imperative that before submission, authors should carefully proofread the files for special characters, mathematical symbols, Greek letters, equations, tables and images, to ensure that they appear in proper format.
References, figures, tables, structures etc. should be referred to in the text at the place where they have been discussed. Figure legends/caption should also be provided.
A successful electronic submission of a manuscript will be followed by a system-generated acknowledgement to the principal/corresponding author within 72 hours of the dispatch of the manuscript. Any questions with regards to the preparation of and submission of your manuscript to the journal should be addressed to email@example.com and copied to firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors who publish in Bentham OPEN Journals retain copyright to their work. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. Once submitted to the journal, the author may not withdraw their manuscript at any stage prior to publication.
Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits the copying and redistribution of the material in any medium or format, as well as remixing, transformation, and building upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided appropriate credit is given, a link to the licence is provided, and provided it is indicated if any changes were made.
It is a mandatory requirement that a signed copyright letter also be submitted along with the manuscript by the author to whom correspondence is to be addressed, delineating the scope of the submitted article declaring the potential competing interests, acknowledging contributions from authors and funding agencies, and certifying that the paper is prepared according to the 'Instructions for Authors'. All inconsistencies in the text and in the reference section, and any typographical errors must be carefully checked and corrected before the submission of the manuscript. The article should not contains any such material or information that may be unlawful, defamatory, fabricated, plagiarized, or which would, if published, in any way whatsoever, violate the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. The authors acknowledge that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors for any such violation of the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. Download the Copyright letter
PERMISSION FOR REPRODUCTION:
Published/reproduced material should not be included unless you have obtained written permission from the copyright holder, which should be forwarded to the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of your article for publication.
For obtaining permission for reproducing any material published in an article by Bentham OPEN, please fill in the request FORM and send to email@example.com for consideration.
The manuscript should be written in English in a clear, direct and active style. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating in the reviewing and editing of the manuscript.
The journal accepts original research articles, review/mini-review articles and letters written in English. Single topic/thematic issues may also be considered for publication.
Research articles should be of 4000-6000 words with 75 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables etc.
The length of a published comprehensive review article is from 35000 to 40000 words with 100 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables etc.
Letters should be 3000-6000 words with 40 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables etc.
There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or additional files e.g. video clips, animation and datasets, that can be included with each article online. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each article.
This journal publishes open access reviews on recently published books (both print and electronic) relevant to the journal. Publishers and authors of books are invited to contact our book reviews editor at firstname.lastname@example.org with book review requests. All submitted books will be reviewed by an independent expert in the field. No page charges will be levied to authors for the publication of book reviews.
The journal also considers Supplements/Single Topic issues for publication. The Guest Edited Thematic Issues are published free of charge.
A Supplement/Single topic will be a collection of articles (minimum of 6, maximum of 20 articles) based on a contemporary theme or topic of great importance to the field. Mini-supplements consisting of between 3 to 5 articles are also welcome. The Guest Editors' main editorial task is to invite the contributors to the Supplement and to manage the peer review of submitted manuscripts. A short summary or proposal for editing a supplement should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief at e-mail to email@example.com.
MANUSCRIPT SECTIONS FOR PAPERS
Manuscripts submitted for research and review articles in the respective journal should be divided into the following sections:
List of abbreviations (if any)
Consent for Publication
Conflict of interest
Figures/illustrations (if any)
Chemical structures (if any)
Tables (if any)
Supportive/supplementary material (if any)
The title should be precise and brief and must not be more than 120 characters. Authors should avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations and question marks in titles. The title must be written in title case except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions.
Authors should also provide a short ‘running title’. Title, running title, by line correspondent footnote and key words should be written as presented in the original manuscript.
Title page should include paper title, author(s) full name and affiliation, corresponding author(s) names complete affiliation/address, along with phone, fax and email.
The abstract of an article should be its clear, concise and accurate summary, having no more than 250 words, and including the explicit sub-headings (as in-line or run-in headings in bold). Use of abbreviations should be avoided and the references should not be cited in the abstract. Ideally, each abstract should include the following sub-headings, but these may vary according to requirements of the article.
6 to 8 keywords must be provided. Choose important and relevant keywords that researchers in your field will be searching for so that your paper will appear in a database search.
The main text should begin on a separate page and should be divided into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed by the List of Abbreviations (if any), Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements and Reference sections. For Review Articles, the manuscript should be divided into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed by the Acknowledgements and Reference sections. The Review Article should mention any previous important recent and old reviews in the field and contain a comprehensive discussion starting with the general background of the field. It should then go on to discuss the salient features of recent developments. The authors should avoid presenting material which has already been published in a previous review. The authors are advised to present and discuss their observations in brief.
For Research Articles the manuscript should begin with the title page and abstract followed by the main text, which must be structured into separate sections as Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements and References.
The manuscript style must be uniform throughout the text and 10 pt Times New Roman fonts should be used. The full term for an abbreviation should precede its first appearance in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. The reference numbers should be given in square brackets in the text. Italics should be used for Binomial names of organisms (Genus and Species), for emphasis and for unfamiliar words or phrases. Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should also be italicized e.g. per se, et al., etc.
Section headings should be numbered sequentially, left aligned and have the first letter capitalized, starting with the introduction. Sub-section headings however, should be in lower-case and italicized with their initials capitalized. They should be numbered as 1.1, 1.2, etc.
The Introduction section should include the background and aims of the research in a comprehensive manner.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This section provides details of the methodology used along with information on any previous efforts with corresponding references. Any details for further modifications and research should be included.
Repeated information should not be reported in the text of an article. A calculation section must include experimental data, facts and practical development from a theoretical perspective.
Results should be precise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, and present reproducible procedure. Extensive citations and discussion of published literature should be avoided.
The Results and discussions may be presented individually or combined in a single section with short and informative headings.
Symbols and Units:
Greek symbols and special characters often undergo formatting changes and get corrupted or lost during preparation of a manuscript for publication. To ensure that all special characters used are embedded in the text, these special characters should be inserted as a symbol but should not be a result of any format styling (Symbol font face) otherwise they will be lost during conversion to PDF/XML2.
Authors are encouraged to consult reporting guidelines. These guidelines provide a set of recommendations comprising a list of items relevant to their specific research design.
Only ISO symbols, written in italic, should be used for the various parameters. All kinds of measurements should be reported only in International System of Units (SI). SI units should always be written in roman and separated from the numerical value by a space (whatever the language). The μ in μg or µm should be in roman. The symbol for liter is L and that for minute is min. For temperatures, please note the use of °C and °F but K. As the Ångström (1 Å = 10-10 m) is not an SI unit, it should be replaced by the nanometer (1 nm = 10-9 m) or by the picometer (1 pm = 10-12m): 1 Å = 0.1 nm = 100 pm. Multiple units should be written with negative superscripts (for example, 25 mguL-1 us-1).
The list of notations should appear just before the first paragraph of full text.
A list of symbols and units should be provided if used extensively throughout the text.
Equations and Mathematical Expressions:
Avoid the use of built-up fractions in the text. If not avoided by the author(s), built-up fractions will be converted to equivalent expressions on the line when the paper is copyedited. In display matter, however, built-up fractions are preferred for clarity.
Avoid the use of small-type mathematical expressions centered above or below arrows. If possible, try to use an alternative format.
In the exponential function, avoid exponents having more than one or two characters.
Avoid the use of reference numbers for equations that are not subsequently referred to in the paper. Costs are reduced if short mathematical equations and other expressions in the text are run in (instead of each being displayed on a separate line). Authors must expect that, when accepted papers are copyedited, "excess" equation reference numbers will be deleted and short equations will be run in with text.
Be sure to indicate special marking for symbols (e.g., italics, boldface) and clearly identify any unusual symbols. Try to avoid underscored symbols because they often require hand composition and opening up lines and thus are expensive. In vector notations, indicate which letters or notations, if any, may be set in boldface type. Indicate if asterisks are to be set in superscript position or centered on the line.
All equations should be indented and numbered as follows: (1)
Equation number should be right justified. Put three dots(...) midway between the end of the equation and the equation number.
Punctuation should not be used at the end of an equation.
Particular care should be taken to distinguish between the number zero (0) and the letter O; the number one (1) and the letter l, the Roman letter v and the Greek letter nu (n). The decimal logarithm should be written "log" and the natural log "ln". The abbreviation of the exponential function is a roman e (for example, ex ) or exp (for example, exp (u2 + n)). In expressions of the type dxdt, the letter d (derivative function) is always written in roman, whereas the physical parameter (x or t) is always in italics. Numbers are written in numerals when they are followed by units, these being represented by their SI symbols (10 % but a few percent).
In numerals, each group of three letters should be separated by a space (except for dates and postal codes).
Authors should provide the equations in *TeX/LaTeX file format separately as well as embedded in the manuscript.
Nomenclature should conform to current American usage. Insofar as possible, authors should use systematic names similar to those used by Chemical Abstracts Service or IUPAC. Chemical Abstracts (CA) nomenclature rules are described in Appendix IV of the Chemical Abstracts Index Guide.
List of Abbreviations (if any):
If abbreviations are used in the text either they should be defined in the text where first used, or a list of abbreviations should be provided.
In case there is a need to present lengthy, but essential methodological details, appendices must be used, which can be a part of the article. An appendix must not exceed three pages (Times New Roman, 10 point fonts, 900 max. words per page). The information should be provided in a condensed form, ruling out the need of full sentences. A single appendix should be titled APPENDIX, while more than one can be titled APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, and so on.
Supportive/Supplementary Material (if any):
We do encourage to append supportive material, for example a PowerPoint file containing a talk about the study, a PowerPoint file containing additional screenshots, a Word, RTF, or PDF document showing the original instrument(s) used, a video, or the original data (SAS/SPSS files, Excel files, Access Db files etc.) provided it is inevitable or endorsed by the journal's Editor.
Supportive/Supplementary material intended for publication must be numbered and referred to in the manuscript but should not be a part of the submitted paper. In-text citations as well as a section with the heading "Supportive/Supplementary Material" before the "References" section should be provided. Here, list all Supportive/Supplementary Material and include a brief caption line for each file describing its contents.
Any additional files will be linked to the final published article in the form supplied by the author, but will not be displayed within the paper. They will be made available in exactly the same form as originally provided only on our Web site. Please also make sure that each additional file is a single table, figure or movie (please do not upload linked worksheets or PDF files larger than one sheet). Supportive/Supplementary material must be provided in a single zipped file not larger than 4 MB.
Authors must clearly indicate if these files are not for publication but meant for the reviewers'/editors' perusal only.
RESEARCH ETHICS AND POLICIES
Conflict of Interest:
Financial contributions and any potential conflict of interest must be clearly acknowledged under the heading ‘Conflict of Interest’. Authors must list the source(s) of funding for the study. This should be done for each author.
All individuals listed as authors must have contributed substantially to the design, performance, analysis, or reporting of the work and are required to indicate their specific contribution. Anyone (individual/company/institution) who has substantially contributed to the study for important intellectual content, or was involved in the in drafting or revising the manuscript must also be acknowledged.
Guest or honorary authorship based solely on position (e.g. research supervisor, departmental head) is discouraged.
Consent for Publication:
If the manuscript has an individuals’ data, such as personal detail, audio-video material etc., consent should be obtained from that individual.
All such case reports should be followed by a proper consent prior to publishing.
A specific declaration of such approval and consent-to-disclose form must be made in the copyright letter and in a stand-alone paragraph at the end of the article especially in the case of human studies where inclusion of a statement regarding obtaining the written informed consent from each subject or subject's guardian is a must. The original should be retained by the guarantor or corresponding author. Editors may request to provide the original forms by fax or email.
A small paragraph summarizing the contents of the article, presenting the final outcome of the research or proposing further study on the subject, may be given at the end of the article under the Conclusion section.
References must be listed in IEEE style only. All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text and listed in the same numerical order in the reference section. The reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission.
The author will be responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the references.
See below few examples of references listed in the correct IEEE style:
G. Liu, K. Y. Lee, and H. F. Jordan, "TDM and TWDM de Bruijn networks and shufflenets for optical communications", IEEE Trans. Comp., vol. 46, pp. 695-701, June 1997.
S. M. Hemmingsen, Soft Science. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Press, 1997.
A. Rezi and M. Allam, "Techniques in array processing by means of transformations," in Control and Dynamic Systems, Vol. 69, Multidimensional Systems, C. T. Leondes, Ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1995, pp. 133-180.
D. Sarunyagate, Ed., Lasers. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.
N. Osifchin and G. Vau, “Power considerations for the modernization of telecommunications in Central and Eastern European and former Soviet Union (CCE/FSU) countries,” in Second International Telecommunication Energy Special Conference Special Conference, 1997, pp. 9-16.
K. Kimura and A. Lipeles, "Fuzzy controller component", U. S. Patent 14,860,040, December 14, 1996.
H. Zhang, "Delay-insensitive networks", M.S. thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 1997.
L. Bass, P. Clements, and R. Kazman. Software Architecture in Practice, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 2003. [E-book] Available: Safari e-book.
P. H. C. Eilers and J. J. Goeman, "Enhancing scatterplots with smoothed densities", Bioinformatics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 623-628, March 2004. [Online]. Available: www.oxfordjournals.org [Accessed Sept. 18, 2004].
Citations for articles/material published exclusively online or in open access (free-to-view), must contain the exact Web addresses (URLs) at the end of the reference(s), except those posted on an author’s Web site unless editorially essential, e.g. ‘Reference: Available from: URL’.
Some important points to remember:
All references must be complete and accurate.
All authors must be cited and there should be no use of the phrase et al (the term “et al.” should be in italics).
Online citations should include the date of access.
Journal abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
Special care should be taken for the punctuation convention as described in the above-mentioned examples.
The use of superscript in the in-text citations and reference section should be avoided.
Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications (which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained) should not be given in the reference section but they may be mentioned in the text and details provided as footnotes.
The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote (version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when formatting their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically extracted.
AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS
The source of data and materials should be mentioned in the manuscript, in support of the findings. If the data source is not revealed, the authors need to clearly state the reasons. Authors who do not wish to share their data should clearly state that the data will not be shared, and give the reasons.
The statement relating to the data should be presented in the following format under a separate ‘Availability of Data and Materials’ section in the manuscript:
"The data supporting the findings of the article is available in the [repository name] at [URL], reference number [reference number]”.
FIGURES / TABLES
Figures/Illustrations (if any):
All authors must strictly follow the guidelines below for preparing illustrations for publication in The Open Aerospace Engineering Journal. If the figures are found to be sub-standard, then the manuscripts will be rejected.
The authors are expected to submit good quality figure(s) in PDF, PPT, MS Word, TIFF or JPEG versions, which, if required, should be improved yourself or by professional graphic designers of your organization/ country. You may even consider approaching our contracted service providers Eureka Science for Graphics Enhancement Services.
The Graphics Designing team at Eureka Science can assist in improving the quality of your images at affordable rates. Eureka Science has contracted special rates with us of US $130 for the improvement of up to five figures, with any additional figures being charged at US $20 each.
Note: Availing Graphics Enhancement Services does not guarantee acceptance of the manuscript for publication. The final acceptance/decision on the manuscript is taken by the EiC.
Guideline for Figures/Illustrations
Illustrations must be provided according to the following guideline:
Illustrations should be embedded in the text file, and must be numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance. Each figure should include only a single illustration which should be cropped to minimize the amount of space occupied by the illustration.
If a figure is in separate parts, all parts of the figure must be provided in a single composite illustration file.
Photographs should be provided with a scale bar if appropriate, as well as high-resolution component files.
Line Art image type is normally an image based on lines and text. It does not contain tonal or shaded areas. The preferred file format should be TIFF or EPS, with the color mode being Monochrome 1-bit or RGB, in a resolution of 900-1200 dpi.
Halftone image type is a continuous tone photograph containing no text. It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode being RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 300 dpi.
Combination image type is an image containing halftone , text or line art elements. It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode being RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 500-900 dpi.
Illustrations may be submitted in the following file formats:
EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
PDF (also especially suitable for diagrams)
PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
Microsoft Word (version 5 and above; figures must be a single page)
PowerPoint (figures must be a single page)
JPEG (conversion should be done using the original file)
Bentham Open does not process figures submitted in GIF format.
For TIFF or EPS figures with considerably large file size restricting the file size in online submissions is advisable. Authors may therefore convert to JPEG format before submission as this results in significantly reduced file size and upload time, while retaining acceptable quality. JPEG is a ‘lossy’ format. However, in order to maintain acceptable image quality, it is recommended that JPEG files are saved at High or Maximum quality.
Zipit or Stuffit tools should not be used to compress files prior to submission as the resulting compression through these tools is always negligible.
Please refrain from supplying:
Graphics embedded in word processor (spreadsheet, presentation) document.
Optimized files optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) because of the low resolution.
Files with too low a resolution.
Graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Technical requirements for graphic/ figure submissions.
Width = 8.5 inches (In-between the required size)
Height = 11 inches (In-between the required size)
Pixels/Inches = 300 (minimum dpi)
All figures should be in vector scale (except half tone, photograph.)
Image Conversion Tools
There are many software packages, many of them freeware or shareware, capable of converting to and from different graphics formats, including PNG.
General tools for image conversion include Graphic Converter on the Macintosh, Paint Shop Pro, for Windows, and ImageMagick, available on Macintosh, Windows and UNIX platforms.
Bitmap images (e.g. screenshots) should not be converted to EPS as they result in a much larger file size than the equivalent JPEG, TIFF, PNG or BMP, and poor quality. EPS should only be used for images produced by vector-drawing applications such as Adobe Illustrator or CorelDraw. Most vector-drawing applications can be saved in, or exported as, EPS format. If the images were originally prepared in an Office application, such as Word or PowerPoint, original Office files should be directly uploaded to the site, instead of being converted to JPEG or another format of low quality.
Chemical structures MUST be prepared in ChemDraw/CDX and provided as separate file.
Structure Drawing Preferences
[As according to the ACS style sheet]
18% of width
14.4 pt (0.500cm, 0.2in)
2.0 pt (0.071cm, 0.0278in)
0.6 pt (0.021cm, 0.0084in)
1.6 pt (0.096cm)
2.5 pt (0.088cm, 0.0347in)
Times New Roman
Under the Preference Choose
Under Page Setup Use
Data Tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word table format.
Each table should include a title/caption being explanatory in itself with respect to the details discussed in the table. Detailed legends may then follow.
Table number in bold font i.e. Table 1, should follow a title. The title should be in small case with the first letter in caps. A full stop should be placed at the end of the title.
Tables should be embedded in the text exactly according to their appropriate placement in the submitted manuscript.
Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct by ensuring that the borders of each cell are displayed as black lines.
Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals sequentially in order of their citation in the body of the text.
If a reference is cited in both the table and text, please insert a lettered footnote in the table to refer to the numbered reference in the text.
Tabular data provided as additional files can be submitted as an Excel spreadsheet.
AUTHORS AND INSTITUTIONAL AFFILIATIONS
The names of the authors should be provided according to the previous citations or as the authors would want them to be published along with the institutional affiliations, current address, telephone, cell & fax numbers and the email address. Email address must be provided with an asterisk in front of the name of the principal author. The corresponding author(s) should be designated and their complete address, business telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address must be stated to receive correspondence and galley proofs. Also it is suggested to regularly update the profile on SCOPUS and other databases.
CHANGES TO AUTHORSHIP:
Authors must provide a final list of authors at the time of submission, ensuring the correct sequence of the names of authors, which will not be considered for any addition, deletion or rearrangement after final submission of the manuscript. If a change is essentially required, it can only be done on Editor’s approval, for which the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author:
(a) the reason for change in the author list and the sequence
(b) a confirmation is a prerequisite from all the co-authors for any amendment or removal.
Any amendment to the authors list will only be considered by the Editor if it is a MUST. Publication of the manuscript will be withheld during consideration of the request. However, if the manuscript has already been published online, requests approved thereafter by the Editor will result in an erratum or corrigendum.
LANGUAGE AND EDITING
Manuscripts containing language inconsistencies will not be published. Authors should seek professional assistance for correction of grammatical, scientific and typographical errors before submission of the revised version of the article for publication. Professional editing services may also be sought by the team available at Bentham Open.
Authors are required to proofread the PDF versions of their manuscripts before submission. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked immediately for typographical errors and returned within 48 hours. Major changes are not acceptable at the proof stage. If unable to send corrections within 48 hours due to some reason, the author(s) must at least send an acknowledgement on receiving the galley proofs or the article will be published exactly as received and the publishers will not be responsible for any error occurring in the manuscript in this regard.
The corresponding author will be solely responsible for ensuring that the revised version of the manuscript incorporating all the submitted corrections receives the approval of all the authors of the manuscript.
REVIEWING AND PROMPTNESS OF PUBLICATION
All papers submitted for publication are immediately subjected to preliminary editorial scrutiny by the Editor-in-Chief regarding their suitability. The Editor-in-Chief determines if the manuscript:
(a) falls within the scope of the journal and
(b) meets the editorial criteria of Bentham Open Publishers in terms of originality and quality.
Manuscripts that appear to be suitable are then subjected to single-blind peer-review by, usually three, neutral eminent experts. The services of eminent international experts are sought through invitations to conduct the peer-review of a submitted manuscript, keeping in view the scope of the manuscript and the expertise of the reviewers. The identity of the reviewers is not disclosed to the authors. The anonymity of reviewers ensures objective and unbiased assessment of the manuscript by the reviewers.
Before sending the manuscripts to reviewers, Bentham Open seeks consent from potential reviewers about their availability and willingness to review. Correspondence between the editorial office of the journal and the reviewers is kept confidential. The reviewers are expected to provide their reports in a timely fashion since a prompt review leads to timely publication of a manuscript which is beneficial not only to the authors but to the scientific community as well.
The editorial process and peer-review workflow for each journal are taken care of by a team of Senior Editors, Editorial Board Members (EBMs) and dedicated Journal managers who have the required expertise in their specific fields.
The Editor-in-Chief may recommend the acceptance or rejection of a manuscript after considering the opinions of the independent referees, or he/she may take assistance and advice from other experts in the field, if needed.
The Editor-in-Chief and Senior Editors of a journal have the right to select reviewers for a particular manuscript considering the knowledge and experience of the reviewers.
After reviewing of the manuscript by at least two independent experts, in addition to the assessment of the Editor, the decision is relayed to the authors, which may be categorized as:
Accept without changes
Bentham Open requests not to have the manuscripts peer-reviewed by those experts who may have competing interest with the author(s) of a submitted manuscript. It is not possible for Editors to be aware of all competing interests; it is therefore expected that the reviewers would inform the Editor-in-Chief/Handling Editor if they notice any potential competing interest during the course of review of a manuscript. Moreover, the reviewers are expected to inform the Editors or editorial office of the journal if they have a conflict of interest in carrying out the review of a manuscript submitted by any author/contributor of the manuscript.
Papers which are delayed by the authors in revision for more than 30 days are required to be re-submitted as a new submission. Papers accepted for publication are typeset and proofs are dispatched to authors for any corrections prior to final publication.
Bentham OPEN uses the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. iThenticate software checks content against a database of periodicals, the Internet, and a comprehensive article database. It generates a similarity report, highlighting the percentage overlap between the uploaded article and the published material. Any instance of content overlap is further scrutinized for suspected plagiarism according to the publisher’s Editorial Policies. Bentham OPEN allows an overall similarity of 20% for a manuscript to be considered for publication. The similarity percentage is further checked keeping the following important points in view:
Low Text Similarity:
The text of every submitted manuscript is checked using the Content Tracking mode in iThenticate. The Content Tracking mode ensures that manuscripts with an overall low percentage similarity (but which may have a higher similarity from a single source) are not overlooked. The acceptable limit for similarity of text from a single source is 5%. If the similarity level is above 5%, the manuscript is returned to the author for paraphrasing the text and citing the original source of the copied material.
It is important to mention that the text taken from different sources with an overall low similarity percentage will be considered as a plagiarized content if the majority of the article is a combination of copied material.
High Text Similarity:
There may be some manuscripts with an overall low similarity percentage, but a higher percentage from a single source. A manuscript may have less than 20% overall similarity but there may be 15 % similar text taken from a single article. The similarity index in such cases is higher than the approved limit for a single source. Authors are advised to thoroughly rephrase the similar text and properly cite the original source to avoid plagiarism and copyright violation.
TYPES OF PLAGIARISM:
We all know that scholarly manuscripts are written after thorough review of previously published articles. It is therefore not easy to draw a clear boundary between legitimate representation and plagiarism. However, the following important features can assist in identifying different kinds of plagiarized content.
Reproduction of others words, sentences, ideas or findings as one’s own without proper acknowledgement.
Text recycling, also known as self-plagiarism. It is an author’s use of a previous publication in another paper without proper citation and acknowledgement of the original source.
Paraphrasing poorly: Copying complete paragraphs and modifying a few words without changing the structure of original sentences or changing the sentence structure but not the words.
Verbatim copying of text without putting quotation marks and not acknowledging the work of the original author.
Properly citing a work but poorly paraphrasing the original text is considered as unintentional plagiarism. Similarly, manuscripts with language somewhere between paraphrasing and quoting are not acceptable. Authors should either paraphrase properly or quote and in both cases, cite the original source.
Higher similarity in the abstract, introduction, materials and methods, and discussion and conclusion sections indicates that the manuscript may contain plagiarized text. Authors can easily explain these parts of the manuscript in many ways. However, technical terms and sometimes standard procedures cannot be rephrased; therefore Editors must review these sections carefully before making a decision.
PLAGIARISM IN PUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS:
Published manuscripts which are found to contain plagiarized text are retracted from the journal website after careful investigation and approval by the Editor-in-Chief of the journal. A ‘Retraction Note’ as well as a link to the original article is published on the electronic version of the plagiarized manuscript and an addendum with retraction notification in the journal concerned.
APPEALS AND COMPLAINTS
Generally, the editorial decisions are not reverted. However, authors who think that their manuscript was rejected due to a misunderstanding or mistake may seek an explanation for the decision. Appeals must give sound reasoning and compelling evidence against the criticism raised in the rejection letter. A difference of opinion as to the interest, novelty, or suitability of the manuscript for the journal will not be considered as an appeal. The EIC and other relevant editors will consider the appeal and the decision thereafter taken by the journal will be deemed final. Acceptance of the manuscript is not guaranteed even if the journal agrees to reconsider the manuscript, and the reconsideration process may involve previous or new reviewers or editors and substantive revision.
Authors who wish to make a complaint should refer them to the Editor-in-Chief of the journal concerned. Complaints to the Publisher may be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org
The publication fee details for each article published in the journal are given below:
Letters Articles / Short Communications / Case Reports:
The publication fee for each published letter articles / short communications / case reports submitted is US $750.
The publication fee for each published Research article is US $960.
The publication fee for each published Mini-Review article is US $750.
The publication fee for each published Review article is US $1,060.
The publication fee includes basic copy editing services. Once the paper is accepted for publication, the author will receive an electronic invoice via email. Subsequent submissions from the Bentham OPEN Authors will receive a discount of US$ 100 on the total publication charges providing their previous submission did not avail any discount off the listed full author open access fee rate. Please click here to download the Fee Form.
Quick Track Publication:
An optional fast publication fee-based service called “QUICK TRACK” is available to authors for their submitted manuscripts.
QUICK TRACK allows online publication within 1 week of receipt of the final approved galley proofs from the authors. The total publication time, from date of first receipt of manuscript to its online publication is only 6 weeks, subject to its acceptance by the referees and modification (if any) by the authors within one week.
The Authors will be charged US $300 processing fee (non-refundable) and an additional $450 publication fee (refundable if paper is not accepted for publication). The quick track publication fee together with the Bentham Open publication charges, will be payable before online publication of the paper. If the paper is rejected, there will be no further charges other than the $300 already paid.
Please note that whether the author opts for the QUICK TRACK facility or not, standard reviewing practices will be followed, which will not in any way affect the acceptance or rejection of the manuscript by the reviewers.
Authors who have availed QUICK TRACK services in a Bentham Open journal will be entitled for an exclusive 30% discount if they again wish to avail the same services in any Bentham Open journal within the next 12 months.
Authors may extend the scope and visibility of their research by creating an animated abstract. Bentham Open has collaborated with Focus Medica, a reputable publisher of expert animated atlases and videos in medicine and science, to create the animated abstracts. An animated abstract summarise the essential discoveries/ key findings of the published research or review article in simple readily understandable form. Each professionally produced full-coloured animated abstract in video format (length 3 – 5 minutes) is accompanied by a commentary in English. The animated abstract may be published online along with the published article as an additional paid option.
Animated abstracts are available as open access (free viewing) for maximum visibility and awareness to the readers. The animated abstracts are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
Sample Animated Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance represents a significant challenge to future healthcare provision.An acronym ESKAPEE has been derived from the names of the organisms recognised as the major threats although there are a number of other organisms, notably Neisseria gonorrhoeae, that have become equally challenging to treat in the clinic. These pathogens are characterised by the ability to rapidly develop and/or acquire resistance mechanisms in response to exposure to different antimicrobial agents. A key part of the armoury of these pathogens is a series of efflux pumps, which effectively exclude or reduce the intracellular concentration of a large number of antibiotics, making the pathogens significantly more resistant. These efflux pumps are the topic of considerable interest, both from the perspective of basic understanding of efflux pump function, and its role in drug resistance but also as targets for the development of novel adjunct therapies. The necessity to overcome antimicrobial resistance has encouraged investigations into the characterisation of resistance-modifying efflux pump inhibitors to block the mechanisms of drug extrusion, thereby restoring antibacterial susceptibility and returning existing antibiotics into the clinic. A greater understanding of drug recognition and transport by multidrug efflux pumps is needed to develop clinically useful inhibitors, given the breadth of molecules that can be effluxed by these systems. This review discusses different bacterial EPIs originating from both natural source and chemical synthesis and examines the challenges to designing successful EPIs that can be useful against multidrug resistant bacteria.
SPECIAL FEE WAIVERS AND DISCOUNTS
Bentham Open offers waivers and discounts to those corresponding authors who are based in low-income countries*.
The authors who wish to avail this offer should request for a waiver or discount at the time of submission of their manuscripts to Bentham Open.
Bentham Open offers 50% discount on Open Access fee for manuscripts of the corresponding authors based in countries categorized as low-income economies by World Bank (list given below).
Bentham OPEN offers ‘Complimentary Membership’ to International R & D organizations, institutes and universities. Bentham OPEN Membership entitles authors from different member institutes to a special discount of 50% on the open access publication fee on their submissions to Bentham OPEN journals. Additionally, input and contributions from associate institutes would also be recognized and a link to their respective Website would be displayed on the Bentham OPEN membership page. The member institution’s logo will also be published on the same page.
Bentham OPEN Membership provides the following advantages:
Possibility to explore 21 distinct disciplines by means of publishing in 81 open access journals.
Author(s) own the copyrights to their published articles.
Unbound right to read, download or print open access articles.
Extensive peer-review of submitted articles.
Access to a range of articles in printed form such as short communications, full length research articles, reviews or conference proceedings.
Simple steps from submission to publication, leading to fast turn-around.
Possibility of archiving published articles.
The complimentary membership is valid for a span of one year and upon completion of the prescribed period, it is renewed by mutual interest and agreement.
Bentham Science is a publishing partner of Kudos. All authors who publish in this journal will receive an invitation to join the Kudos platform, an entirely free service for authors. Kudos enables authors to help broaden their audience and readers, increase their professional profile and reputation, and establish an impact for their publications. The website link is www.growkudos.com.
Kudos provides a free platform to researchers to have their publications accessible, read and cited across multiple networks and channels available to researchers for the dissemination of their work. It takes on average 15 minutes and leads to 23% higher growth in full-text downloads.
Authors are encouraged to explain their work in clear English and to attract researchers of the relevant communities, share a trackable link that you can email to your existing network of contacts, or share on social media and academic websites, and track how well the articles are performing through the summary of views, downloads, citations, and altmetrics on the Kudos dashboard.
Authors may also use the new shareable PDF (S-PDF) service. The S-PDF provides researchers with the means to write and share a high-level overview for each of their publications. Kudos thereby provides researchers, and their publishers and institutions, with a rich understanding of which channels and activities are most effective for broadening the reach and impact of published science.
High quality printed reprints of published articles are available for purchase, if ordered, with a minimum number of 25 reprints.