The Open AIDS Journal




ISSN: 1874-6136 ― Volume 13, 2019

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

The Open AIDS Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes Research articles, Reviews and Letters in all areas of research on HIV/AIDS. The journal covers recent studies on experimental, clinical, therapeutic, pathogenesis, vaccines, drug resistance, diagnostics and virology on HIV/AIDS.

Each peer-reviewed article that is published in a Bentham OPEN Journal is universally and freely accessible via the Internet in an easily readable and printable PDF format.

ONLINE MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

An online submission and tracking service via Internet facilitates a speedy and cost-effective submission of manuscripts. The full manuscript has to be submitted online via Bentham's Journals Management System (JMS) at https://bentham.manuscriptpoint.com/journals/toaidj / View Instructions

Authors should ONLY submit their articles directly through our online system as we do not accept articles through intermediary companies or agents.

Manuscripts must be submitted by one of the authors of the manuscript, and should not be submitted by anyone on their behalf. The principal/corresponding author will be required to submit a Covering Letter along with the manuscript, on behalf of all the co-authors (if any). The author(s) will confirm that the manuscript (or any part of it) has not been published previously or is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Furthermore, any illustration, structure or table that has been published elsewhere must be reported, and copyright permission for reproduction must be obtained.

For all online submissions, please provide soft copies of all the materials (main text in MS Word or Tex/LaTeX), figures / illustrations in TIFF, PDF or JPEG, and chemical structures drawn in ChemDraw (CDX) / ISISDraw (TGF) as separate files, while a PDF version of the entire manuscript must also be included, embedded with all the figures / illustrations / tables / chemical structures etc. It is advisable that the document files related to a manuscript submission should always have the name of the corresponding author as part of the file name, i.e., "Cilli MS text.doc" , "Cilli MS Figure 1", etc.

It is imperative that before submission, authors should carefully proofread the files for special characters, mathematical symbols, Greek letters, equations, tables and images, to ensure that they appear in proper format.

References, figures, tables, structures etc. should be referred to in the text at the place where they have been discussed. Figure legends/caption should also be provided.

A successful electronic submission of a manuscript will be followed by a system-generated acknowledgement to the principal/corresponding author within 72 hours of the dispatch of the manuscript. Any questions with regards to the preparation of and submission of your manuscript to the journal should be addressed to toaidj@benthamopen.net and copied to info@benthamopen.net

NOTE Any queries therein should be addressed to oa@benthamopen.net and copied to Jalil@benthamopen.net

EDITORIAL POLICIES

  1. All articles are freely available and immediately accessible online upon publication.
  2. Readers can study, download and/or print OPEN access articles without any cost.
  3. Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits the unrestricted, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the work is properly cited.
  4. Bentham OPEN follows the single blind peer-review procedure for submissions of all manuscripts to its journals. It is the most common type of peer-reviewing, in which the identity of the reviewers is not disclosed to the authors of the submitted manuscript. The anonymity of reviewers allows for objective assessment of the manuscript and is also free from any influence by the authors on the reviewers’ comments.
  5. All submitted articles are subject to an extensive peer review, in consultation with members of the journal's Editorial Board and independent external referees (usually three). All manuscripts are assessed rapidly and the decision taken by the journal's Editor-in-Chief based on all the peer reviewers’ comments, which are then conveyed to the author(s).
    Submissions from the Editor-in-Chief will undergo independent peer-review and will be submitted to another Editor for his decision on acceptance.
  6. All efforts are made to expedite the peer review process leading to timely publication.
  7. Authors publishing with Bentham OPEN retain the copyright to their work.
  8. Authors have the flexibility to publish a wide range of articles in a Bentham OPEN journal e.g. short communications, full-length research and review articles, as well as supplements, conference proceedings and case studies.
  9. Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent For human or animal experimental investigations, it is a prerequisite to provide a formal review and approval, or review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee and should be documented in your paper. For investigations undertaken on human subjects, the manner in which the informed consent was obtained from the study participants (i.e., oral or written) should be stated in the Methods section. Authors are encouraged to obtain patient's consent when they use confidential case material. Consent is not necessary in the case of very brief case vignettes which do not contain identifying information or if the case material is disguised sufficiently to prevent identification of the patient. In obtaining consent, the author(s) should discuss the purpose(s) of publication, the possible risks and benefits to the patient and the patient's right to withhold or withdraw consent. In the case of a minor patient, consent should be obtained from the parent(s) and/or guardian(s).
  10. Standard Protocol on Approvals, Registrations, Patient Consents and Animal Protection: All clinical investigations must be conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki Principles. Authors must comply with the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org) with regard to the patient’s consent for research or participation in a study. Patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers must not be mentioned anywhere in the manuscript (including figures). Editors may request that authors provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee that is responsible for oversight of the study.
    1. Research Involving Animals

      Research work on animals should be carried out in accordance with the NC3Rs ARRIVE Guidelines. For In Vivo Experiments, visit https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines

      Authors must clearly state the name of the approval committee, highlighting that legal and ethical approval was obtained prior to initiation of the research work carried out on animals, and that the experiments were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations stated below.

  11. Appeals and Complaints Authors who wish to make a complaint should refer them to the Editor-in-Chief of the journal concerned. Complaints to the Publisher may be emailed to info@benthamopen.net
  12. Plagiarism Prevention Bentham OPEN uses the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. iThenticate software checks the content against a database of periodicals, the Internet, and a comprehensive article database. It generates a similarity report, highlighting the percentage overlap between the uploaded article and the published material. Any instance of content overlap is further scrutinized for suspected plagiarism according to the publisher's Editorial Policies. Bentham OPEN allows an overall similarity of 20% for a manuscript to be considered for publication. The similarity percentage is further checked keeping the following important points in view:
    Low Text Similarity The text of every submitted manuscript is checked using the Content Tracking mode in iThenticate. This mode ensures that manuscripts with an overall low percentage similarity (but which may have a higher similarity from a single source) are not overlooked. The acceptable limit for similarity of text from a single source is 5%. If the similarity level is above 5%, then the manuscript is returned to the author for paraphrasing the text and citing the original source of the copied material.
    It is important to mention that the text taken from different sources with an overall low similarity percentage will be considered as a plagiarized content if the majority of the article is a combination of copied material.
    High Text Similarity There may be some manuscripts with an overall low similarity percentage, but a higher percentage from a single source. A manuscript may have less than 20% overall similarity but there may be 15 % similar text taken from a single article. The similarity index in such cases is higher than the approved limit for a single source. Authors are advised to thoroughly rephrase the similar text and properly cite the original source to avoid plagiarism and copyright violation.
    Types of Plagiarism We all know that scholarly manuscripts are written after thorough review of previously published articles. It is therefore not easy to draw a clear boundary between legitimate representation and plagiarism. However, the following important features can assist in identifying different kinds of plagiarized content. These are:
    • Reproduction of others words, sentences, ideas or findings as one’s own without proper acknowledgement.
    • Text recycling, also known as self-plagiarism. It is the author’s use of a previous publication in another paper without proper citation and acknowledgement of the original source.
    • Poor paraphrasing, copying complete paragraphs and modifying a few words without changing the structure of original sentences or changing the sentence structure but not the words.
    • Verbatim copying of text without putting quotation marks and not acknowledging the work of the original author.
    • Properly citing a work but poorly paraphrasing the original text is considered as unintentional plagiarism. Similarly, manuscripts with language between paraphrasing and quoting are not acceptable. Authors should either paraphrase properly or quote and in both cases, cite the original source.
    • Higher similarity in the abstract, introduction, materials and methods, and discussion and conclusion sections indicates that the manuscript may contain plagiarized text. Authors can easily explain these parts of the manuscript in many ways. However, technical terms and sometimes standard procedures cannot be rephrased; therefore, Editors must review these sections carefully before making a decision.
    Plagiarism in Published Manuscripts Published manuscripts which are found to contain plagiarized text are retracted from the journal website after careful investigation and approval by the Editor-in-Chief of the journal. A ‘Retraction Note’ as well as a link to the original article is published on the electronic version of the plagiarized manuscript.
  13. Copyrights Authors who publish in Bentham OPEN journals retain copyright to their work. Submission of a manuscript to the respective journals implies that all authors have read and agreed to the content of the Covering Letter or the Terms and Conditions. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to a journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere.
    Bentham OPEN (Licensor) grants the author(s) a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, and non-commercial perpetual license to exercise the rights in the article published as stated below:
    1. All articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the work is properly cited.
    2. The authors retain the copyright of their published article. They will also have the right to:
      1. Reproduce the article, to incorporate the article into one or more collective works, and to reproduce the article as incorporated in collective works;
      2. Create and reproduce Derivative Works for educational purposes.
      3. Distribute Copies
      4. Any commercial application of the work, with prior agreement by the author, is exclusively granted to Bentham OPEN
  14. Waiver Authors grant to Bentham OPEN (licensor) the right to retain all revenue from commercial sales of the author's published article in a Bentham OPEN journal.
  15. Bentham OPEN offers affordable article processing fees, ranking amongst the lowest as compared to those of other OPEN access journal publishers. An article-processing fee payable by the author/ author's institution applies for every accepted article, to cover the costs incurred by OPEN access publication. Members of Bentham OPEN are entitled to discounted article processing fees.
  16. Authors can self-archive post prints of their published articles.
  17. Authors can reproduce derivative works of the article for educational purposes and distribute its copies.
  18. Publication Charges Policy: Bentham OPEN is committed to disseminating research and scholarly publications as widely as possible. It supports the principle that 'the results of research that have been publicly funded should be freely accessible in the public domain’ and therefore it encourages researchers to make their research available through Open Access (OA).
    Open access publishing is not without costs. To provide open access, Bentham OPEN journals partly defray the expenses of peer review, journal production, and online hosting and archiving from authors and their research sponsors by charging a publication fee for each article they publish. The fees vary by journal. The publication fee details for each article published in Bentham OPEN journals are given below
    Letters The publication fee for each published Letter article submitted is US $680.
    Research Articles The publication fee for each published Research article is US $880.
    Mini-Review Articles The publication fee for each published Mini-Review article is US $680.
    Review Articles The publication fee for each published Review article is US $980.
    The following special discounts are offered to authors and editorial board members:
    • Authors from developing countries are entitled to 30% discount of their article publication fee submitted to any of the Bentham OPEN journals.
    • Authors from Bentham OPEN Member institutes are entitled to 30% discount of their article publication fee submitted to any of the Bentham OPEN journals.
    • Editorial Board Members and Editors of Bentham OPEN journals are allowed ONE free publication annually. Subsequent submissions from Editorial Board Members are published at 50% discount of the standard publication fee.
    • Waiver and additional discount requests are decided on the basis of author’s country of origin and quality of the submitted article. Editors and reviewers have no access to whether authors are able to pay; decisions to publish are only based on meeting the editorial criteria.
  19. Errata and Corrections in Published Articles Authors and readers are encouraged to notify the Editor-in-Chief if they discover errors in published content, authors’ names and affiliations or if they have reasons for concern over the legitimacy of a publication. In such cases, Bentham OPEN will publish an ERRATUM, in consultation with the Editor-in-Chief and authors of the article, and/or replace or retract the article.
  20. Article Withdrawal Articles in Press (articles that have been accepted for publication or published as E-pub Ahead of Schedule but which have not been formally published with volume/issue/page information) that include errors, or are determined to violate the publishing ethics guidelines such as multiple submission, fake claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like, may be “Withdrawn” from the journal. Withdrawal means that the article files are removed and replaced with a PDF stating that the article has been withdrawn from the journal in accordance with Bentham OPEN Editorial Policies.
  21. Article Retraction Published articles (with volume/issue/page information), which may contain infringements of professional ethical codes, such as multiple submission, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like, are retracted.
    • A retraction note titled "Retraction: [article title]" signed by the authors and/or the Editor-in-Chief is published in the paginated part of a subsequent issue of the journal and listed in the contents list.
    • In the electronic version, a link is made to the original article.
    • The online article is preceded by a screen containing the retraction note. It is to this screen that the link resolves; the reader can then proceed to the article itself.
    • The original article is retained unchanged with a watermark on the PDF indicating on each page that it is “retracted.”
    • The HTML version of the document is removed.
  22. Redundant (multiple) publication/ Re-publication: Abstracts and posters at conferences, results presented at meetings (for example, to inform investigators or participants about findings), and results databases (data without interpretation, discussion, context or conclusions in the form of tables and text to describe data/information where this is not easily presented in tabular form) are not considered to be prior publication.
    Authors who want to publish translations of the articles that have been published elsewhere should ensure that they have appropriate permission(s), should indicate clearly that the material has been translated and re-published, and should indicate clearly the original source of the material. The Editor-in-Chief may request copies of related publications if they are concerned about overlap and possible redundancy.
  23. Disclaimer Responsibility for the content published by Bentham OPEN in any of its journals, including any opinions expressed therein, rests exclusively with the author(s) of such content. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Bentham OPEN (on its own behalf, and on behalf of its staff and members of its editorial board) disclaims responsibility for any and all injury and/or damage (whether financial or otherwise) to persons or property, resulting directly or indirectly from any ideas, methods, instructions or products (including errors in the same) referred to in the content of any of Bentham OPEN journals. Any dispute arising, including any claim, shall be governed exclusively by the laws of the United Arab Emirates, as applied in the Emirate of Sharjah.

COPYRIGHT

Authors who publish in Bentham OPEN Journals retain copyright to their work. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to this journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. Once submitted to the journal, the author may not withdraw their manuscript at any stage prior to publication.

Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits the copying and redistribution of the material in any medium or format, as well as remixing, transformation, and building upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, provided appropriate credit is given, a link to the licence is provided, and provided it is indicated if any changes were made.

Copyright letter

It is a mandatory requirement that a signed copyright letter also be submitted along with the manuscript by the author to whom correspondence is to be addressed, delineating the scope of the submitted article declaring the potential competing interests, acknowledging contributions from authors and funding agencies, and certifying that the paper is prepared according to the 'Instructions for Authors'. All inconsistencies in the text and in the reference section, and any typographical errors must be carefully checked and corrected before the submission of the manuscript. The article contains no such material or information that may be unlawful, defamatory, fabricated, plagiarized, or which would, if published, in any way whatsoever, violate the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. The authors acknowledge that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors for any such violation of the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. Download the Copyright letter.

PERMISSION FOR REPRODUCTION

Published/reproduced material should not be included unless you have obtained written permission from the copyright holder, which should be forwarded to the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of your article for publication.

For obtaining permission for reproducing any material published in an article by Bentham OPEN, please fill in the request FORM and send to info@benthamopen.net for consideration.

MANUSCRIPTS PUBLISHED

The journal accepts original research articles, letters and review articles written in English. Supplements, proceedings of conferences and open access book reviews may also be considered for publication.

Supplements/Single Topic Issues

The journal also considers Supplements/Thematic issues for publication. The Guest Edited Thematic Issues are published free of charge.

A Supplement/Single topic will be a collection of articles (minimum of 6, maximum of 20 articles) based on a contemporary theme or topic of great importance to the field. Mini-supplements consisting of between 3 to 5 articles are also welcome. A Supplement can consist of either all review articles or a mixture of review and research articles. The Guest Editors' main editorial task is to invite the contributors to the Supplement and to manage the peer review of submitted manuscripts. A short summary or proposal for editing a supplement should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief at e-mail to specialissue@benthamopen.net

Conference Proceedings

For proposals to publish conference proceedings in this journal, please contact us at email: proceedings@benthamopen.net

Manuscript Length

Research Articles

Research articles should be of 4000-6000 words with 75 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.

Review Articles

The length of a published comprehensive review article is from 35000 to 40000 words with 100 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.

Systematic Reviews

Systematic Reviews include systematic updates in review protocols, methods, research, and results from all relevant fields for any studies and updates on already published issues. The total number of words for a published systematic review is from 35000 to 40000 words with 100 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables etc.

Registration of Systematic Reviews

Bentham open Publishers supports retrospective registration of systematic reviews, in a suitable registry (such as PROSPERO). The registered systematic review must include the registration number as the last line of the manuscript abstract.

Letter Articles

Letters should be 3000-6000 words with 40 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables, etc.

Book Reviews

This journal publishes open access reviews on recently published books (both print and electronic) relevant to the journal. Publishers and authors of books are invited to contact our book reviews editor at toaidj@benthamopen.net with book review requests. All submitted books will be reviewed by an independent expert in the field. No page charges will be levied to authors for the publication of book reviews.

Case Reports

Case reports should describe new observations of findings or novel/unique outcomes relevant to the field. The total number of words for a published case report is 1500 to 2000 words with 40 or more references excluding figures, structures, photographs, schemes, tables etc.

There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or additional files e.g. video clips, animation and datasets, that can be included with each article online. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each article.

MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION

The manuscript should be written in English in a clear, direct and active style. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating in the reviewing and editing of the manuscript.

Manuscripts Published

The journal accepts original research articles, review articles and letters written in English. Single topic/thematic issues may also be considered for publication.

MANUSCRIPT SECTIONS FOR PAPERS

Manuscripts submitted for research and review articles in the respective journal should be divided into the following sections

  • Title
  • Title Page
  • Structured Abstract
  • Graphical Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Text organization
  • Conclusion
  • List of abbreviations (if any)
  • Consent for Publication
  • Conflict of interest
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Figures/illustrations (if any)
  • Chemical structures (if any)
  • Tables (if any)
  • Supportive/Supplementary Material (if any)
Title

The title should be precise and brief and must not be more than 120 characters. Authors should avoid the use of non standard abbreviations and question marks in titles. The title must be written in title case except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions.

Authors should also provide a short ‘running title’. Title, running title, by line correspondent footnote and key words should be written as presented in the original manuscript.

Title Page

Title page should include paper title, author(s) full name and affiliation, corresponding author(s) names complete affiliation/address, along with phone, fax and email

Structured Abstract

The abstract of an article should be its clear, concise and accurate summary, having no more than 250 words, and including the explicit sub-headings (as in-line or run-in headings in bold). Use of abbreviations should be avoided and the references should not be cited in the abstract. Ideally, each abstract should include the following sub-headings, but these may vary according to requirements of the article.

  • Background
  • Objective
  • Method
  • Results
  • Conclusion
Graphical Abstract

A graphic must be included with each manuscript for use in the Table of Contents (TOC). This must be submitted separately as an electronic file (preferred file types are EPS, PDF, TIFF, Microsoft Word, PowerPoint and CDX , etc.). A graphical abstract, not exceeding 30 words along with the illustration, helps to summarize the contents of the manuscript in a concise pictorial form. It is meant as an aid for the rapid viewing of the journals' contents and to help capture the readers’ attention. The graphical abstract may feature a key structure, reaction, equation, , etc. that the manuscript elucidates upon. It will be listed along with the manuscript title, authors’ names and affiliations in the contents page, typeset within an area of 5 cm by 17 cm, but it will not appear in the article PDF file or in print.

Graphical Abstracts should be submitted as a separate file (must clearly mention graphical abstract within the file) online via Bentham's Content Management System by selecting the option “supplementary material”.

Keywords

6 to 8 keywords must be provided. Choose important and relevant keywords that researchers in your field will be searching for so that your paper will appear in a database search. In biomedical fields, MeSH terms are a good ‘common vocabulary’ source to draw keywords from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html.

Text Organization

The main text should begin on a separate page and should be divided into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed by the List of Abbreviations (if any), Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements and Reference sections. For review, the manuscript should be divided into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed by the Acknowledgements and Reference sections. For Research Articles the manuscript should begin with the title page and abstract followed by the main text, which must be structured into separate sections as Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate, Human and Animal Rights, Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements and References. The Review Article should mention any previous important recent and old reviews in the field and contain a comprehensive discussion starting with the general background of the field. It should then go on to discuss the salient features of recent developments. The authors should avoid presenting material which has already been published in a previous review. The authors are advised to present and discuss their observations in brief. The manuscript style must be uniform throughout the text and 10 pt Times New Roman fonts should be used. The full term for an abbreviation should precede its first appearance in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. The reference numbers should be given in square brackets in the text. Italics should be used for Binomial names of organisms (Genus and Species), for emphasis and for unfamiliar words or phrases. Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should also be italicized e.g.per se, et al., etc.

Section Headings

Section headings should be numbered sequentially, left aligned and have the first letter capitalized, starting with the introduction. Sub-section headings however, should be in lower-case and italicized with their initials capitalized. They should be numbered as 1.1, 1.2, etc.

INTRODUCTION

The Introduction section should include the background and aims of the research in a comprehensive manner.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This section provides details of the methodology used along with information on any previous efforts with corresponding references. Any details for further modifications and research should be included.

EXPERIMENTAL

Repeated information should not be reported in the text of an article. A calculation section must include experimental data, facts and practical development from a theoretical perspective.

RESULTS

Results should be precise.

DISCUSSION

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, and present reproducible procedure. Extensive citations and discussion of published literature should be avoided.

The Results and discussions may be presented individually or combined in a single section with short and informative headings.

CONCLUSION

A small paragraph summarizing the contents of the article, presenting the final outcome of the research or proposing further study on the subject, may be given at the end of the article under the Conclusion section.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS:

All clinical investigations should be conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki principles. For all manuscripts reporting data from studies involving human participants, formal review and approval by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee are required.

For research involving animals, the authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the standards set forth in the eighth edition of “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” (grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/guide-for-the-care-and-use-of-laboratory-animals_prepub.pdf published by the National Academy of Sciences, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.).

Research Involving Animals:

Research work on animals should be carried out in accordance with the NC3Rs ARRIVE Guidelines. For In Vivo Experiments, please visit https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines

Authors should clearly state the name of the approval committee, highlighting that legal and ethical approvals were obtained prior to initiation of the research work carried out on animals, and that the experiments were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations stated below.

Research Involving Plants

All experimental research on plants (either cultivated or wild), should comply with international guidelines. The manuscript should include a declaration of compliance of field studies with relevant guidelines and/or relevant permissions or licenses obtained by the IUCN Policy Statement on Research Involving Species at Risk of Extinction and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

Patient Consent:

Compliance with the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors www.icmje.org) is recommended, in accordance with the patient’s consent for research or participation in a study as per the applicable laws and regulations regarding the privacy and/or security of personal information, including, but not limited to, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ("HIPAA") and other U.S. federal and state laws relating to confidentiality and security of personally distinguishable evidence, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (EU) 2016/679 and member state implementing legislation, Canada's Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, India's Information Technology Act and related Privacy Rules, (together "Data Protection and Privacy Laws").

It is the responsibility of the author to ensure that:

  • Patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers are not mentioned anywhere in the manuscript (including figures).
  • Authors are responsible for obtaining the patient consent-to-disclose forms for all recognizable patients in photographs, videos, or other information that may be published in the Journal, in derivative works, or on the journal’s web site and for providing the manuscript to the recognizable patient for review before submission.
  • The consent-to-disclose form should indicate specific use (publication in the medical literature in print and online, with the understanding that patients and the public will have access) of the patient's information and any images in figures or videos, and must contain the patient's signature or that of a legal guardian along with a statement that the patient or legal guardian has been offered the opportunity to review the identifying materials and the accompanying manuscript.
  • If the manuscript has an individuals’ data, such as personal details, audio-video material, etc., consent should be obtained from that individual. In case of children, consent should be obtained from the parent or the legal guardian.
  • A specific declaration of such approval and consent-to-disclose form must be made in the copyright letter and in a stand-alone paragraph at the end of the article especially in the case of human studies where inclusion of a statement regarding obtaining the written informed consent from each subject or subject's guardian is a must. The original should be retained by the guarantor or the corresponding author. Editors may request to provide the original forms by fax or email.
  • All such case reports require by a proper consent being obtained prior to publishing.

Editors may request that authors provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee responsible for oversight of the study. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.

Non-identifiable Images

Anonymous images, that do not identify the individual directly or indirectly, such as through any identifying marks or text, do not require formal consent, for example, X-rays, ultrasound images, pathology slides or laparoscopic images.

In case consent is not obtained, concealing the identity through eye bars or blurring the face would not be acceptable.

UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR

Unethical behavior and misconduct may be pointed out by anyone to the Editor and Publisher with sufficient evidences. The Editor, in consultation with the Publisher, will initiate investigation against this Unethical misconduct, complete the procedure till an unbiased decision is reached, and maintain confidentiality throughout the process of the investigation. The Author should be given the opportunity to reply to all minor or major accusations.

In case of serious breaches, the employer may be informed where appropriate, by the Editor/Publisher, after reviewing all available information and evidences or after seeking help from experts in that field.

Conclusion
  • Author(s) and Reviewers must be informed in case of misinterpretation or mishandling of International Acceptable Standards
  • A strict notice should be sent to the author and reviewer to avoid future unethical misconduct
  • An Editorial on the reported misconduct should be published or official notice of unethical behavior should be posted on the website
  • Official letter about this misconduct should be issued to the Head of Departments, Funding Agencies of the accused author and the reviewer, as well as Abstracting & Indexing Agencies.
  • Where required, retraction and withdrawal of publication may be undertaken from the Publisher’s journal in discussion with the Head of the Department of the author or reviewer, and other higher authorities should be informed
  • The Publisher may impose restrictions for some period on future publications from the accused author in the journals
Greek Symbols and Special Characters

Greek symbols and special characters often undergo formatting changes and get corrupted or lost during preparation of manuscript for publication. To ensure that all special characters used are embedded in the text, these special characters should be inserted as a symbol but should not be a result of any format styling (Symbol font face) otherwise they will be lost during conversion to PDF/XML.

Authors are encouraged to consult reporting guidelines. These guidelines provide a set of recommendations comprising a list of items relevant to their specific research design. All kinds of measurements should be reported only in International System of Units (SI). Chemical equations, chemical names, mathematical usage, unit of measurements, chemical and physical quantity & units must conform to SI and Chemical Abstracts or IUPAC.

Appendices

In case there is a need to present lengthy, but essential methodological details, use appendices, which can be a part of the article. An appendix must not exceed three pages (Times New Roman, 10 point fonts, 900 max. words per page).The information should be provided in a condensed form, ruling out the need of full sentences. A single appendix should be titled APPENDIX, while more than one can be titled APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, and so on.

Supportive/Supplementary Material (if any)

We do encourage to append supportive material, for example a PowerPoint file containing a talk about the study, a PowerPoint file containing additional screenshots, a Word, RTF, or PDF document showing the original instrument(s) used, a video, or the original data (SAS/SPSS files, Excel files, Access Db files etc.) provided it is inevitable or endorsed by the journal's Editor.

Supportive/Supplementary material intended for publication must be numbered and referred to in the manuscript but should not be a part of the submitted paper. In-text citations as well as a section with the heading "Supportive/Supplementary Material" before the "References" section should be provided. Here, list all Supportive/Supplementary Material and include a brief caption line for each file describing its contents.

Any additional files will be linked into the final published article in the form supplied by the author, but will not be displayed within the paper. They will be made available in exactly the same form as originally provided only on our Web site. Please also make sure that each additional file is a single table, figure or movie (please do not upload linked worksheets or PDF files larger than one sheet). Supportive/ Supplementary material must be provided in a single zipped file not larger than 4 MB.

Authors must clearly indicate if these files are not for publication but meant for the reviewers'/editors' perusal only.

List of Abbreviations (if any)

If abbreviations are used in the text either they should be defined in the text where first used, or a list of abbreviations should be provided.

DECLARATION OF INTEREST/FUNDING SOURCES

Conflict of Interest

Financial contributions and any potential conflict of interest must be clearly acknowledged under the heading ‘Conflict of Interest’. Authors must list the source(s) of funding for the study. This should be done for each author.

Acknowledgements

All individuals listed as authors must have contributed substantially to the design, performance, analysis, or reporting of the work and are required to indicate their specific contribution. Anyone (individual/company/institution) who has substantially contributed to the study for important intellectual content, or was involved in the in drafting or revising the manuscript must also be acknowledged.

Guest or honorary authorship based solely on position (e.g. research supervisor, departmental head) is discouraged

The specific requirements for authorship have been defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org). Examples of authors' contributions are: 'designed research/study', 'performed research/study', 'contributed important reagents', 'collected data', 'analyzed data', 'wrote paper' etc. This information must be included in the submitted manuscript as a separate paragraph under the heading ‘Acknowledgements’. The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining permission from all co-authors for the submission of any version of the manuscript and for any changes in the authorship.

Standard Protocol on Approvals, Registrations, Patient Consents & Animal Protection

All clinical investigations must be conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki principles. Authors must comply with the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org) with regard to the patient’s consent for research or participation in a study. Patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers must not be mentioned anywhere in the manuscript (including figures). Editors may request that authors provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee responsible for oversight of the study.

In addition to the standard patient consent for participation in research, authors are responsible for obtaining patient consent-to-disclose forms for all recognizable patients in photographs, videos, or other information that may be published in the Journal, in derivative works, or on the journal’s web site and providing the manuscript to the recognizable patient for review before submission. The consent-to-disclose form should indicate specific use (publication in the medical literature in print and online, with the understanding that patients and the public will have access) of the patient's information and any images in figures or videos, and must contain the patient's signature or that of a legal guardian along with a statement that the patient or legal guardian has been offered the opportunity to review the identifying materials and the accompanying manuscript.

For research involving animals, the authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the standards set forth in the eighth edition of Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/guide-for-the-care-and-use-of-laboratory-animals_prepub.pdf) ; published by the National Academy of Sciences, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.).

Research Involving Animals

Research work on animals should be carried out in accordance with the NC3Rs ARRIVE Guidelines. For In Vivo Experiments, visit https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/arrive-guidelines

Authors must clearly state the name of the approval committee, highlighting that legal and ethical approval was obtained prior to initiation of the research work carried out on animals, and that the experiments were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations stated below.

Research Involving Plants

All experimental research on plants (either cultivated or wild), must comply with international guidelines. The manuscript must clearly include a declaration of compliance of field studies with relevant guidelines and/or relevant permissions or licences obtained by the IUCN Policy Statement on Research Involving Species at Risk of Extinction and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

Consent for Publication

If the manuscript has an individuals’ data, such as personal detail, audio-video material etc., consent should be obtained from that individual. In case of children, consent should be obtained from the parent or the legal guardian.

All such case reports should be followed by a proper consent prior to publishing.

A specific declaration of such approval and consent-to-disclose form must be made in the cover letter and in a stand-alone paragraph at the end of the Methods section especially in the case of human studies where inclusion of a statement regarding obtaining the written informed consent from each subject or subject's guardian is a must. The original should be retained by the guarantor or corresponding author. Editors may request to provide the original forms by fax or email.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION

If your research article reports the results of a controlled health care intervention, list your trial registry, along with the unique identifying number, e.g. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN73824458. Note that there should be no space between the letters and numbers of your trial registration number. For this purpose, a clinical trial is any study that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or comparison groups to evaluate the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. All clinical trials, regardless of when they were completed, and secondary analyses of original clinical trials must be registered before submission of a manuscript based on the trial. Studies designed for other purposes, such as to study pharmacokinetics or major toxicity (e.g., phase 1 trials), are exempt. Trial registry name, registration identification number, and the URL for the registry should be included at the end of abstract and also in the space provided on the online manuscript submission form. If your research article reports the results of a controlled health care intervention, list your trial registry, along with the unique identifying number. Note that there should be no space between the letters and numbers of your trial registration number.

Authors will submit the Trial Protocols along with their manuscript. The CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Checklist and Flowchart is also required when submitting the results of randomized control trials (RCTs).

REFERENCES

References must be listed in the numerical system (Vancouver). All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text and listed in the same numerical order in the reference section. The reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission.

See below few examples of references listed in the correct Vancouver style

Typical Paper Reference

  • [1]  Boehm M, Nabel EG. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-a new cardiac regulator. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1795-7.
  • [2]  Moses RG, Luebcke M, Davis WS, et al. Effect of a low-glycemic-index diet during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 84: 807-12.

Typical Chapter Reference

  • [3]  Stevenson WG, Friedman PL. In: Hennekens CH, Ed. Clinical trials in cardiovascular disease. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co. 1999; pp. 217-30.

Book Reference

  • [4]  Carlson BM. Human embryology and developmental biology. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby 2004.

Edited Book

  • [5]  Brown AM, Stubbs DW, Eds. Medical physiology. New York: Wiley 1983.

Conference Proceedings

  • [6]  Ippolito G, Comandini VU, Nicastri E.The legal proceeding on the use of genotypic assays for the detection of HIV antiretroviral resistance: 2003, National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome: Italy.

Journal Article on the Internet

  • [7]  Aylin P, Bottle A, Jarman B, Elliott, P. Paediatric cardiac surgical mortality in England after Bristol: descriptive analysis of hospital episode statistics 1991-2002. BMJ [serial on the Internet]. 2004 Oct 9; [cited 2004 October 15]; 329: [about 10 screens]. Available from: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/329/7470/825

Patent

  • [8]  Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 22 Aug.

E-citations

  • [9]  Citations for articles/material published exclusively online or in open access (free-to-view), must contain the exact Web addresses (URLs) at the end of the reference(s), except those posted on an author’s Web site unless editorially essential, e.g. ‘Reference: Available from: URL’.

Some important points to remember:

  • All references must be complete and accurate.
  • If the number of authors exceeds six then et al will be used after three names (the term “et al.” should be in italics).
  • Online citations should include the date of access.
  • Journal abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
  • Take special care of the punctuation convention as described in the above-mentioned examples.
  • Avoid using superscript in the in-text citations and reference section.
  • Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications (which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained) should not be given in the reference section but they may be mentioned in the text and details provided as footnotes.
  • The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote (version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when formatting their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically extracted.

FIGURES / TABLES

Figures/Illustrations (if any)

All authors must strictly follow the guidelines below for preparing illustrations for publication in The Open AIDS Journal. If the figures are found to be sub-standard, then the manuscripts will be rejected.

The authors are expected to submit good quality figure(s) in PDF, PPT, MS Word, TIFF or JPEG versions, which, if required, should be improved yourself or by professional graphic designers of your organization/ country. You may even consider approaching our contracted service providers Eureka Science for Graphics Enhancement Services.

The Graphics Designing team at Eureka Science can assist in improving the quality of your images at affordable rates. Eureka Science has contracted special rates with us of US $130 for the improvement of up to five figures, with any additional figures being charged at US $20 each.

The quality of Graphic Enhancement Services offered by Eureka Science can be viewed at http://www.eureka-science.com/images/Binder1.pdf, along with valuable feedback on their services at http://www.eureka-science.com/testimonials.php. You may contact Eureka Science at info@eureka-science.com

Note: Availing Graphics Enhancement Services does not guarantee acceptance of the manuscript for publication. The final acceptance/decision on the manuscript is taken by the EiC.

Guideline for Figures/Illustrations

Illustrations must be provided according to the following guideline:

  • Illustrations should be embedded in the text file, and must be numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance. Each figure should include only a single illustration which should be cropped to minimize the amount of space occupied by the illustration.
  • If a figure is in separate parts, all parts of the figure must be provided in a single composite illustration file.
  • Photographs should be provided with a scale bar if appropriate, as well as high-resolution component files.

Scaling/Resolution

Line Art image type is normally an image based on lines and text. It does not contain tonal or shaded areas. The preferred file format should be TIFF or EPS, with the color mode being Monochrome 1-bit or RGB, in a resolution of 900-1200 dpi.

Halftone image type is a continuous tone photograph containing no text. It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode being RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 300 dpi.

Combination image type is an image containing halftone , text or line art elements. It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode being RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 500-900 dpi.

Formats

Illustrations may be submitted in the following file formats:

  • Illustrator
  • EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
  • PDF (also especially suitable for diagrams)
  • PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
  • Microsoft Word (version 5 and above; figures must be a single page)
  • PowerPoint (figures must be a single page)
  • TIFF
  • JPEG (conversion should be done using the original file)
  • BMP
  • CDX (ChemDraw)
  • TGF (ISISDraw)

Bentham Open does not process figures submitted in GIF format.

For TIFF or EPS figures with considerably large file size restricting the file size in online submissions is advisable. Authors may therefore convert to JPEG format before submission as this results in significantly reduced file size and upload time, while retaining acceptable quality. JPEG is a lossy format. However, in order to maintain acceptable image quality, it is recommended that JPEG files are saved at High or Maximum quality.

Zipit or Stuffit tools should not be used to compress files prior to submission as the resulting compression through these tools is always negligible.

Please refrain from supplying:

  1. Graphics embedded in word processor (spreadsheet, presentation) document.
  2. Optimized files optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) because of the low resolution.
  3. Files with too low a resolution.
  4. Graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Technical requirements for graphic/ figure submissions.

Requirement
Width = 8.5 inches (In-between the required size)
Height = 11 inches (In-between the required size)
Pixels/Inches = 300 (minimum dpi)
All figures should be in vector scale (except half tone, photograph.)

Image Conversion Tools

There are many software packages, many of them freeware or shareware, capable of converting to and from different graphics formats, including PNG.

General tools for image conversion include Graphic Converter on the Macintosh, Paint Shop Pro, for Windows, and ImageMagick, available on Macintosh, Windows and UNIX platforms.

Bitmap images (e.g. screenshots) should not be converted to EPS as they result in a much larger file size than the equivalent JPEG, TIFF, PNG or BMP, and poor quality. EPS should only be used for images produced by vector-drawing applications such as Adobe Illustrator or CorelDraw. Most vector-drawing applications can be saved in, or exported as, EPS format. If the images were originally prepared in an Office application, such as Word or PowerPoint, original Office files should be directly uploaded to the site, instead of being converted to JPEG or another format of low quality.

Chemical Structures

Chemical structures MUST be prepared in ChemDraw/CDX and provided as separate file.

Structure Drawing Preferences

[As according to the ACS style sheet]

Drawing Settings
Chain angle 120°
Bond spacing 18% of width
Fixed length 14.4 pt (0.500cm, 0.2in)
Bold width 2.0 pt (0.071cm, 0.0278in)
Line width 0.6 pt (0.021cm, 0.0084in)
Margin width 1.6 pt (0.096cm)
Hash spacing 2.5 pt (0.088cm, 0.0347in)
Text settings
Font Times New Roman
Size 10 pt
Under the Preference Choose
Units points
Tolerances 3 pixels
Under Page Setup Use
Paper US letter
Scale 100%

Tables

  • Data Tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word table format.
  • Each table should include a title/caption being explanatory in itself with respect to the details discussed in the table. Detailed legends may then follow.
  • Table number in bold font i.e. Table 1, should follow a title. The title should be in small case with the first letter in caps. A full stop should be placed at the end of the title.
  • Tables should be embedded in the text exactly according to their appropriate placement in the submitted manuscript.
  • Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct by ensuring that the borders of each cell are displayed as black lines.
  • Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals sequentially in order of their citation in the body of the text.
  • If a reference is cited in both the table and text, please insert a lettered footnote in the table to refer to the numbered reference in the text.
  • Tabular data provided as additional files can be submitted as an Excel spreadsheet.

AUTHORS AND INSTITUTIONAL AFFILIATIONS

The names of the authors should be provided according to the previous citations or as the authors would want them to be published along with the institutional affiliations, current address, telephone, cell & fax numbers and the email address. Email address must be provided with an asterisk in front of the name of the principal author. The corresponding author(s) should be designated and their complete address, business telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address must be stated to receive correspondence and galley proofs. Also it is suggested to regularly update the profile on SCOPUS and other databases.

CHANGES TO AUTHORSHIP

Authors must provide a final list of authors at the time of submission, ensuring the correct sequence of the names of authors, which will not be considered for any addition, deletion or rearrangement after final submission of the manuscript. If a change is essentially required, it can only be done on Editor’s approval, for which the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author:

(a) the reason for change in the author list and the sequence

(b) a confirmation is a prerequisite from all the co-authors for any amendment or removal.

Any amendment to the authors list will only be considered by the Editor if it is a MUST. Publication of the manuscript will be withheld during consideration of the request. However, if the manuscript has already been published online, requests approved thereafter by the Editor will result in an erratum or corrigendum.

LANGUAGE AND EDITING

Manuscripts containing language inconsistencies will not be published. Authors should seek professional assistance for correction of grammatical, scientific and typographical errors before submission of the revised version of the article for publication. Professional editing services may also be sought by the team available at Bentham Open.

PROOF CORRECTIONS

Authors are required to proofread the PDF versions of their manuscripts before submission. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked immediately for typographical errors and returned within 48 hours. Major changes are not acceptable at the proof stage. If unable to send corrections within 48 hours due to some reason, the author(s) must at least send an acknowledgement on receiving the galley proofs or the article will be published exactly as received and the publishers will not be responsible for any error occurring in the manuscript in this regard.

The corresponding author will be solely responsible for ensuring that the revised version of the manuscript incorporating all the submitted corrections receives the approval of all the authors of the manuscript.

REVIEWING AND PROMPTNESS OF PUBLICATION

All papers submitted for publication are immediately subjected to preliminary editorial scrutiny by the Editor-in-Chief regarding their suitability. The Editor-in-Chief determines if the manuscript

(a) falls within the scope of the journal and

(b) meets the editorial criteria of Bentham Open Publishers in terms of originality and quality.

Manuscripts that appear to be suitable are then subjected to single-blind peer-review by, usually three, neutral eminent experts. The services of eminent international experts are sought through invitations to conduct the peer-review of a submitted manuscript, keeping in view the scope of the manuscript and the expertise of the reviewers. The identity of the reviewers is not disclosed to the authors. The anonymity of reviewers ensures objective and unbiased assessment of the manuscript by the reviewers.

Before sending the manuscripts to reviewers, Bentham Open seeks consent from potential reviewers about their availability and willingness to review. Correspondence between the editorial office of the journal and the reviewers is kept confidential. The reviewers are expected to provide their reports in a timely fashion since a prompt review leads to timely publication of a manuscript which is beneficial not only to the authors but to the scientific community as well.

The editorial process and peer-review workflow for each journal are taken care of by a team of Senior Editors, Editorial Board Members (EBMs) and dedicated Journal managers who have the required expertise in their specific fields.

The Editor-in-Chief may recommend the acceptance or rejection of a manuscript after considering the opinions of the independent referees, or he/she may take assistance and advice from other experts in the field, if needed.

The Editor-in-Chief and Senior Editors of a journal have the right to select reviewers for a particular manuscript considering the knowledge and experience of the reviewers.

After reviewing of the manuscript by at least two independent experts, in addition to the assessment of the Editor, the decision is relayed to the authors, which may be categorized as

  • Accept without changes
  • Revisions Required
  • Reject

Bentham Open requests not to have the manuscripts peer-reviewed by those experts who may have competing interest with the author(s) of a submitted manuscript. It is not possible for Editors to be aware of all competing interests; it is therefore expected that the reviewers would inform the Editor-in-Chief/Handling Editor if they notice any potential competing interest during the course of review of a manuscript. Moreover, the reviewers are expected to inform the Editors or editorial office of the journal if they have a conflict of interest in carrying out the review of a manuscript submitted by any author/contributor of the manuscript.

Papers which are delayed by the authors in revision for more than 30 days are required to be re-submitted as a new submission. Papers accepted for publication are typeset and proofs are dispatched to authors for any corrections prior to final publication.

PLAGIARISM PREVENTION

Bentham OPEN uses the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. iThenticate software checks content against a database of periodicals, the Internet, and a comprehensive article database. It generates a similarity report, highlighting the percentage overlap between the uploaded article and the published material. Any instance of content overlap is further scrutinized for suspected plagiarism according to the publisher’s Editorial Policies. Bentham OPEN allows an overall similarity of 20% for a manuscript to be considered for publication. The similarity percentage is further checked keeping the following important points in view

Low Text Similarity

The text of every submitted manuscript is checked using the Content Tracking mode in iThenticate. The Content Tracking mode ensures that manuscripts with an overall low percentage similarity (but which may have a higher similarity from a single source) are not overlooked. The acceptable limit for similarity of text from a single source is 5%. If the similarity level is above 5%, the manuscript is returned to the author for paraphrasing the text and citing the original source of the copied material.

It is important to mention that the text taken from different sources with an overall low similarity percentage will be considered as a plagiarized content if the majority of the article is a combination of copied material.

High Text Similarity

There may be some manuscripts with an overall low similarity percentage, but a higher percentage from a single source. A manuscript may have less than 20% overall similarity but there may be 15 % similar text taken from a single article. The similarity index in such cases is higher than the approved limit for a single source. Authors are advised to thoroughly rephrase the similar text and properly cite the original source to avoid plagiarism and copyright violation.

TYPES OF PLAGIARISM

We all know that scholarly manuscripts are written after thorough review of previously published articles. It is therefore not easy to draw a clear boundary between legitimate representation and plagiarism. However, the following important features can assist in identifying different kinds of plagiarized content.

These are:

  • Reproduction of others words, sentences, ideas or findings as one’s own without proper acknowledgement.
  • Text recycling, also known as self-plagiarism. It is an author’s use of a previous publication in another paper without proper citation and acknowledgement of the original source.
  • Paraphrasing poorly: Copying complete paragraphs and modifying a few words without changing the structure of original sentences or changing the sentence structure but not the words.
  • Verbatim copying of text without putting quotation marks and not acknowledging the work of the original author.
  • Properly citing a work but poorly paraphrasing the original text is considered as unintentional plagiarism. Similarly, manuscripts with language somewhere between paraphrasing and quoting are not acceptable. Authors should either paraphrase properly or quote and in both cases, cite the original source.
  • Higher similarity in the abstract, introduction, materials and methods, and discussion and conclusion sections indicates that the manuscript may contain plagiarized text. Authors can easily explain these parts of the manuscript in many ways. However, technical terms and sometimes standard procedures cannot be rephrased; therefore Editors must review these sections carefully before making a decision.

PLAGIARISM IN PUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS

Published manuscripts which are found to contain plagiarized text are retracted from the journal website after careful investigation and approval by the Editor-in-Chief of the journal. A ‘Retraction Note’ as well as a link to the original article is published on the electronic version of the plagiarized manuscript and an addendum with retraction notification in the journal concerned.

GAIN MORE PUBLICATION REACH AND IMPACT VIA KUDOS

Bentham Science is a publishing partner of Kudos. All authors who publish in this journal will receive an invitation to join the Kudos platform, an entirely free service for authors. Kudos enables authors to help broaden their audience and readers, increase their professional profile and reputation, and establish an impact for their publications. The website link is www.growkudos.com.

Kudos provides a free platform to researchers to have their publications accessible, read and cited across multiple networks and channels available to researchers for the dissemination of their work. It takes on average 15 minutes and leads to 23% higher growth in full-text downloads.

Authors are encouraged to explain their work in clear English and to attract researchers of the relevant communities, share a trackable link that you can email to your existing network of contacts, or share on social media and academic websites, and track how well the articles are performing through the summary of views, downloads, citations, and altmetrics on the Kudos dashboard.

Authors may also use the new shareable PDF (S-PDF) service. The S-PDF provides researchers with the means to write and share a high-level overview for each of their publications. Kudos thereby provides researchers, and their publishers and institutions, with a rich understanding of which channels and activities are most effective for broadening the reach and impact of published science.

APPEALS AND COMPLAINTS:

Generally, the editorial decisions are not reverted. However, authors who think that their manuscript was rejected due to a misunderstanding or mistake may seek an explanation for the decision. Appeals must give sound reasoning and compelling evidence against the criticism raised in the rejection letter. A difference of opinion as to the interest, novelty, or suitability of the manuscript for the journal will not be considered as an appeal. The EIC and other relevant editors will consider the appeal and the decision thereafter taken by the journal will be deemed final. Acceptance of the manuscript is not guaranteed even if the journal agrees to reconsider the manuscript, and the reconsideration process may involve previous or new reviewers or editors and substantive revision.

Authors who wish to make a complaint should refer them to the Editor-in-Chief of the journal concerned. Complaints to the Publisher may be emailed to info@benthamopen.net

PUBLICATION FEES:

The publication fee details for each article published in the journal are given below

Research Articles

The publication fee for each published Research article is US $960.

Review Articles

The publication fee for each published Review article is US $1,060.

Mini-Review Articles

The publication fee for each published Mini Review article is US $750.

Letters Article / Short Communication / Case Report:

The publication fee for each published letter article / short communication / case report submitted is US $750.

The publication fee includes basic copy editing services. Once the paper is accepted for publication, the author will receive an electronic invoice via email. Subsequent submissions from the Bentham OPEN Authors will receive a discount of US$ 100 on the total publication charges providing their previous submission did not avail any discount off the listed full author open access fee rate. Please click here to download the Fee Form.

Quick Track Publication:

An optional fast publication fee-based service called “QUICK TRACK” is available to authors for their submitted manuscripts.

QUICK TRACK allows online publication within 1 week of receipt of the final approved galley proofs from the authors. The total publication time, from date of first receipt of manuscript to its online publication is only 6 weeks, subject to its acceptance by the referees and modification (if any) by the authors within one week.

The Authors will be charged US $300 processing fee (non-refundable) and an additional $450 publication fee (refundable if paper is not accepted for publication). The quick track publication fee together with the Bentham Open publication charges, will be payable before online publication of the paper. If the paper is rejected, there will be no further charges other than the $300 already paid.

Please note that whether the author opts for the QUICK TRACK facility or not, standard reviewing practices will be followed, which will not in any way affect the acceptance or rejection of the manuscript by the reviewers.

Authors who have availed QUICK TRACK services in a Bentham Open journal will be entitled for an exclusive 30% discount if they again wish to avail the same services in any Bentham Open journal within the next 12 months.

For more information please contact the Editorial Office by e-mail at quicktrack@benthamopen.net

Special Fee Waivers and Discounts:

Bentham OPEN allows Special Discounts to authors from 79 countries which are classified by the World Bank as low-income economies or lower-middle-income economies. Refer to the complete list of these countries click here.

MEMBERSHIP

Join as a member of Bentham OPEN today to obtain great discounts on your article publication fees! For details click here.

REPRINTS

High quality printed reprints of published articles are available for purchase, if ordered, with a minimum number of 25 reprints.

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