The Open Astronomy Journal




(Discontinued)

ISSN: 1874-3811 ― Volume 8, 2015

Editorial Policies:

The editorial policies of Bentham Open on publication ethics, peer-review, plagiarism, copyrights/ licenses, errata/corrections and article retraction/ withdrawal can be viewed at Policy Page. Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution non-commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the work is properly cited.

Manuscript Preparation:

The manuscript should be written in English in a clear, direct and active style. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating in the reviewing and editing of the manuscript.

For further convenience, the customer support team available at Eureka Science can provide assistance to authors for the preparation of manuscripts.

Manuscript Length:

Research Articles:

The total number of words for a published research article is from 4000 to 8000 words.

Review Articles:

The total number of words for a published comprehensive review article is from 8000 to 40000 words, and for mini-review articles from 3000 to 6000 words.

Letter Articles:

The total number of words for a published letter/short communication article is from 3000 to 6000 words.

There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or additional files e.g. video clips, animation and datasets, that can be included with each article online. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each article.

Manuscripts Published:

The journal accepts original research articles, letters and review articles written in English. Supplements, proceedings of conferences and open access book reviews may also be considered for publication.

Supplements/Thematic Issues:

The journal also considers Supplements/Thematic issues for publication. The Guest Edited Thematic Issues are published free of charge..

A Supplements/thematic issue will be a collection of articles (minimum of 6, maximum of 20 articles) based on a contemporary theme or topic of great importance to the field. Mini-supplements consisting of between 3 to 5 articles are also welcome. A Supplement can consist of either all review articles or a mixture of review and research articles. The Guest Editors' main editorial task is to invite the contributors to the Supplement and to manage the peer review of submitted manuscripts. A short summary or proposal for editing a supplement should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief at e-mail to specialissue@benthamopen.org

Conference Proceedings:

For proposals to publish conference proceedings in this journal, please contact us at email: proceedings@benthamscience.org.

Book Reviews:

This journal publishes open access reviews on recently published books (both print and electronic) relevant to the journal. Publishers and authors of books are invited to contact our book reviews editor at toaaj@benthamopen.org with book review requests. All submitted books will be reviewed by an independent expert in the field. No page charges will be levied to authors for the publication of book reviews.

Copyright letter:

It is a mandatory requirement that a signed copyright letter also be submitted along with the manuscript by the author to whom correspondence is to be addressed, delineating the scope of the submitted article declaring the potential competing interests, acknowledging contributions from authors and funding agencies, and certifying that the paper is prepared according to the 'Instructions for Authors'. All inconsistencies in the text and in the reference section, and any typographical errors must be carefully checked and corrected before the submission of the manuscript. The article contains no such material or information that may be unlawful, defamatory, fabricated, plagiarized, or which would, if published, in any way whatsoever, violate the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. The authors acknowledge that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors for any such violation of the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. Download the Copyright letter.

Title:

The title should be precise and brief and must not be more than 120 characters. Authors should avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations. The title must be written in title case except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions.

Authors should also provide a short ‘running title’.

Abstract:

The abstract should not exceed 250 words for review and research papers and should be limited to only 150 words for letters, summarizing the essential features of the article. The use of abbreviations should be reduced to a minimum and the references should not be cited in the abstract.

Text Organization:

The main text should begin on a separate page and should be divided into separate sections. For Research articles, the preparation of the main text must be structured into separate sections as Introduction, Materials and Methodology, Results, Discussion and Conclusion. For Review and Letter articles, the manuscript should be divided into title page, abstract and the main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the areas to be discussed, which should be followed by the Acknowledgement (if any) and Reference sections. The review article should mention any previous important reviews in the field and contain a comprehensive discussion starting with the general background of the field. It should then go on to discuss the salient features of recent developments. The authors should avoid presenting material which has already been published in a previous review. The authors are advised to present and discuss their observations in brief. The manuscript style must be uniform throughout the text and 10 pt Times New Roman font should be used. The full term for an abbreviation should precede its first appearance in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. The reference numbers should be given in square brackets in the text. Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should also be italicized e.g., per se, et al. etc.

Symbols and Units:

Greek symbols and special characters play a prominent role in the manuscript. These symbols often undergo formatting changes and get corrupted or lost during preparation of a manuscript for publication. To ensure that all special characters used are embedded in the text, these special characters should be inserted as a symbol but should not be a result of any format styling (Symbol font face) otherwise they will be lost during conversion to PDF/XML2.

Authors are encouraged to consult reporting guidelines. These guidelines provide a set of recommendations comprising a list of items relevant to their specific research design. All kinds of measurements should be reported only in International System of Units (SI).

Mathematical Material:

Units:

The following guidelines for using units should be observed.

  1. The number (numeral) should be separated from the unit followed by a full space, e.g., 1.8 MeV.
  2. The units should have a single form for both singular and plural, i.e., 1.0 cm and 2.7 cm.
  3. The symbols for units should be printed in lower-case roman type without periods. Units derived from proper names, however, should be abbreviated with initial capital letters, i.e., coulomb (C), Weber (Wb).
  4. The abbreviated form of a unit must be used after a number given in numerals: 1 cm (not 1 centimeter) but the unit should be written out in cases like “a few centimeters.”
  5. Decimal multiples of units should be indicated by the use of prefixes. The combination of prefix and unit symbol is treated as a single symbol. For instance, such a combination can be raised to a power, i.e., cm2. Compound units should be written ad 1 g cm2 or g cm2 s-2, with a thin space between unit parts. Avoid ambiguous compound units, e.g., 6 J/cm3/s. Write instead, for example, 6 J cm -3 s-1.
Symbols:

Mathematical symbols must be defined immediately where they are introduced.

Characters:
Character fonts:

The italic font should be used for mathematical symbols (this is the default font in *TeX/LaTeX’s math mode). In addition to variables and constants, the italic font should be used for particle symbols, symbols of quantum states, and group-theoretic designations.

Diacritical Signs:

A diacritical sign is a marking placed directly above or below symbols, e.g., the arrow in

Subscripts And Superscripts:

All available characters can be used as subscripts or superscripts.

Position of a subscript or superscript is dictated by standard notation.

Examples:

Abbreviations in math:

Some abbreviations, such as those for mathematical functions and those used in superscripts or subscripts require special handling and are discussed below.

Abbreviations designating mathematical functions:

  • Roman multiletter abbreviations must be closed up to the argument following and separated from any preceding symbol by a thin space, that is,
  • To treat a function of a function enclose it in bold round parentheses, i.e.,
    g(f(x))
  • e and exp (for exponent) notation
    The e form is appropriate when the argument is short and simple, i.e., eik•r, whereas exp should be used if the argument is more complicated.

Equation breaking (multilinear equations):

Mathematical expressions often need to be displayed on two or more lines (“broken”)

The best place for a break is just before an operator or sign of relation. These signs should begin the next line of the equation.

Equation numbering:

A principal equation and subordinate equations may be numbered (1), (1a), (1b), etc.

Bracketing and Grouping sequence:

For the purpose of grouping, the sequence of bracketing preferred is {[()]}, working outwards in sets ( ), [ ], and {}.

{ [ ( { [ ( ) ] } ) ] }

Limits and indices:

In text, however, space limitations require that single limit sums or integrals use subscripts and superscripts, for example

Fractions:

Fractions can be “built up” with a fraction bar, , “slashed” with a solidus, (a + b)/c, or written with a negative exponent, (a + b)c__1. In text all fractions must be either slashed or written with a negative exponent.

Multiplication signs:

The primary use of the multiplication sign is to indicate a vector product of three-vectors (e.g., k x A). Do not use it to express a simple product.

The center dot (•) should not be used to mean a simple product. Use the dot to represent inner products of vectors (k • r).

Mathematical terms:

The use of the following standard symbols is recommended.

List Of Abbreviations:

If abbreviations are used in the text either they should be defined in the text where first used, or a list of abbreviations can be provided.

Conflict Of Interest:

Financial contributions to the work being reported should be clearly acknowledged, as should any potential conflict of interest.

Acknowledgements

Please acknowledge anyone (individual/company/institution) who has contributed to the study by making substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content. Please list the source(s) of funding for the study, for each author, and for the manuscript preparation in the acknowledgements section.

References:

References must be listed in the numerical system (Vancouver). All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text and listed in the same numerical order in the reference section. The reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission.

See below few examples of references listed in the correct Vancouver style:

Typical Paper Reference:

  • [1]  Nemiroff RJ. Trip to a neutron star: the Movie. Bull Am Astron Soc 1991; 23: 1418.
  • [2]  Chadwick PM. Very high energy gamma rays from gamma ray bursts. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2007; 365: 1343-56.

Typical Chapter Reference:

  • [3]  Brook M. Discussion on the Few-Dessler paper. In: Coroniti SC, Hughes J, Eds. Planetary Electrodynamics. New York: Gordon and Breach 1969; vol. 1: p. 579.

Book Reference:

  • [4]  Howell, Steve B. Handbook of CCD Astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2000.

Edited Book:

  • [5]  Christopher W, Ed. Astronomy Before the Telescope. New York; St. Martin's Press 1996.

Conference Proceedings:

  • [6]  Leigh C, Androula N, Vitali P. Physica Status Solidi (A): Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference Porous Semiconductors - Science and Technology; May 2003; Berlin, GmbH, Germany WILEY-VCH; Verlag 2003.

Journal Article on the Internet:

  • [7]  Zhang X, Zhang ZL, Glotzer SC. Simulation study of cyclic-tethered nanocube self-assemblies- effect of tetered nanocube architectures. Nanotechnology [115706]. 21 March 2007, 18(11): Available from: http://stacks.iop.org/Nano/18/115706

Patent:

  • [8]  Gerald N, Mathieu. Astronomy Console. U. S. Patent 5489142, February 6, 1996.

E-citations:

  • [9]  Citations for articles/material published exclusively online or in open access (free-to-view) , must contain the exact Web addresses (URLs) at the end of the reference(s), except those posted on an author’s Web site unless editorially essential, e.g. ‘Reference: Available from: URL’.

Some important points to remember:

  • All references must be complete and accurate.
  • If the number of authors exceeds six then et al. will be used after three names (the term “et al.” should be in italics).
  • Online citations should include the date of access.
  • Journal abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
  • Take special care of the punctuation convention as described in the above-mentioned examples.
  • Avoid using superscript in the in-text citations and reference section.
  • Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications (which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained) should not be given in the reference section but they may be mentioned in the text and details provided as footnotes.
  • The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote (version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when formatting their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically extracted.

Appendixes:

In case there is a need to present lengthy, but essential methodological details, use appendixes, which can be a part of the article. An appendix must not exceed three pages (Times New Roman, 12 point fonts, 900 max. words per page).The information should be provided in a condensed form, ruling out the need of full sentences. A single appendix should be titled APPENDIX, while more than one can be titled APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, and so on.

Figures/Illustrations:

The authors should provide the illustrations as separate files, as well as embedded in the text file, numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance. Each figure should include a single illustration. No charges will be levied on the use of color figures except in the reprints. Each figure should be closely cropped to minimize the amount of white space surrounding the illustration.

If a figure consists of separate parts, it is important that a single composite illustration file be submitted, containing all parts of the figure.

Photographs should be provided with a scale bar if appropriate, as well as high-resolution component files.

Scaling/Resolution:

For Line Art image type, which is generally an image based on lines and text and does not contain tonal or shaded areas, the preferred file format is TIFF or EPS, with colour mode being Monochrome 1-bit or RGB, in a resolution of 900-1200 dpi.

For Halftone image type, which is generally a continuous tone photograph and contains no text, the preferred file format is TIFF, with colour mode being or RGB or Grayscale, with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

For Combination image type, which is generally an image containing halftone in addition to text or line art elements, the preferred file format is TIFF, with colour mode being or RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 500-900 dpi.

Formats:

For illustrations, the following file formats are acceptable:

  • Illustrator
  • EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
  • PDF (also especially suitable for diagrams)
  • PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
  • Microsoft Word (version 5 and above; figures must be a single page)
  • PowerPoint (figures must be a single page)
  • TIFF
  • JPEG (conversion should be done using the original file)
  • BMP
  • CDX (ChemDraw)
  • TGF (ISIS/Draw)

Bentham OPEN does not process figures submitted in GIF format.

If the large size of TIFF or EPS figures acts as an obstacle to online submission, authors may find that conversion to JPEG format before submission results in significantly reduced file size and upload time, while retaining acceptable quality. JPEG is a 'lossy' format. However, in order to maintain acceptable image quality, it is recommended that JPEG files are saved at High or Maximum quality.

Files should not be compressed with tools such as Zipit or Stuffit prior to submission as these tools will in any case produce negligible file-size savings for JPEGs and TIFFs, which are already compressed.

Image Conversion Tools:

There are many software packages, many of them freeware or shareware, capable of converting to and from different graphics formats, including PNG.

Good general tools for image conversion include GraphicConverter on the Macintosh, PaintShop Pro, for Windows, and ImageMagick, which is available on Macintosh, Windows and UNIX platforms.

Note that bitmap images (e.g. screenshots) should not be converted to EPS, since this will result in a much larger file size than the equivalent JPEG, TIFF, PNG or BMP, with no increase in the quality. EPS should only be used for images produced by vector-drawing applications such as Adobe Illustrator or CorelDraw. Most vector-drawing applications can be saved in, or exported as, EPS format. In case the images have been originally prepared in an Office application, such as Word or PowerPoint, then the original Office files should be directly uploaded to the site, instead of being converted to JPEG or another format that may be of low quality.

Chemical Structures:

Chemical structures MUST be prepared according to the guidelines below.

Structures should be prepared in ChemDraw and provided as separate file, submitted both on disk and in printed formats.

Structure Drawing Preferences:

[As according to the ACS style sheet]

Drawing Settings:
Chain angle 120°
Bond spacing 18% of width
Fixed length 14.4 pt (0.500cm, 0.2in)
Bold width 2.0 pt (0.071cm, 0.0278in)
Line width 0.6 pt (0.021cm, 0.0084in)
Margin width 1.6 pt (0.096cm)
Hash spacing 2.5 pt (0.088cm, 0.0347in)
Text settings:
Font Times New Roman
Size 8 pt
Under the Preference Choose:
Units points
Tolerances 3 pixels
Under Page Setup Use:
Paper US letter
Scale 100%

Tables:

  • Data tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word table format.
  • Each table should include a title/caption being explanatory in itself with respect to the details discussed in the table. Detailed legends may then follow.
  • Table number in bold font i.e. Table 1, should follow a title. The title should be in small case with the first letter in caps. A full stop should be placed at the end of the title.
  • Tables should be embedded in the text exactly according to their appropriate placement in the submitted manuscript.
  • Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct by ensuring that the borders of each cell are displayed as black lines.
  • Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals sequentially in order of their citation in the body of the text.
  • If a reference is cited in both the table and text, please insert a lettered footnote in the table to refer to the numbered reference in the text.
  • Tabular data provided as additional files can be submitted as an Excel spreadsheet.

Supportive/Supplementary Material:

We do encourage to append supportive material, for example a PowerPoint file containing a talk about the study, a PowerPoint file containing additional screenshots, a Word, RTF, or PDF document showing the original instrument(s) used, a video, or the original data (SAS/SPSS files, Excel files, Access Db files etc.) provided it is inevitable or endorsed by the journal's Editor.

Published/reproduced material should not be included unless you have obtained written permission from the copyright holder, which must be forwarded to the Editorial Office in case of acceptance of your article for publication.

Supportive/Supplementary material intended for publication must be numbered and referred to in the manuscript but should not be a part of the submitted paper. In-text citations as well as a section with the heading "Supportive/Supplementary Material" before the "References" section should be provided. Here, list all Supportive/Supplementary Material and include a brief caption line for each file describing its contents.

Any additional files will be linked into the final published article in the form supplied by the author, but will not be displayed within the paper. They will be made available in exactly the same form as originally provided only on our Web site. Please also make sure that each additional file is a single table, figure or movie (please do not upload linked worksheets or PDF files larger than one sheet). Supportive/ Supplementary material must be provided in a single zipped file not larger than 4 MB.

Authors must clearly indicate if these files are not for publication but meant for the reviewers'/editors' perusal only.

언어 및 편집:

영문 오타가 많은 원고는 출판되지 않을 것입니다. 영문 오타를 없애겠다는 조건으로 받은 원고는 영어 편집 전문회사인 유럽 공동 기술개발 기구로부터 가격 견적서가 보내 질 것입니다. 영어 작문에 어려움이 있는 비영어권 국가의 저자들은 원고를 학술지에 제출하기 전에 영어 편집회사와 접촉할 것을 권합니다. 영어 편집 견적서를 받기 위해서 교정될 원고의 단어수를 적은 메일을 유럽 공동 기술개발 기구 메일인 info@eureka-science.com 로 보내시기 바랍니다.

语言和编辑:

含有很多英文印刷错误的提交稿将不予发表。接受发表的稿件其英文写作应是正确的;专业的语言编辑公司(尤里卡科学),可对稿件的英文润色提供报价。建议非英语国家、且英文写作欠佳的作者在投稿前先与语言编辑公司联系。请与尤里卡科学联系 info@eureka-science.com.

Low Text Similarity:

The text of every submitted manuscript is checked using the Content Tracking mode in iThenticate. The Content Tracking mode ensures that manuscripts with an overall low percentage similarity (but which may have a higher similarity from a single source) are not overlooked. The acceptable limit for similarity of text from a single source is 5%. If the similarity level is above 5%, the manuscript is returned to the author for paraphrasing the text and citing the original source of the copied material.

It is important to mention that the text taken from different sources with an overall low similarity percentage will be considered as a plagiarized content if the majority of the article is a combination of copied material.

High Text Similarity:

There may be some manuscripts with an overall low similarity percentage, but a higher percentage from a single source. A manuscript may have less than 20% overall similarity but there may be 15 % similar text taken from a single article. The similarity index in such cases is higher than the approved limit for a single source. Authors are advised to thoroughly rephrase the similar text and properly cite the original source to avoid plagiarism and copyright violation.

Letters:

The publication fee for each published Letter article submitted is US $600.

Research Articles:

The publication fee for each published Research article is US $800.

Mini-Review Articles:

The publication fee for each published Mini-Review article is US $600.

Review Articles:

The publication fee for each published Review article is US $900.

The publication fee includes the professional copy editing charges. Once the paper is accepted for publication, the author will receive an electronic invoice via email. Subsequent submissions from the Bentham Open Authors will receive a discount of US$ 100 on the total publication charges providing their previous submission did not avail any discount off the listed full author open access fee rate. Please click here to download the FeeForm.

Special Fee Waiver:

Bentham OPEN allows Special FEE Waiver to authors from 79 countries which are classified by the World Bank as low-income economies or lower-middle-income economies as of September 2012 (reference - World Bank 1st September 2012). Refer to the complete list of these countries click here.

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents


Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open