The Open Bioactive Compounds Journal

ISSN: 1874-8473 ― Volume 7, 2019

Harpin Proteins Improve Bioactive Compounds Content in Crimson Seedless Table Grape

Pasquale Crupi1, *, Giambattista Debiase1, Gianvito Masi1, Francesca Mangione2, Luigi Tarricone1
1 CREA-VE, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics – Research Centre for Viticulture and Enology, Via Casamassima, 148 – 70010 Turi (BA), Italy
2 SIPCAM Italia S.p.A., Strada Statale Sempione 195, 20016 Pero (MI), Italy



Frequently, in warm climates such as Mediterranean areas, a red-pink table grape ‘Crimson Seedless’ does not reach a good berry skin color; and an acceptable anthocyanin bioactive compounds content, responsible for the red color of berries. Harpin proteins are biotechnologically developed bio-activators that, if applied on plants during the growing period, trigger the expression of hundreds of genes among which those associated with the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds (such as anthocyanins).


This research aimed at using harpin proteins to test their suitability in improving the grape skin color.

Methods and Materials:

Beta-harpin protein 1% p.a. (400 g/Ha) was applied to ‘Crimson Seedless’ vines three times at the beginning of veraison. Six samplings were carried out for both the treated and control grapes until commercial harvest. In the skin extracts, total and individual anthocyanins content was determined by UV-Vis and RP-HPLC-DAD analyses, respectively.


The collected results confirmed that the application of harpin proteins effectively stimulated the anthocyanin biosynthesis leading to make peonidin-3O-glucoside, cyanidin-3O-glucoside, and malvidin-3O-glucoside values from 2 to almost 10 folds higher in treated grapes than in control grapes (P < 0.05).


Actually, harpin proteins improved the color of the berry skin, leading to a significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins in treated than in control grapes.

Keywords: Anthocyanins, Bioactive compounds, HPLC-DAD, Harpin proteins, PhCO2, Crimson Seedless.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 7
First Page: 1
Last Page: 7
Publisher Id: TOBCJ-7-1
DOI: 10.2174/1874847301907010001

Article History:

Received Date: 29/01/2019
Revision Received Date: 09/04/2019
Acceptance Date: 22/04/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/05/2019
Collection year: 2019

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1002
Abstract HTML Views: 277
PDF Downloads: 153
ePub Downloads: 116
Total Views/Downloads: 1548

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 653
Abstract HTML Views: 205
PDF Downloads: 116
ePub Downloads: 73
Total Views/Downloads: 1047
Geographical View

© 2019 Crupi et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the CREA-VE - Council for Agricultural Research and Economics – Research Centre for Viticulture and Enology, Via Casamassima 148 - 70010 Turi (BA) – Italy; Tel: +390808915711; Fax: +390804512925; E-mail:


"It is an honor for us to publish our article in Open bioactive compound journal. The journal follows single blind peer review and plagiarism checking policy which is appreciable. I think soon your journal will attain high impact factor journals."

Zubair K. Labu
Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh, Bangladesh

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open